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Full text of "History of the Presbyterian Church in South Carolina"

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HISTORY 



OF THE 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH 



IN 



SOUTH CAROLINA, 

By GEORGE HOWE, D. D., 

Professor in the Theological Seminary, Columbia, South Carolina 



Prepared by Order of the Synod of South Carolina. 



VOL. II. 



PUBLISHED AND SOLD BY 
W. J. DUFFIE, 

Columbia, S. C. 

WALKEE, EVANS & COGSWELL, PHINTEBS, CHARLESTON, S. C. 

1883. 



/ ■:-■ 






UNTEEED ACCORDING TO ACT OF CONGBESS, IX THE YEAR 1883, 
BY REV. GEO. HOWE, D. T>. 



PREFACE 



In the year 1849, the Synod of South Carolina adopted a scheme 
for secnrin<r a History of the Church covered by their jurisdiction. 
The scheme was elaborate, unbracing many particulars: and it was 
the pleasure of Synod to appoint the present writer tbeir Historio- 
grapher. 

The oflice involved an amount of labor and consumption of time, in 
the preparation of the first vohime,- of which he did not have the least 
conception, although the scheme, as marked out, was not fully accom- 
plished. The History was to be brought down to 1850, the middle of 
this Century. In 1870 the first volume was issued, bringing the work 
down to the year 1800. The volume which is now issued, has been 
prepared at such intervals as could be secured in vacation, when the 
author was relieved from his ordinary official duties.. As the whole of 
an ordinary generation has passed away-since the year 18o0, the year to 
which his appointment extended, it has been the desire of the author 
to bring the History down more nearly to the present time, and he 
had, to some extent, received the materials for doing so. But dur- 
ing the past Summer his health began seriously to fail liim, and his 
most judicious friends advised him to stop at the original limit of 1850, 
saying that it was the proper pla(» to stop: that the History of the 
Church through our late civil war, and the efibrts it put forth in those 
days of supreme trial and since, deserve a fuller treatment than he 
could now give it. To this advice he has j'ielded, and although 
this did not occur until the work showed manifest allusions in several 
instances to a later period, he removed from the remainder of his manu- 
script all such references, except those which could not well be erased. 
Some of the materials furnished from the Churches are brief Others 
far more extended, which, in some Instances, have been greatlj' abbre- 
viated, and in others more amply given. The author is fully conscious 
of the many defects of his work, and submits the result of his labors 
to that indulgence of his brethren which it so greatly needs. 

The migration of our own Presbyterian people to the South and 
Southwest has been great, as these pages will show, carryiu'j' tlieir insti- 
tions with them. The last Census, that of 1880, proves that this ex- 
pansion has been true of our popiilation in general : that 50,195 of the 
residents in Georgia were born in South Carolina ; that :!5,764 of the 



IV PREFACE. 

residents of Alabama were born here ; that 18,522 of the inhabitants of 
Florida; 31,157 of those of Mississippi; 2,637 of those of Missouri; 
16,121 of those of North Carolina; 11.698 of those of Tennessee; 22,124 
of those of Texas;' 15,107 of those of Arkansas, were natives of this State ; 
while, at the same time, 42,182 of the re-iidents of South Carolina were 
born elsewhere than within its own bounds, many of them in foreign 
lands. The Presbyterian Church of this portion of our land, though 
exceeded in numbers by some other denominations, has always been 
an influential one, and it is hoped, that for soundhsss of doctrine, and 
the proimtion of 'knowledge and education among our people, its influ- 
ence may never be less. 



ADDENDUM. 



The lamentert au(;hor of this work was summoned to the eternal 
World when lie had almost finished the present volume, only the index 
renisining to be completed. In the judgment of his friends, it is deem- 
ed proper to append a brief biographical notice of himself to the 
account given by his hand of deceased ministers who had been con- 
nected with the Synod of South Carolina and Georgia. It will be the 
office of some future historian to expand the record of a life which, for 
over half a century, was devoted to theological education, and made 
Ml indelible impress upon more than five hundred candidates for the 
Gospel Rlinistry. 

The Rev. George Howe, D.D., LL.P., was born at Dedham, Massa- 
chusetts, November 0th, 18U2. His father, William Howe, was the son 
of Thomas Howe, of Dorchester, wh* was lineally descended frpm one 
of the pilgrim fathers who landed at Plymouth Bock. His mother, 
JIary, was the daughter of Major George Gould, a rei^olutionary officer 
who sei'ved under Washington when he occupied Dorchester Heights, 
and Rachel Dwight, the daughter of Samuel Dwight, of Sutton, a 
woman of great energy, fortitude, perseverance and piety, who liyed to 
be over ninety years of age. When twelve years old, he removed with 
his father to Holmesburg, Pennsylvania, where he attended the school 
of IMr Scofield. His teacher having gone to Philadelphia, he followed 
him. There he was hopefully converted under the miilistry of Dr. 
James Patterson, and joined the First Presbyterian Church of the 
Nortliern Liberties, of which Dr. Patterson was pastor. He was pre- 
pared for college .by the Rev. Thomas Biggs, of Frankford, near Phil- 
adelphia; was graduated at Middlebury College, Vermont, in 1822, and 
at Andover Theological Seminary, where he took a full course, in 1825. 
Having been appointed Abbot scholar, he studied for more than a 
year on that foundation He then became Phillips Professor of 
Sacred Theology in Dartmouth College, New Hampshire, in which re- 
lation he continued until 18'W, when his health failing him he came to 
the South. In the Fall of 1831, he was, by the Synod of South Carolina 
and Georgia, elected Professor of Biblical Literature in the Theologi- 
cal Seminary at Oolumbia, S. C. In October, 183S,when he was thirty- 
four years of age, he received a tall, signed by Thomas H. Skinner, 
Knowies Taylor and Ichabod S. Spencer, to the Professorship of Sacred 
Literature in Union Theological Serair.ary, New York. He was also 



VI ADDENDUM. 

at different times solicited by several important churches to become 
their pastor. All these calls he dechned, and devoted his learning and 
his energies to the maintenance of the institution with which he had 
cast his lot. To it he adhered with a love which was as affecting as it 
was enduring, through all its financial difficulties, until the summons 
came which terminated his labors on earth. 

In November, 1881, the Alumni of the Seminary held a semi-centen- 
nial commemoration of his connexion with it, when he received the 
congratulations of his former pupils. He lived to see, with great joy, 
the re-opening of the institution after a suspension of its exercises for 
two years, occasioned by the failure of its funds. 

On Sabbath, April 1st, 1883, after having for the last time partaken 
of the Lord's Supper, and while riding homeward, he was thrown from 
his carriage and one of his legs was -fractured. He lingered, express- 
ing his trust in the Saviour, and offering most touching prayers for his 
belovtd Seminary, until Sabbath, April 15th, when, without a struggle 
or groan, in the eighty-first year of his age, he fell asleep in Jesus. His 
funeral service was held at the Presbyterian Church, amidst the tears 
of his brethren and numerous friends, and his venerable form was 
committed to its last resting-placarin the cemetery of that cJuirch. 

Dr. Howe was twice married. His first wife was Mary Bushnell, the 
daughter of the Rev. Jedediah Bushnell, whom he characterized as a 
man of singular piety and wisdom. She died a little more than a year 
after her marriage and was buried wliere his own remains now sleep. 
His second wife was Mr.^. Sarah Ann McConnell, the daughter of 
Andrew Walthour of Walthourville, Liberty County, Georgia. This 
lovely saint, who had blessed him with her devoted affection and little 
less than angelic ministrations during life, and nursed him with ten- 
derest assiduity in his last illness, bade him farewell in the hope of a 
not distant meeting in the paradise of God. 

Dr. Howe's learning was extensive. He was deeply versed in Ori- 
ental literature and intimately acquainted with the controversies in 
regard to the Sacred Text. He was a godly man, an eminent exemplar 
of the attractive graces of Christianity; when at the full bent of his 
noble faeujties, was a powerful preacher ; and as a man and citizen was 
esteemed ana loved by a community in intercourse with which he had 
lived for half a century. Almost his whole ecclesiastical life was 
passed in connexion with the Synoci of South Carolina und the Charles- 
ton Presbytery. His death is sincerely lamented by these bodies, and 
by the whole Southern Presbyterian Church of which he was a distin- 
guished ornament. J. L. G. 



CONTENTS 



Vol. II. 



BOOK I. 
CHAPTER I. 

James Nisbet. The Blood of the Martyrs. FirstSettlement in North 
Carolina. Two F.actors in the History of the Churph- To Csesar the 
things that are Caesar's. The Church and the School. The Higher 
Education, 21. • 

CHAPTER II. 

THE INDEPENDRNT .\ND CONGKEGATIONAL CHURCHES, 1800 — 1810. 

The Religion of the State, 22— The Religion of the Church, 28— Re- 
pairs of Church, 24 — Form of New Edifice, 2') — Charitable Efforts, 2S — 
Early Benefactors, 29,- 31 — Female Benefactors, 31 — Reasons for this 
Exhibit, 32— The Result^ 33— Wappetaw, 34— Death of Dr. McCalla, 
35, 37 — Dorchester and Beech Hill, 38 — Midway Church. Georgia, 39- 
Stoney Creek, 40 — Rev. James Gourlay, 41 — Rev. Robert M. Adams, 
42 — Stoney Creelt, 43, 44 — Congregational Association, 43 — B. M. Pal- 
mer's Ordination. Plan of Union, 52. 

CHAPTER III. 

1800-1810. 

First Presbyterian Church, Charleston, 53 — Rev. Dr Buist, his Char- 
acter, Death and Buriai, 53, 58— Presbytia rian Church of James Island, 
60— John's Island and Wadrnalaw, 61 — Of Edisto Island and Wilton, 
62— Of Bethel, Pon Ponand Saltkehatchie, Savannah, Williamsburg, and 
Bethel Church, 64, 65— Mr. Malcomson, 66, 67— Indian Town, Thomas 
Dickson Baird, D. D., 68, 69— The Frierson Congregation, 70— Hopewell, 
Aimwell, P. D., 71— Black Mingo, Red Bluff, 72. 73— Bli^ck River, Win- 
yaw, Saiem Black River, 74, 75— Concord, New Hope, Midway, Ephesus, 
76,77. 



Vlll CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER IV. 

1800—18:0. 

Columbia Church, 77 — Rev. John Brown, I) t)., 78 — Bethesda, of 
Camden. Andrew Flinn, D. D., 79, 81 — A. F, Dubard, Zion Church, 
Winnsboro- Rev. Geo. Reid, Lebanon Church, (Jackson's Cr.) Fair- 
field. Officers in Church and State, 84, 85 — Mt. Olivet, Horeb, Concord, 
Aimwell, 86, 87 — Beaver Creek, Hanging Rock. Miller's, Catholic (Ches- 
ter), 88, 90-Hopewell (Chester) Purity, 91— Rev. John Douglas, 90, 94— 
Edmonds (Fishing Creek), Richardson (Bullock's Creek), 95, 96 — Naza- 
reth and Dr. Joseph Alexander, 97, 102 — Bethesda (York), and Rev- 
Robt. B. Walker, Ebenezer, Beersheba, Unity, Shiloh. Bethel (York;, 
102, 106 — "Old VVaxhaw" and its Revivals, its Pastor Rev, John Brown. 
Testimony of Rev. John McGready, of Rev. Dr. Furman. Bodily Agita- 
tions. The Exercises. Effects of Strong Emotion. Opinion of D'r 
Alexander. The Power of Sympathy, 107, 120 — Bethany, Granby, Mt. 
Bethtl, Academy, Indian Creek, Grassy Spring, Little River, 121,123 — ■ 
Duncan's Creek, Mrs. Gillara, John Boyce, Rocky Spring, Liberty Spring, 
Union and Grassy Spring, Fairforest, Nazareth, Camp Meeting, 124, 131 — 
Religious Services. Their Effects. Cases. Attendance. I^ffects, 132, 
137 — Fairview, N. Paeolet, Newton, Cuffey Town, German Church, 
Greenville, Smyrna, Rocky Creek, Hopewell (Abbeville), D'r Wiiddel, 
138, 14-5 — Rocky Rivei', Long Cane, Bradaway, Roberts and Good Hope, 
Hopewell (Keowee), Carmel, Bethlehem, Cane Creek and Bethel, Inde- 
pendent Chun^h, Savannah, Fii-st Presbyterian Church, Augusta, Rev. 
John Springer, 146, 157 — William C. Davis, 1.58, 163 — Harmony Presby- 
• terv. First Presbytery of South Carolina. Second Presbytery of South 
Carolina, 164, 166. 

CHAPTER V. 

1800—1810. 

The Charleston Presbytery, 167, 172 — Emancipation, 172— Missions, 
173, 174— Missions to Mir-sissippi, 175, 176— Natchez, 177, 179— Rev. Wil- 
liam Montgomery, 181 — Missionaries to the Natchfcz Rev. James Smylie, 
182, 18,3— Otner Missions, 186, 187— Schools, Indian Tribes, 188, 189. 



BOOK II. 

1810—1820. 

CHAPTER I. 

Reorganization, 189-191. 

CHAPTER II. 

Congregational Church, Charleston, 191— Dr. Keith, 192, 194— Dr. B. 
M. Pahner, 195— Dr. Hollingshead, 196, 198— Two Places of Worship 
199— Rev. Mr Foster, 200— History of the Separation, 201, 208— Result 
Reached, 209— Rev. Anthony Forster, 210, 211— Wappetaw, Dorchester, 



CONTENTS. IX 

Stoney Creek, Rev. L. D. Parks, Beaufort, White Bluflf, Midway, Liberty 
County, 212, 218— Frencii Church Charleston, P'irst Presbyterian 
Church Charleston, 220— Second Presbyterian Church, Rev. Dr. Flinn, 
222 — Ecclesiastical .Jurisdiction, Religious and Benevolent Societies, 
22(), 229— James Island, John's Island and Wadmalaw, Wilton, Bethel 
Pon Pon, Saltkehatchie, 229, 233— Independent (Uiurch, Savannah, Dr. 
Kollock, 233, 243. 

« 

CHAPTER III. 

Ezra Fisk and Richard S. Storrs. Th« Union Missionary Society, 
244, 245— Williamsburg, Bethel. Rev- R. W. James. Indian Town, 
Black River Winyah, Salem, Black River, 246, 249— Mt. Zion. Concord, 
New Hope Midway, Chesterfield Court House, Little Pee Dee, Reel 
Bluff, 250, 253— Columbia, Dr. T. C Henry,, Dr. E. D. Smith, 254, 261— 
Bethesda, Camden, Pine Tree, Zion Winnsboro, 262, 264— Salem, L. R. 
Lebanon, Aimwell, Concord, Beaver Creek, Catholic, Hopewell, Augusta, 
265, 267. 

CHAPTER IV. 

Purity Church, Fishing Creek, Bullock's Creek, Abjuration of W. C. 
Davis, Salem t.'hurch (Union District), Bethesda (York), Ebenezer, Beer- 
sheba, Shiloh, Bethel (York,) Waxhaw, Presbyterial Changes, 268, 2iSl. 



CHAPTER V. 

Grassy Spring, Little River, Duncan's Creek, Rocky Spring, Liberty 
Spring, Warrior's Creek, LTnioh, Crane- Creek, Fairforest, Nazareth 
^Spartanburg), Fairview, N. Paeolet, Milford, Smyrna, Greenville (for* 
merly >Saluda). Abbeville, Rocky Creek (now Rock ®hurch). Old Cam- 
bridge, Hopewell (Abbeville), Willington, Dr. Waddel, Lower Long 
(Jane, Rev. Henry Reid, 281, 294 — Rocky River, Upper Long Caue, Gen. 
Andrew Pickens, Little Mountain, Bradaway, Good Hope and Roberts, 
Thomas D. Baird. D. D., Hopewell (Keowee), Bethlehem, Cane Creek, 
Nazareth (B. D.), Augusta, Rev. J. R. Thompson, D. D., 29^5, 305. 



CHAPTER VI. 

Education for the Ministry, Wm. C Davis, Presbytery of Hopewell, 
Ordinations, Sinetitulo, Right of Presbyteries in Ordination, Missions, 
Cases Decided, Various Decisions, Missionary Society of tlie Synod, 
295,318. 



X COX'TENTS. 

BOOK III. 

1820—1830. 

> CHAPTER I. 

Independent Church, Charleston, Archdale Street. Wappetaw, White 
Bluff. Congregational Church, Midway, Ga Charleston Union Pres- 
bytery, Bethel Presbytery, S19, 324. 



CPIAPTER II. 

French Protestant Church, Charleston. First Presbyterian, Charles- 
ton. Second Presbyterian Church. Rev. Dr. Henry. His Death. Rev. 
Wm.Aslimead, 327, 328— Third Presbyterian Church. 329, 330— James 
and John's Islands, 331— Edisto. 332, 334— Wilton, 335,336— Bethel, Pon 
Pon, Saltcatcher. Independent Presbyterian Church, Savannah. Second 
Presbyterian Cliurch, Beech Island, St. Augustine, Presbytery of 
Georgia, 337, 341. 

CHAPTER III. 

Williamsburg, Bethel and Indian Town. Union of the Churches, 
342. 343 — Aimwell, Hopewell P. D., Concord, Sumterville, Rev Isaac R. 
Barbour, Rev. John Harrington, Mount Zion, Sumter, Salem (B. R ). 
Midway and Bruington, 344, 349— Chesterfield Court House, Pine Tree, 
Little P. D., 350, 351 — Darlington, Cheraw, Rev. N. R Morgan, Boiling 
Springs, 352, 354. ^ 

CHAPTER IV. 

Columbia, Bethesda (Camden), Zion, Winnsboro, Salem (L. R.), Leba- 
non and Mt. Olivet, Concord (Fairfield), Beaver Creek, Catholic, Eliezer 
Brainard, Hopewell, Purity, Beckhamville, Fishing Creek, 355, 366— 
Richardson, Bullock's Creek. Bethesda (York), Ebenezer, Beersheba, 
Yorkville, Shiloh, Bethel (York), Waxbaw, Little Britain, Duncan's 
Creek, etc., 3(17, 372. 

CHAPTER v. 

Indian Creek, Gilder's Creek, Grassy Spring, Little River, Duncan's 
Creek, Rocky Spring, Liberty Spring, Warrior's Creek-, Friendship, 
Union, Cane Creek, 373, 378— Fairforest, Nazareth, Fairview, IV. Pacolet, 
Smyrna (Abbeville). Greenville (Abbeville, formerlv Saluda i, Rockv 
Creek (now Rock Church), Cambridge, Hopewell (Abbeville), Rock 
River, Willington, Sardis, Long Cane, Little Mountain, Shiloh, 379, 



CONTENTS. Xi 

387— Lebanon (Abbeville). Memories of the Revolution, Traditions, 
Westminster, Bradaway, Roberts and Good PTope. Rev. David Hum- 
phreys, 3H8, 395— frovidence. New Harmony, Hopew.ell (Keowee). Car- 
mel, Bethlehem, Cane Greek and Bethel, Westminster, Nazareth (B.D.), 
396, 398— First Presbyterian Clmrch in Augusta, Presbvterian Church 
m aiacon, Ga , 396, 4U1— Missions, Mission to the Seamen, Chickasaws, 
To the South and Southwest, 401, 410— Education for tlie Ministry, The- 
ological Seminaries, Princeton Literary and Theological Seininary, 
Theological Seminary, Proposed Change, Forfeiture of Subscriptions, 
402, 422— Geographical Limits of Synod— Presbytery of Harmony, 
423, 428. 

CHAPTER XI. 

APPENDIX TO THE THIRD DECAt)E. 
1820—1830. 

Indian Missions of the Synod of South Carolina and Georgia, 429. 44e. 



BOOK IV. 

1830—1840. 

CHAPTER I. 

• 
The Independent or Congregational (Circular) Church, Dr. Post, 
Wappetaw, Rev. James Lewers, The Congregational Church of Dor- 
chester and Beech Hill, Stonefy Creek Independent Presbyterian Church, 
Beaufort, Waynesboro, Burke County, Ga., White Bluff, Congregational 
Church, Midway, Ga., 446, 452. 

CHAI'TER 11. 

Fbench Protestant Church, Charleston. First Presbyterian i hurch, 
Charleston. Rev. Arthur Buist. Rev. John Forrest, afterwards D. D. 
Second Presbyterian Church. Rev. Alexander Aikman and Rev. J. B. 
Waterbury. Hev. Thomas Smyth. Third Presbyterian Church. Dr. 
William A. McDowell. Wm. C. Dana, afterwards, D. D. James Island. 
Rev. Dr. Leland S. S. Rev. Edward Tonge Buist, 452, 455— John's 
Island and Wadmalaw. Dissents from the General Assembly. Declares 
its Independence. Law Suit and its Issue. Edisto Island. Rev. Wm. 
States Lee. Wilton Presbyterian Church. Rev. Zabdiel Rogers. Bethel 
Pon Pon. Rev. Edward "Palmer Mr, Gilclirist. Saltkatcher Rev. 



Xll CONTENTS. 

John Brevort Van Dvck, 456, 464 — Independent Church Savannah. 
Eev. Daniel Baker, D. 1). Eev. Willard Preston. D. D. Beech Island, 
Hamburg, Orangeburg, St Augustine, 464, 473. 



CHAPTER HI. 

"Williamsburg, Rev. John M. Erwin, Indian Town, Geo. H. W. Petrie, 
Indian Town, Hopewell P. D., Darlington, Concord, Sumterville, Har- 
niony, Bruington, 474, 48.3— Midway, Salem B. E,, Mount Zion (Sumter), 
Chesterfield, ]S'ew Hope. BishopviHe, Cheraw, Action on the State of 
the Church, The Sabbath School, Great and Little Pee Dee, Pine Tree, 
Red Bluff, Mount Moriah, Bethesda (Camden,) 494, 496, 



CHAPTER IV. 

First Presbyterian Church, Columbia. Rice Creek Springs, Horeb, 
Aimwell (Fairfield), Beaver Creek. Hopewell, Sion (Winnsboro), Leba- 
non, Salem L. R., Rev. Robert Means, I>. D., Concord, Mt. Olivet, C. L. 
R.Boyd, M. Peden, Catholic, Purity, Eev. John Douglas, Pleasant 
Grove, Fisliing Creek, 496 509— Cedar Shoals, Bullock's (reek, Bethesda 
(York), Rev. Robert B. Walker Rev. Cyrus Johnson, D. D.. Ebenezer, 
Unity, Beersheba, Yorkville, Sandy Spring, Shiloh, Bethel lYork), 
Waxhaw, Six-Mile Creek, Lancasterville, Rev. J. H. Thornwell, Cane 
Creek (Union). Fairforest, Letter of Eev. D. L Gray, Eev. John Boggs, 
Other Churches of the Independents, Adherents of Eev. \V. C Davis, 
510, 529. 

CHARTER V, 

Aveleigh Church, Extracts from a Letterof Chancellor Job Jolins one, 
Smyrna, .'lilder's Creek. Little River, puocan's Creek, Liberty Spring, 
Warrior's Creek, Friendship, Nazareth (Spartanburg), Fairview, North 
Pacoiet,- Smyrna, Greenville (Abbeville), Eockv Creek (now Rock 
Church), r,30, 537— Old Cambridge, Hopewell (Abbeville), Rocky Eiver 
(Abbeville), Willington, Eev. Dr. Waddell, Long Cane, Upper Long 
Cane Society, Little Mountain, Bradaway, Midway, Good Hope and 
Roberts, Rev. David Humphreys, Roberts' Clmrch, Providence Church, 
Anderson, Jlidwav, Richland, 538, 551- Laurensville, Hopewell (K), 
Sandy Spring, Carmel, Na/areth B. D , New Harmony, Bethany Eeho- 
both, Bethel. First Presbyterian Church, Augusta, Macon, Ga., 5 12, .555, 



CHAPTER VI. 

Foreign Missions, Southern Board of Missions, Congregational and 
Presbyterian Education Society. 01<1 and New School, Plan of Union, 
Act and Testimony, Opinions V;irious, Dr. Alexander, Synod of South 
Carolina and Georgia, Dissent of \V. C. Dana and others, Explani^tion, 
Committee of Conference, Proposed Union of Seminaries, Foreign Mis- 
sions, Appropriations. 



COXTENTS, Xlll 



BOOK V. 



1840—1850. 

CHAPTER I. 

The Independent or Congregational (Cieculae) Chuhch of Citarles- 
TON, Rev. B. M. Palmer, D. I)., Wappetaw, Dorchesttir and Beech Hill, 
Stonej' Creek, Savannah, Dr. Preston, 679, 690. 

CPIAPTER II. 

French Hufruenot Church, Charleston. First Presbyterian Church, 
Charleston. Rev. Dr. Forrest. Second Presbyterian Church. Rev. Dr. 
Adger. Third, or Central Church. Corner Stone of the New Church 
Kdiflce. Charleston Union Presbytery. Decision of the General As- 
sembly. Action of the Synod. 590, 604— Glebe Street, Charleston. Its 
Organization. Evangelization of the Colored People. Action of the 
Presbytery. Dr. Adger called to Embark in this Work. Its Commence- 
ment, 590, 610— James Island, John's Island and Wadmalaw declare for 
Independence. The John's Island Case. Decision of the Court. The 
Church Rescinds its Resolution. Death of Rev. Mr. White, 611, 618— 
Edisto Island, and Memorial of William States Lee. Wilton Presbyte- 
rian Church. Death of Rev. Zabdiel Rogers. Rev. John L. Girardeau, 
618, 626 — Bethel Pon Pon, Saltkehatchie, Boiling Springs, Barnwell 
Court House, Beech Island, Hamburg, Orangeburg, 027, 632, 

C^IIAPTER III. 

Williamsburg, Indian Town, Hopewell, Pee Dee, Darlington, Great 
Pee Dee, Little Pee Dee, Pisgah, Pine Tree, Cheraw, Hon. John A. 
Inglis, Carolina Presbyterian Church, 6'.V2, 645 — Midway, Bruington, 
Concord, Sumterville, Rev. Donald McQueen, D. D., 646, 648— Salem B. 
R., Rev. Robert W. James, Rev. G. C. Gregg, Bishopville, Harmony, 
648, 656— Manning, Pine Tree, Bethesda, 657,'658. 



CHAPTER IV. 

Columbia, 658, 665 — Horeb, Aimwell, Scion (Winnsboro), Lebanon, 
Salem (L. R.), Mt. Olivet, Concord (Fairfield), Beaver Creek; Catholic, 
665. 672— Six-Mile Creek, Purity, Fishing Creek, Bullock's Creek, Wm. 
B. Davies, Mt. Pleasant, Bethesda, Rev. P. E. Bishop, 673, 682 — Ebenezer, 
Unity, Salem, Yorkville, Shiloh, Bethel (York), Rev- S. L. Watson, 
683,691 — Ministers raised in Bethel, Old Waxhaw, Birth Place of An- 
drew Jackson, Pleasant Grove, Cane Creek.Unionville, Fairforest, Bath, 
Shiloh, 692, 699— The Covenanters, Rev. Wm. Martin, Rev. Thomas 
Donnelly, Rev. John Riley, Their Churches and Ministers, 700, 708— 
Liberty Spring, Duncan's Creek, Friendship, Rocky Spring, 708, 711. 



XIV CONTEXTS. 

CHAPTER V. 

Aveleigh Church. Chancellor Job Johnston, Ecclesiastical and Civil 
Courts, Humor and Repariee, The Law of Marriage, Contributions, 
Testimony of O. R. Mayer, Smyrna,' Lebanon, Bethia, Mt. Bethel, 
Bethany, Warrior's Creek, New Harmony, Laurensville, Rev. S. B. 
Lewers, Rock Church, Rev. Edwin Cater, Rev. John McLees, Sandy 
Spriup;, 711, 732 — Long Cane, Dr. McNeill Turner, David Lesly, Rev. 
\Vm. H. Barr, D. D , Chancellor Bowie's Memorial of Dr. Barr, 732, 741— 
Bradaway, Bethesda (Abbeville), Nazireth, N. Pacolet, Carmel, Pickens, 
Gooii Hope and Roberts, Rev. Mr. Humphreys, Gilder's Creek. Spar- 
tanburg, Mt Tabor, Autioch, Anderson, Midway, Hopewell (Keowee), 
741, 749 — Greenville (Abbeville), Rev. Hugh Dickson, New Harmony 
(Abbeville), Fairview, Providence, Rocky River, Washington Street 
(Greenville), Hopewell (Abbeville), Willington, AVestminster, Bethel, 
New Harmony (Laureiis,) Nazareth (B. D.), 750, 760 — Missions, Rev. Dr. 
Smyth, 761, 7G4. 



HISTORY 



OF' THE 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH 

IN SOUTH CAROLINA. 



VOL. II. 



BOOK FIRST. 



CHAPTER I. 

Our first volume has given a brief outline of the ante- 
American history of the people which are represented in the 
Presbyterian Churches of the Synod of South Carolina and 
Georgia, and has traced their subsequent history more or less 
perfectly from the first permanent occupation of the country 
by European colonists on the 17th of March, 1670, to the 
opening of the present century. Many of them fled from 
their native lands of their own accord, because they could not 
wor-ihip according to the dictates of their owr^ consciences, 
without the loss of their earthly possessions and life itself. 
Some were forcibly transported hither against their will. 
Some were offered the alternative of expatriation or ignomini- 
ous death. Such was the case of James Nisbet, of the parish of 
L&ndon, who suffered in Glasgow, at the Howgate head, 
June 5th, 1684. 

In the course of his last speech and testimony he said : 
" Now I know there will many brand me with self-murder, 
because I have got many an offer to go to Carolina upon such 
easy terms. But to this I answer, self preservation must 
stoop to truth's preservation." He thus refused to succumb to 



16 JAMES NISBKT. 

the demands of his persecutors. " Now I have to take m)- 
leave of all created comforts here; and I bid farewell to the 
sweet Scriptures. Farewell reading and praying. Farewell 
sinning and suffering. Farewell sighing and sorrowing, 
mourning and weeping. Atid farewell all Christian friends 
and relations. Farewell brethren and sisters, and all things 
in time. And welcome Father, Son and ^oly Ghost. Wel- 
come Heaven and everlasting joy and pj-aise, and innumerable 
company of Angels and Spirits of just men made perfect. 
Now into thy hands I commit my spirit for it is thine. 

Sic Subscribitur, JAMES NISBET." 

It might be doubtful as to the special locality meant by Caro- 
lina in this address. On the 13th of June, 1665, Clarendon 
and his associates had obtained a new charter from Charles 
the Second, granting' them all the land from the Atlantic to 
the Pacific Ocean, between twenty-nine degrees and thirty-six 
degrees, thirty minutes, north latitude, a charter which never 
went into effect, being superseded on the south by the charter 
granted by George the II. on the gth of June, 1732, to Ogle- 
thorpe and his associates " in trust for the poor," which 
erected the country between the Savannah and the Altamaha, 
and from the headsprings of these rivers due west to the 
Pacific, into the Province of Georgia. 

The first permanent settlement made, in what is known as 
North Carolina, was in 1663, when William Drummond a 
Scotchman and a Presbyterian was made its first governor. 
A general division into North and South Carolina dates as far 
back as 1693. Yet the dividing line between North and 
South Carolina was not run till 1738, nor fully cornpleted till 
afterwards. And as we have shown in our First Volume, 
Chap. II., pp. 78-86, that Charleston or Port Royal was the 
destination of those who were banished, or who voluntarily 
removed for safety from Scotland, this we suppose was the 
Carolina that was in the mind of the heroic martyr. 

All this occurred nearly 200 years ago. Yet it is well for 
us to remember what our ancestors suffered for the faith we 
profess. The saying is true that " The blood of the martyrs 
is the seed of the Church." It has lived and flourished in 
the midst of persecution. It is said that the Reformed Church 
of France in 1751 could count 2,150 Churches. That the 
Church of Orleans hgid 7,000 members and 5 ministers. That 



"The blood of the martyrs." 17 

in 1561 there had been 200,000 cut off by martyrdom : From 
the Church of Caen alone about, 15,000; of Alencon, 5,000; 
of Paris, 13,000; ofRheims, 12,000; of Troye, 12,000; of Sens 
9,000; of Orleans, 8,000; of Angiers, 7,500; of Poictiers. 
12,000. (Quiclc's Synodicon, p. lix., Ix., and so on.) 
Above 200,000 in a few years were cut off for the Gospel, 
p. h'x. And to some, Carolina became a place of refuge. 

The few Congregational Churches of our seaboard have 
been so united with those which were fully Presbyterian in 
their polity, that their history has been given with equal par- 
ticularity. The method pursued was adopted from the felt 
necessity of preserving the facts of the past before they should 
be lost out of the memories of men, before the various notices, 
of them yet existing in ephemeral contemporaneous literature 
should utterly perish, and the 'scattered items tliat might be 
gathered out of private correspondence should wholly disap- 
pear. Much of all this had been lost already by the accidents 
of fire and flood, and cruel war, and by that decay which is 
consuming all the works of industry and art. To keep up the 
sequence of events as to their succession in time was impor- 
tant, that each congregation might be able to trace back its 
own history was no less so, and to hold up to view that ante- 
cedent discipline in the school of adversity through which our 
ancestors passed, which has moulded theircharacter and ours, 
was equally important. 

It was not unknown to the author that there is a connec- 
tion of cause and effect which history siiould disclose; that 
each event is'to be conceived of asboth the product of some 
other that has preceded it, and a potential cause of those which 
follow ; that there is a development in history, and a progress, 
answering to that in the ideas of men educated by the circum- 
stances in which they are placed. Society is ever advancing, 
but by a movement by no means uniform nor always in one 
direction. When men of education and refinement migrate 
from the midst of culture to a wilderness where they must 
find the means of support, and protect themselves from, savage 
beasts and more savage men, it is natural that they should 
lapse by degrees from former pursuits into the life of the 
trapper and the hunter, from this into chat of the herdsman, 
and then into that of the cultivator of the soil. It will be 
difficult tor them and their faj^iilies to retain all the outward 
decencies of worship and culture as they were enjoyed in the 



18 TWO FACa'ORS IN THE HISTORY OF THI-: CUVUCU. 

countries which they left. Tlieir manners will becomt; for a 
season more rude and simple. As settlements enlarge and 
wealth increases, and artificial wants, in the progress of socie- 
ty, are created, these outward customs of social life will 
change, and new phases of public and social character must 
needs appear. New theories of government, too, are ever and 
anon arising. Some exalting and some depressing tiie 
individual man, the human mind passing, under the ordinary 
providential government of God, from one extreme towards 
the other in almost perpetual oscillation. In the history of 
the Church then are tvvo factors. On the one hand there is 
God's truth made the object of the mind's contemplation by 
the word revealed from Heaven and enforced by the opera- 
tions of the Holy Spirit. There are the depraved will of man 
on the other, and the mysterious and hostile influences of thc 
powers of darkness. The development of the Churcli on 
earth has, under these circumstances, not been a constant and 
uniform progress. It has often gone backward both in its 
doctrine and its government. And the only true progress it 
ever can make is ever to /ooA back to the writings of the New 
Testament for the form of doctrine given to the Church, 
when it \i'as enjoined upon it to go foith into all the world 
preachinjj tiie Gospel, and to the entire Scriptures for the 
system of doctrine to be believed unto salvation. 

From the age of Constantine when Christianity ascended 
the throne of Caesar to this our day, one of the last things the 
Church has been able rightly to comprehend, is its own inde- 
pendence of the State. This would seem logically to follow 
from tlie doctrine of our Confession, that Christ alone is King 
and Head of the Church, and that all ordinances of worship 
and forms of Church governnieiit are ordered by him alone ; 
thatthere are two Commonwealths equally appointed by God, 
the civil, whose office is to protect the person and property 
and promote the well beine of m.en as they are members of 
civil society; and the religious, the conunonwcalth of Israel, 
whose object it is to train men, as they are sinners, for glory 
and immortality. Although these exist together in tliis 
world, each is independent of the other in its own sphere. 
In the civil commonwealth there is one and the same civil 
authority ruling in its own proper sphere over all. The 
Church of Christ, as it is visible in any country, is divided 
among many denominations, who act in their appointments 



TO CA'IJAU THE TIIINUS THAT ARE C.KSARS. 19 

for religious observance independent of each other, eacii being 
responsible to Christ their head. It has been in our happy 
country alone, under its present form of governniant, that this 
has obtained a full acknowledgment, though in practice this 
independence has, alas ! been now and then invaded, and it has 
been forgotten that unto Cs3sar only the things that are 
Caesar's are to be rendered and to God alone the tilings that 
are God's. Our own Presbyterian Church by its solemn 
leagues and covenants and by its republican forrn of govern- 
ment has done much to destroy the bondage of despotism 
under which the British nation would have otherwise con- 
tinued to groan, and has done much to introduce that form of 
regulated liberty which our own country enjoys. But the 
solemn league and covenant when attem.pted bv the British 
Parliament to be imposed upon the nation, looked forward to 
the establishment by law of an absolute uniformity of reli- 
gious faith. The contest in Elngland was a contest for civil 
liberty, m Scotland for religious purity and freedom. In 
England it was under the guidance of political principles, in 
Scotland mainly under those which the religion of Christ iii- 
s[jires, whose fruit is peace. But the close union of Church and 
State which the Long Parliament, the majority of whom were 
Presbyterians, still contemplated, would have placed dissen- 
ters under civil disabilities and have led to oppression, if not 
absolute persecution of the less numerous sects. The Inde- 
pendents who were numerous and represented largely in Crom- 
well's army, being a minority in the Westminster Assembly, 
were clamorous for liberty of conscience, but it is to be 
feared that it was liberty of conscience for themselves alone. 
For when they set up their own government in Jlassaclui- 
setts, they made membership in the Church a prerequisite to 
civil office and inflicted penalites and exile upon the Anabap- 
tists and Quakers, chiefly, perhaps, because of certain fanatical 
conduct which disturbed the public peace, but, we fear, also 
because of alleged error in doctrine. Cromwell approached 
nearly to the truth when he declared "that all men should be 
left to the liberty of their own consciences and that the magis- 
trate could not interfere without ensnaring himself in the guilt 
of persecution." Yet. net even he saw clearly, at all times, 
the necessity of a complete severance of the union between 
Church and State, nor realized the inauspicious results which 
such a union must inevitably produce, the great injustice it 



20 THE CHURCH AND THE SCHOOL. 

must ever do to dissenters from the religion of the State, and 
the hypocrisy to which it leads. While, therefore, we can 
jii.';tly point to the earlier history of our fathers as illustrating 
in their exceeding sufferings, the disinter-estedness and earnest- 
ness of true piety, the power of faith, their own surpassing 
courage and constancy, their ardent love for civil and reli- 
gious liberty, the tendency of adversity, encountered nobly 
by brave and trustful hearts, to develop character and to pro- 
mote vital godliness — the whole being a grand testimony to 
the truth of the Christian religion ; we can point to it, on tlie 
other hand, as exhibiting chiefly in their opponents the narrow 
blindness and selfishness of bigotry, the folly of persecution, 
the evil of Erastianism, the tendency to cruelty and deeds of 
blood in a dominant Church, the guilt of forcing religion on 
an unwilling people, the conflicting claims which may arise 
between Church and State, and the necessity of a complete 
severance of one from the other, and the power of the volun- 
tary principle to sustain all the institutions which the Church 
shall need and authorize. 

The severance in this countiy has been made complete. 
And though our customs and our common law have arisen 
under the Christian faith, the Jew, the Mohammedan, the Pagan 
and the Deist are alike protected in what are the distinctive 
features of the faith they profess, not because the national 
belief sanctions their creeds, but bfcnuse, otherwise, the rights 
of conscience cannot be maintained. Whatever approaches 
to an established religion in any of the States of the Federal 
Union, existed in the colonial period, have disappeared since 
the Revolution, and the nineteenth century begins without 
these disturbing influences in our social state. 

Under the colonial government the refinements of the 
higher civilization were kept up in our seaboard country by 
its constant intercourse with the British Isles, whither the sons 
and daughters of the wealthy were often sent for their educa- 
tion. But in the upper country the church and the school, 
both accommodated at first in the rudest and most primitive 
structures, were almost inseparably connected, until, as we 
have seen, in the last fifteen years of the eighteenth century, 
institutions for the higher learning bad almost everywhere 
arisen, if not in a form and with endowments which rendered 
them permanent, yet conducted with a becoming energy of 
purpose, apd afforcjing the means of a valuable education to 



THE HIGHER EDUCATION. 21 

those who were to become the future leaders in the Church 
and the State. 

^ In his Retrospect of the Eighteenth Century, pubHshed in 
1 808 by Dr. Samuel Miller, late of Princeton, the belief is 
ex-pressed that the learned languages, especially the Greek, 
were less studied in the Eastern than in the Southern and 
Middle States, and that while more individuals attended to 
classical learning there than here, it was attended to more 
superficially. The reason he gives is, that owing to the supe- 
rior wealth of-individuais in the latter States, more of their 
sons were educated in Europe, and brought home with them 
a more accurate knowledge of the classics and set the example 
of more thorough study. The most of our clergy, especially, 
whether educated at home or abroad, were full of labor in 
the pulpit, or the school, or in missionary work, and few of 
them, in the period over which we have passed, had leisure, 
or pecuniary means, to make any important contributions to 
the literature of the church. 



CHAPTER II. 

THE INDEPENDENT AND CONGREGATIONAL CHURCHES. 
1800—1810. 

In resuming our history of individual churches we begin 
with those which were either strictly Congregational, or 
admitted only of the Congregational Presbytery. The first 
of these is The Independent or Congregational Church 
IN THE City of Charlpston, for whose .preceding history we 
refer the reader to the pages indicated in the Index to our 
First Volume. We have there quoted on pp. 459, 460, the 
general character and polity of this church as set forth from 
their own records. We have not sufficiently indicated the 
doctrinal creed they profess, and, to do so, are obliged to revert 
to'the time when these doctrines were prominently set forth. 

The inequalities which existed under the Colonial Govern- 
ment when the Protestant Episcopal Church, the Church of 
England, was by law the Established Church of the Coloriy 
of South Carolina, were removed by the Provisional Consti- 
tution of 1778, and the permanent State Constitution of 1790. 
Under the Constitution of 1778, the name of an established 



22 THE KEIJGION OF THE STATE. [1800-1810 

church v/ns retained, but on sucl) a broad basis as to compre- 
hend all denominations of Protestant Christians, each havinsj 
equal risjhts and capacities, and public pecuniary supporc 
being withheld from all. The Protestant religion was declared 
the establisiied leiigion of the State, and it was enacted that 
any society consisting of fifteen persons, or upwards, should 
be an established church, and entitled to incorporation, on 
petitioning for it, after they had subscribed, in a book, the 
five following articles : 

1. There is one Eternal God, and a future state of rewards 
and punishments. 

2. God is to be publicly worshipped. 

3. The Christian religion is the true religion. 

4. The Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testament aie 
divinely inspired, and are the rule of faith and practice. 

5. It is lawful, and the duty of every man, being thereunto 
lawfully called, to bear witness to truth. 

These articles were readily subscribed by the Church, but 
were not considered by its members as going far enough ; 
they, therefore, added an explanation of their particular creed, 
as follows : 

'' Although we acknowledge that the foregoing articles do 
not contain anything contrary to truth, yet as they do not dis- 
criminate truth from error, and are no ways declaratory of 
those distinguishing ti uths which this Church has always 
heretofore acknowledged, and at this time do recognize to be 
the Scripture doctrines of grace; and, as the foregoing arti- 
cles are now received, by this Church, merely in compliance 
with the requisitions of the legislative body of this countr)', 
and in order to entitle it to the privileges of establishment 
and incorporation, lest any person should take occasion, from 
them, to attempt to introduce any doctrines into this Church, 
not heretofore received and acknowledged by it as Scripture 
doctrines, we lay down the following three articles as the 
fundamental doctrines of this Church: 

'' I. That there are three distinct persons mentioned in the 
Scriptures, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost ; to each 
of whom the name of God is properly given, divine attributes 
are ascribed and religious worship is due ; that these three, 
the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, are one God, the 
same in substance, power, and glory. 



1800-18]0.] THE RETJGION OF THE CHURCiH. 23 

'' 2. That the Scriptures reveal and declare man to be a 
fallen creature ; that, by his transgressions of the law of God, 
he has lost the divine Image in which he was at first created, 
and incurred the displeasure of God, and subjected himself 
to the penalties annexed to the breach of His most holy- 
law, and has become so wholly impotent, that he can do 
nothing meritoriously to atone for his guilt, recover the 
forfeited favor of God, and restore the divine image in his 
depraved soul. 

" 3. That the Scriptures reveal a method of recovery for 
fallen man through the divine interposition, to accomplish 
which the Eternal Father gave his only begotten Son to 
become a substitute for man ; that the Eternal Son volun- 
tarily submitted to this appointment and substitution, and in 
the fullness of time took upon Him our nature, and was 
made under the Law, to which he paid a perfect obedience, 
and died as a sacrifice and attonement for human guilt ; that 
by his active and passive obedience, lie perfected and brought 
in an everlasting righteousness, by the imputation of which, 
through faith, mankind are again restored to the lost image 
and forfeited favor of God, and delivered from the curse of 
the Law ; that the Holy Ghost, by his enNghtening influences 
and saving operations on the human heart, is the author and 
efficient of that faith by which we apprehend the righteous- 
ness of Christ, and through which we are made partakers of 
the blessings of grace." 

" It was never so much the intention of this Church," says 
Dr. Ramsay, ''to build up any one denomination of Christians 
as to build up Christianity itself Its members were, there- 
fore, less attached to names and parties than to a system nf 
doctrines which they believed to be essential to a correct 
view of the Gospel plan of salvation. These have been 
generally called tlie doctrines of the reformation — of free 
grace — or of the evangelical system. The minister who 
preached these doctrines, explicitly^ and unequivocally, was 
always acceptable, whatever his creed might be in other 
respects, or to whatsoever denomination he might belong. 
On the other hand, where these were wanting, no accordance 
in other points— no splendor of learning — no fascination of 
eloquence could make up for the defect. 

The doctrines above stated have always been the doctrines 
of this Church, but they were formally adopted as such in its 



24 UEPAIRS OF CHURCH. [1800-1810. 

Constitution ratified on the 20th day of August, 1804, as 
follows : '' It is now further declared, that the view of the 
Holy Bible, which is taken, nnd the construction which is 
given to its contents, by this Church, is the same as is 
taken and given in the confession of faith, and the catechisms 
of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America, 
is that accepted by the General Assembly at their session in 
May, 1805." 

Early in this decade, in consequence of the increasing cm- 
gregation, measures were taken for the enlargement of churcii 
accommodations. In 1798 its funds amounted to ;^ 18,857, 
loaned to the State Treasury, and, in common with all other 
contemporaneous evidences of debt, suffered a depreciation 
by which, in 1783, they were reduced to ^3,515.68. In con- 
sequence of the war of the Revolution, the Church was 
temporarily disorganized and dispersed. For six years it 
remained without a settled minister, and divine service was 
discontinued for half that period. When the British Vandals 
evacuated thp city, December 14th, 1782, they left nothing 
but the shell of the ancient edifice — the pulpit and pews 
having been taken down and destroyed, and the empty 
enclosure used, first as a hospital for the sick, and afterwards 
as a storehouse for provisions for the royal army. Even the 
right of sepulture in the cemetery was denied to the families 
of worshippers, who were in Charleston, after her capitula- 
tion, as prisoners of war. About thirty-ei^jht heads of these 
families had been exiled, partly to St. Augustine, in 1780, 
and partly to Philadelphia, in 1781. The exiles in Philadelphia, 
even while the royal army yet occupied Charleston, anticipating 
a speedy departure of the foe. took provisional measures for 
the supply and recognition of their Church as soon as itshould 
be delivered from thraldoin. The remnant in Charleston began, 
from the time of the evacuation, to devise means for the repair 
of their dilapidated and desecrated temple, and a subscription 
was opened for that purpose, to which there was a general 
contribution, even among members of other Christian denomi- 
nations. The repairs were soon completed, at the cost of 
^6.000, and the renovated edifice opened and consecrated 
anew, to Divine worship, December 11, 1773, with an excel- 
lent and appropriate sermon, from the recently arrived pastor 
of the Church, the Rev. Wm. Hollinshead, afterwards D. D., 
on December 11, 1783, the very day appointed by Congress, 



UOO-ISIO.] FOR^I OF NEW EDIFICE. 25 

as a Day of Thanksgiving to Almighty God, for tlic blessings 
of peace and independence. 

In 1772, the increased numbers and flourishing condition 
of the congregation, induced them to erect or complete 
another house of worshii), in connexion witli the one already 
established on Meeting Street, This pioject had originated, 
as early as 1772, and had made such progress that before the 
Revolutionary War, the walls of a new house of worship, 
located in Archdale Street, had been completed, the whole 
covered, and most of the pews put up ; but it remained in this 
unfinished state during the ei^ht years of the Revolutionary 
War, and for some time after the termination of that contest. 
The cost of converting the unfinished shell of the new church 
into a suitable place of worship, was ^6,000; and it was opened 
for public worship, by the Rev. Dr. HoUingshead, on the 25th 
October, 1787. The next year the Rev. Isaac Stockton 
Keith, afterwards D. D., was regularly inducted and settled as 
co-pastor. Of this we gave an account, Vol. i, p. 458. 

The labors of the colleague pastors had been exceedingly 
blessed, and in fifteen yeans after divine service began to be 
performed in the Archdale Street Church, Josiah Smith, the 
Treasurer, informed the Ciiurch that all the pews, in both 
houses of worship, were taken up, and a number of applicants, 
for some time past, had been turned off from the want of 
pews to supply them — whereupon it was resolved " that a 
committee be appointed to examine into the practicability of 
making an alteration or addition to the houses of worship, so 
as to make room for more worshippers.'' On the I3tli of Feb- 
ruary, 1804, it was resolved to build an entire new brick 
church, of a circular form, of 88 feet interior diameter. The 
argument in favor of this form were: that it was the least ex- 
pensive mode of enclosing any requisite area of a church — 
that it admitted of such a location of the pulpit and pews as 
brought the whole audience more completely in view of the 
preacher, and the preacher in view of the hearers, than any 
other of the usual forms of churches — that it required less 
exertion of the voice of the preacher to be heard than would 
be nece.ssary in another form of equal area — that it was favora- 
ble to di.-itinct hearing in the pews most distant from the 
pulpit. Some of these advantages, with respect to hearers, in 
some parts of the church, were diminished and an unpleas- 
ant echo introduced, in consequence of a partial departure 



26 ITS ADVANTAGKS AND DEFE(JT,S. [1800-1810. 

from the complete circular form, which had been recommended 
by the original projector, and by Mi'. IVIills, the ingenious 
architect who delineated the plan of the present circular build- 
ing. The substitution of a ri'.-ht line in place ofa segment of 
a circle, in the frort ofthe church, was adopted by the build- 
ing committee, to favor the erection ofa steeple on the West- 
ern extremity of the church, opposite to the pulpit, and is 
supposed to be the cause of the echo. Mr. Mills has since 
completed a church, in Philadelphia, of a larger area, wholly 
on the circular form, in whicli there is no echo. In it a low 
voice, very little above a whisper, can be distinctly heard at a 
dist-ince of 90 feet, over the gallery, and distinctly across from 
the two e.Ntreme points ofthe interior diameter.* 

A proposition for pulling down the old building, which 
might have lasted seveial years, and erecting a new circular 
one, at the expense of ^60,000, on its site, would first liave 
been promptly rejected, but from the agency of Providence, 
which oveirules the hearts of man, it was after repeated delib- 
erations, PL-aceably and unanimously adopted. On this occa- 
sion the venerable Treasurer of the Church, (Josiah Smith,) 
gave an example worthy of imitation by the minority of all 
deliberative bodies. The opposers of the circular form were 
at first very numerous ; but they all successively came into 
the measure, with the exception of Mr. Smith. When he 
perceived the change that had taken place, and the final 
question was about to be put, he walked out ; but gave up 
all opposition, and continued from that day to be, as he had 
always been before, a most active, disinterested, zealous friend 
ofthe churcl). 

For the two years which elapsed between the puUing down 



*The church to which reference is here made we suppose to be the 
Sanson! Street Baptist Church, in Philadelphiii. The ceiling of this 
was, we believe, not vaulted — like a dome, but was more like the in- 
terior surface ofa hollow cone. The ease with whicli the speaker's voice 
could be heard are perhaps due to this method of construction. The 
echo in the Circular Church was painful and exceedingly annoying to 
the speaker. His voice returned to him, as if some one was mimicking 
him from beneath the pulpit or elsewhere. The chorister was wont to 
give out the first line from the gallery or organ loft, and the echo was 
very distinct and disturbing to the stranger who might at the time be 
occupying the pulpit. One walking up the side aisle when the church 
was empty would hear his footsteps repeated, as of one walking down • 
the aisle on the side opposite. These echoes are the accidents of archi- 
tecture, and are sometimes as surprising as they are unexpected. 



1860-1810.] sAJj-: OF I'Kws. 27 

of the old building and the finishing- of tJie new circular one," 
Uie worshippers Were accommodated witii the use of the 
South Carolina Society's building, in Meeting street, for the 
performance of divine service. On the 25 of May, 1806, the 
Circular Church* was opene.d in the presence of a numerous 
congregation, with an appropriate sermon of each of its co- 
pastors: the other house of worship was ibr that day shut. 
When all demands came in, it was found that the expense of 
the building so far exceeded tlie estimate, that a large sum 
must be raised from the pews. To make the most of this 
source of income, was a matter of some delicacy and difficulty. 
The descendants of the founders, and of other old mem- 
bers, had claiins to be accommodated with pews at a reason- 
able rate, as all the funds which had been acquired for a cen- 
tury past, were given up in the first instance to defray the 
expenses of the buiidintr. In tlieir behalf, it was urged that 
they should have the first choice of pev/s, and that the sur- 
plus should be sol'd to the hit^rhest bidders. To their reason- 
able claims the necessities of the church were opposed. The 
size of the church and the number of the pews (166, exclusive 
of those in a large gallery) furnished the means of an amica- 
ble compromise. The northern half of the gallery was gra- 
tuitously given to the negroes. And it accommodates about 
four hundred of them, who are orderly, .steady, and attentive 
worshippers. The south gallery is reserved for the future 
disposal of the church, and, in the meantime, it is free to all 
such persons as choose to worship there. It was agreed, after 
an animated discussion, that si,xty pows should, in the first 
instance, be sold to whosoever might be the highest bidders ; 
and, afterward-^, the surplus should be assigned on a valua- 
tion to the former worshippers, who, in p oportion to their 
respective claims as contributors to the old church should 
have a priority of choice. To favor the sale, an agreement 
■was made with Mr. William Payne, that he should have the 
first choice of a pew, on his consenting to pay for it ^300 in 
cash, and to discoujit all that it sold for beyond that sum, in 
lieu of his commission for doing the whole business of the 
church, as its auctioneer and accountant. Under these cir- 

*The form of the house of worship gave rise to tho popular designa- 
tion of the Church and congregation henceforth, as the white color of 
the structure which preceded it had done before. See Vol. I., p. 184, 



28 CHARITABLE EFFORTS. [1800-1810. 

cumstances lie purchasecl for himself the first choice of a pew 
for ^605. This so enhanced the value of the subsequent sales 
that $20,390 was raised in one day, from tlie sale of sixty 
pews at auction. The remaining ones on the ground floor, 
were cheifly distributed on a fair valuation, amoujiting, in the 
whole, to 1^25,550, among the unsupplied former worshippers 
and others. In every case a fixed annual rent varying from 
;^8 to $'^0, and in one case to ^40, was imposed on every pew 
in addition to the original purchase money. By these means 
upwards of $40,000 was secured to pay for the building, and 
an annual income of $3,978 (when the pews on the ground 
floor are all rented, and the rent thereof punctually paid) to- 
wards defraying the salaries of ministers and other contingent 
expenses. To the pew-holders, a fee simple title to their pews 
was given by the corporation, subject to be sold for pew rents 
due by their owners to the church, but not for any other debt 
whatever. The building was commenced with inadequate 
funds, and without any subscription, but with a strong reliance 
on Providence, that the pews, added to the old funds, would 
raise a sufficient sum to pay for the building, and be an an- 
nual source of income forall necessary expenses. These bold 
hopes were realized. 

This congregation were generous promoters of the various 
objects of Chrisiian charity. An annual sermon was preached 
through this period in the interests of " The Society for the 
Relief of Elderly and Disabled Ministers, and the Widows 
and Orphans of the Clergy of the Independent and Congre- 
gational Church in the State of South Carolina." Most of 
the members of this Society belonged to this congregation. 
It consisted in 1808 of forty-seven members. The annual 
subscription of a pound sterling and the addition of its sur- 
plus fund to the principal ha(i given it a capital, at this date, 
of over $29,000, its annual income being about $2,000 more 
than its expenditures. The first Domestic Missionary Society, 
in the South, and, it is believed, the second in the United 
States, was formed in this congregation in 1801, and was 
called ■' the Congregational Society for the Promotion of Reli- 
gion in South Carolina." In all acts of benevolence they 
were encouraged and led on by their pastors, of whom Dr. 
Keith, being posse;,sed of larger means than most of his pro- 
fession, set theai a noble example. In the following dona- 
tions to this Church may be found those which belong to tiie 



1800-1810.] EARLY BENEFACTORS. 29 

period now before us, although the list begins at a date almost 
a century earlier. It is quoted from Dr. Ramsay's Histury 
of the Independent or Contjregationiil Churcli in Ciiarlesfon, 
SoutJi Carolina, printed tor the author at Philadelphia in 1815, 
and in that of Richard Yeadon, Esq., printed in Charle.ston 
in 1853. 

OF THE BENEPACTOES TO THE CHUKCH. 

1704 — Frances Simonds, widow of Henry Simonds, planter, frave a lot of 

land, on which the old White Meeting was built, 100 by 130 feet. 

Afrreeable to the designs other husband, long before his decease. 

1707 — Frances Simonds also bequeathed anotherplot of garden ground, 

adjoining the preceding, and one large silver cup marked H. S. 

1730 — Andrew Allen, merchant, gave a part of three several town lots, 
which forms a part of the burying ground. 

1730 — Lydia Durham bequeathed a moiety of yearly rents, arising on 
houses and her lands, on the bay of Charleston,' subject to some 
deductions. 

1730 — Robert Tradd, the first male child born in (Hiarleiston, bequeathed 
to Miles Brewton, Thomas Lamboll, and Garret Van Velson, and 
to the survivor or survivors and thei'r successors, the sum of one 
thousand pounds, current money, upon trust, that they should 
put out the said sum to interest, yearly, on good security, and pay 
the clear profits thereof, yearly, forever, unto such minister or 
preacher successively, as should fr 'Ui time to time officiate in the 
Presbyteiian Church in Charleston, aforesaid (of which Society 
the Rev. Mr. Bassett was then minister), according to the form 
and discipline of the same, to be and remain to the proper use 
and behoof of such ministers and preachers, for their better 
support, (tc 

1731 — William AVarden gave a slip of land now part of the burying 
ground. 

1732 — Thomas EUery gave a piece of ground adjoining the above. 

1737— Samuel Eveleigh bequeathed 500Z for a pew, free of rent, to his 
heirs. 

1740 — Charles Peronneau bequeathed 1,500/. 

1745 — James Mathewes bequeathed 2001. 

17o4 — Henry Peronneau bequeathed 5001. 

]75i) — Benjamin D'Harriette bequeathed 500Z. 1 

1760 — John Mathewes bequeatlied iOOl. 

1761— Theodora Edings bequeathed 200/. 

Ann Mathewes bequeathed 500/. 

1768 — George Mathewes bequeathed 350/. 

176!) — William Dandridge bequeathed 350/. 

1770— Mary Heskit bequeathed 200Z. 

1774 — Alexander Peronneau bequeathed 500/. 

1776— Othniel Beale bequeathed 150Z. 

In 1776— and partly in 1786, eighty-three ladies subscribed and paid, 
for the purpose of building a pulpit in the Archdale Street 
Church. 1650. 

1779 — Sarah Stoutenburg bequeathed $1,905. The current money, in 
this year, was so far depreciated as to be worth, on an average, 1 
not more than fourteen for one. 



30 LIST OF BEXEFACTOKS. [1800-1810. 

^Josiah Smith presented to the church a lot of land, on ArAdale 

Street, and two tenements, which, in 1774, anterior to deprecia- 
tion, cost him 4,0001. currency. The buildings were removed and 
placed on Kins? Street, and now bring in an annual rent of |300. 
The south wall of the churi;h is built on part oi'said lot. 

Mrs. Mary LamboU Thomas, in 1777, j^ave 2,660/. towards the purchase 
of another lot and tenement. This was, by depreciation, reduced 
to 1,360/ 4s lOd., and the church paid a balance of 904/. 18s. 5d., 
due on the purchase ; subject in like manner to depreciation. 

1780— Mrs. Mary Ellis bequathed 3,000/. in indents, which was depre- 
ciated by law to 129/. 5s. sterling. 

1784— George Smith taequeated a pew in St. Michael's Churah, which , 
being sold in 1787, produced $300, 

1792— Dr. Richard Savage bequeathed 50/. sterling 

1799— Widow liuth Powell bequeathed 100/ sterling. 

John Scott, Jr., bequeathed 150/. sterling. 

1801— Mrs. Frances Legare bequeathed n house in Tradd Street, subject 
to the payment of 100/. to the Baptist Church fund, for the edu- 
cation of pious young men for the ministry. The clear sum 
accruing to the church, from the sale of the house, was 650 
guineas. 

1806 — Rev. Dr. Keith released the church from the repaynient of $300, 
which he had loaned to the building committee, to assist in pay- 
ing the expenses of building the Circular Church, on their paying 
off the assessment on two or three pews, which are to remain 
the property of the church, and to be leased or granted, Iree of 
rent, to poorer members, especially widows — and that $100 should 
be credited to Mrs. Elizabeth Bee, in payment of half the assess- 
ment on her pew. 

1807 — One hundred and forty-seven ladies gave, towards building the 
pulpit in the Circular Church-, S2,063. 

1808 — Rev. Dr. Keith bequeathed, by his will of that date,+.o the church 
the reversion of about $5,000, unfettered with any binding restric- 
tions, but with an implied trust, or rather strong recommenda- 
tion, that the income alone should be expended, at their diattre- 
tion, foi' pious purposes. The intentions of the testator were 
expressed in the following words: "Although I d6 not judge it 
expedient to lay upon the said church any positively binding 
restrictions, yet I think it jir.iper to declare, that it is my desire 
and hope, that the said church should consider itself rather as 
the trustee, than the absolute proprietor of the said pro()erty ; 
and, that after funding it in the manner that may be judged the 
most safe and advantageous, the clear prolits thereof be applied, 
under the direction of the aforesaid church, chiefly, if not wholly, 
to the purpose of aiding young men, of approved piety and talents, 
when such assistance may be necessary, in obtaining a suitable 
education for the gospel ministry; or, of aiding sister churche.?, 
in supporting the ministration of the gospel, and providing for 
the accommodation of worshippers, in their attendance on the 
ordinances of the Christian sanctuary, or of aiding charitable 
institutions or societies, founded on Christian principles, for pro- 
moting the interests of religion, by spreading the light and bless- 
ing of the gospel among those who might otherwise remain 
destitute of the knowledge of the Holy Scriptures, and of the 
.salvation whicli is in Christ, with eternal glory." 



1800-1810.] FKMALE BENIOFACTORS. -'H 

1810— Rev. Dr. Keith frave the pulpit branches to the Circular Church, 
whicli cost liim §1 95.21!. 
Besides the proper estate belonsinp; to the church, manv of the indi- 
viduals (composing it form the society, incorporated in 1789, " For tlie 
relief of elderly and disabled ministers, and the widows and orphans 
ofthecler.ay of the Independent and Congregational Church, in the 
StateofSoiith Carolina," that its capital stock, amounting to $30,000 
[now about $40,000], may, in a qualified sense, be considered as an 
appendage to the church. An annual collection, enforced by an appro- 
priate sermon in its favor, is [directed] by a standing order of the 
church ; [but it has been irregularly omitted for many years past, in 
consequence of the wealth of the Society, being largely beyond its 
wants, or the legitimate calls on its income."] 

FEMALE BENEFACTOK.S. 

We add to the li.-t of Benefactor.^ a number cf the Mar>'S 
of the Church— of that sex, who were " In.st at the Cro-.s of 
tlie £iucified Redeemer, and first at the tomb of tlie risen 
S.u'ionr " — and vyho, all having, in life, cho-^en " that good 
pirt which bhould not be taken from tiiem," have all gone to 
their heavenly reward. 

1 Mi.ss Elizabeth Huxhani, who bequeathed a legacy of $1,000 to the 
ch\ir.'h, appropriating the income for the relief of the poor females of 
the congregation, who receive pecuniary relief on Sacramental occa- 
sions ; besides leaving $1,000 to the Ladies' Benevolent Society. 

2. Mrs. Eliza Lucilla Simons, who bequeatheu a legacy of $2,000 to 
the church, directing the income to be applied to the repairs of the 
church ; besides leaving $5,000 to the Theological Seminary, at Cohim- 
bia. Cn this donation, we, learn that "Simons' Hall" was constructed, 
in connection with the Seminary. 

3. Mrs Jane Keith, who bequeathed a legacy of nearly $10,000 to 
Miss Sarah Stevens, to be appropriated for the promotion of the spread 
of the Gospel Kingdom of Jesus Christ, and the glory of (rod She also, 
in her lifetime, made many munificent donations to the church. Among 
the latter, v/as a donation of |2,500, towards the purchase of the present 
magnificent organ of the church increased by a legacy of $2,000, for the 
same purpose, under her will. She also presented the church with its 
elegant marble baptismal font. 

4. iVliss Sarah Stevens, -who bequeathed much the larger portion of 
Mrs. Keith's legacy to the Pastor and Deacons of the Circular Church, 
to tie approiiriated by them to the preaching of the Gosjsel to the poor 
of Charleston. The fruit of this munificent benefaction is thus 
described in the " Southern Presbyterian." 

5. Mrs. Rebecca Barksdale, who was, in her lifetime, an annual bene- 
factor of the church, in the way of voluntary contribution. 

6. The late Mrs Dr. Francis Y. Porcher, who was also, in her lifetime, 
a liberal donor [Dr. Ramsay's History of the Independent Church, 1815, 
and that of Richard Yeadon, Esq's History of the Circular Church, 1853.] 

This we are tempted to quote, although it anticipate.s, by 
several decades of years, the general progress of ojir history. 



;]2 REASONS FOR THIS EXHIBIT. ,[1800-1810. 

At the .same time the date.s go back over the period cov- 
ered by our fir.st volume There i.s this advantajije accru- 
ing, that tliere is thus an uninterrupted view given of the pro- 
gre.s.s the Church has made in the 144 years which ' preceded 
the date of the facts to which we now refer, and which are 
mentioned in the Sonthcrii Presbyterian under the head of 

CHURCH EXTEN.SION. 

The most pleasina; and hopeful feature of the present state of things, 
is the waking up of the church to a sense of her duty in re>?ard to the- 
spread of the gospel. The divine command, ." Tro j/« irato oW tlu world 
and preach the Gospel to every creature," is no longer a destd letter. There 
are still those in the church who plead for " a little more sleep, a little 
jnore folding of the hands," but with the church of Christ atlarge, it is 
fast settling down as a principle, that " wherever there are people, 
THERE MOST BE A CHURCH." " Church extension " is the order of the 
day. This city, we rejoice to see, is in full harness, ready and wilting to 
lay out her strength in moving forward the eonquej-ing car of the gospel. 
?rbt to speak, at present, of aux- of those greater, those overshadowing 
acts which always proclaim their own praise, we have set out to notice 
two of those unpretending efforts in this way, which at once deserve 
commendation, and indicate a hopeful advance— one iu the suburbs, 
the other in the vicinity, of the city. The rebuilding ofWappetaw 
Church at or near the village of Mount Pleasant. 

As a preliminary remark, it is proper to state that, some years ago, 
Mrs Jane Keith and Miss Sarah Stevens, ladies' of distinguished piety 
and benevolence, in this city, left a fund, in trust of the Pastor and 
Deacons of the Congregational Church, the income of which was to be 
devoted to supplying the poor and destitute with the gospel. In con- 
formity with" this arrangement, Kcv. G. C. Halleck was engaged last 
Fall as " city missionary." The rapid extension of the city towards 
the northwest, indicated that region as his proper field of labor. There 
he found scores of families who not only had no church connection, 
but attended no church; their children growing up in ignorance of 
religious truth. A room was rented, the children were gathered into a 
Sabbath school, and public services for the congregation were appointed 
for the Sabbath day. The prospects of a permanent location being en- 
couraging, the erection of a new house of worship was suggested A 
lot was purchased at a cost of f 1,000. A neat and commodious little 
church — finished throughout, at a cost of $1,100 — now stands a beacon 
of hope and a conservator of morals' to that growing suburban portion 
of our population. The funds for this building were contributed chiefly 
by a few benevolent individuals coiinected with the Circular Church. 

The Sabbath school has now on its roll about 100 scholars, and a fine 
library has been contributed by the South Carolina Sunday-School 
Union. There are many others, both adults and children, in the 
vicinity who will become members of this congregation and this school. 
Thus has been opened here a new and important Held of usefulness. 

Much is due to the zeal and efforts of Rev. Mr. Halleck in advancing 
this enterprise His health having failed, he was obliged to relinquish 
this undertaking. We are happy to learn, however, that his place is 
now filled by our excellent brother, Eev. W. P. Gready, a native of 



1800-1810.] THK RESUI/IS, 33 

this city, and a son of tlie church under whose auspices this enterprise 
was commenced. We commend it to the Icind regards and fervent 
prayers of Christ's followers. 

The numerical .streng-th of this church in 1802 was: white 
members, 239; black, 166— total, 405. In 1806, whites, 256; 
blacks, 286 — total, 542. Six whites and nineteen persons of 
color added during the year. For sime years 
we find no satisfactory statistics of this church, but in De- 
cember, 18 10, there were 280 white members, and 235 
colored members, making a total of 515 in the mimbership 
of this church. Records of the Congregational Association, 

" The Imdepende.nt or Congreg.\tional Church worship- 
ping AT VVappetaw, in Christ's Church Parish," was mod- 
elled upon the same platform with that in Charleston. Its 
confession of faith is expressed throughout in nearly the same 
words. 

" In matters of Church Government," thev say, " we hold 
it to be an inalienable right as a Christian Church to govern 
ourselves in such manner as to us appears most expedient 
and best .suited to our circumstances, without control in eccle- 
siastical matters from any man or set of men ; nevertheless, 
in difficult cases, we think it prudent to ask advice of such 
Protestant Churches and Ministers, as we may judge proper." 

■' As we profess not to confine ourselves to elect Pastors 
from any one denomination of Protestant Christians, if it 
should so happen that the Minister of our choice should have 
different opinions of Church government from that we hold, 
he shall be at full liberty to follow his own judgment in all 
matters which concern himsilf only ; provided lie makes no 
atternpt to introduce into the Church any of the particular 
modes of the denomination to w^liich he belongs ; for the 
more effectual prevention of which it shall be a standing form 
in all our calls to Ministers, that they accept the charge of this 
Church according to the constitution thereof" These arti- 
cles are the same word for word in the constitution of the 
two Churches, and it is further declared in both, that " The 
denomination of this Church, the mode of performing Divine 
service therein, as at present practiced, and the government 
thereof by its own members and supporters, shall forever re- 
main unalterable, and no other part shall be altered but by the 
concurring voice of two-thirds of the members and supporters 
thereof" Both Churches have Deacons '' to provide the neces- 
3 



34 THE CHURCH AT WAPPETAW. [1800-1810. 

sary articles for Communion, to serve the communicants, to 
receive charitable contributions, and to dispose of the same 
among the helpless poor of the congregations." Both have 
Wardens, twoor four, to collect the pew rents, to keep in 
repair the Chuich and Church Yard, and to attend to other 
temporalities, and to procure supplies to the pulpit, with the 
approbation of the Deacons, when opportunity will not admit 
of taking the sense of the Church. 

This Church still enjoyed the labors of the Rev. Daniel 
McCalla, D. D., for whose service and eventful life, pages 462 
e( seg., and 505 of our first volume, may be consulted, and 
should be, if it is desired that a connected view of his char- 
acter and history be obtained. 

For it is one of the infelicities of the plan wc have adopted 
that the different portions of the lives of our ministers are 
distributed according to the epochs into which we have 
thought it best for other reasons that our history should be 
divided. Dr. McCalla was honored with the degree of D. D., 
from the College of South Carolina, in 1808. But he was 
then approaching the termination of life. He died on the 6th 
of April, \_South Carolina Gazette, in May, Sprague's Annals, 
III, 320,] 1809, in great peace, and in the joyful confidence 
of a better life, having been pa.stor of this Church for twenty 
years. 

The following obituary too, covers briefly his entire his- 
tory : 

"Died on the 6th instant (April, 1809), in the 6ist year of 
his age, the Rev. Daniel McCalla, D. D., for 21 years pastor 
of the Independent or Congregational Church in Christ 
Church Parish, S. C. 

To eulogise the dead can neither confer merit on the un- 
deserving nor add to the lustre of excellent endowments in 
the worthy. But when men of distinguished eminence die, 
to record their character is but a just tribute to their worth 
and a reasonable compliance with public expectation. Few 
men are better entitled to encomium than the subject of this 
paper. Born* of most excellent and pious parents, he was 
early instructed by them in the principles of the Christian 
religion, and attended on this species of instruction with un- 
common expansion of mind and great seriousness of reflec- 

* He was born at Nesbamiuy, Pa., in 1748. 



1800-1810.] DEATH OF DR. M'CALI.A. 35 

tion. He received the rudiments of his educatioa at the 
grammar school ia Foggs-manor, Pennsylvania, under the 
direction of the Rev. John Blair, where he acquired a taste 
for classical learning, which did honor to his preceptor, and 
displayed the opening of a refined and manly genius. At 
this place he was also distinguished for his early piety, and 
wa.s admitted to the communion of the Church in the 13th 
year of his age. When properly qualified he was removed to 
Princeton, where hy intense application his constitution was 
endangered, and parental interference became necessary to 
prevent his falling a .sacrifice to the ardor of his mind. In 
1766 he finished his course at college, and was honored with 
the degree of Bachelor of Arts with the reputation of extra- 
ordinary attainments. Being now only in his 18th year, Mr. 
McCalla was prevailed upon by the solicitations of several 
respectable and literary characters in Philadelphia to open an 
academy in that place for the instruction of youth in languages 
and science. In this useful employment he acquitted him- 
self with honor and with general approbation. In the mean- 
time, in addition to his favorite studies of theology and belles 
letters, he made himself acquainted with the .science of 
medicine and the collateral branches of literature, and ob- 
tained a critical knowledge of the French, Spanish and Italian 
languages. On the 8th of July, '.Jjg, he was licensed to 
preach the Gospel and received the testimonials of the Second 
Presbytery of Philadelphia of their high approbation. His 
popular talents soon attracted the attention of several con- 
gregations who wished to obtain his residence among them 
as pastor. He gave the preterence to the United Churches of 
New Providence and Charleston in Pennsylvania, and was 
ordained their minister in 1774. In this situation he preached 
to great acceptance till the commencement of the American 
Revolution when a new field opened for the exercise of his 
eloquence, and he became peculiarly useful in directing the 
views and confirming the patriotism of many others as well 
as those of his own congregations. After the commence- 
ment of hostilities, when the troops under the command of 
Gen. Thompson were ordered to Canada, at the solicitation of 
,several officers he was appointed by Congress to the chap- 
laincy to attend that corps. His opportunities for ministerial 
usefulness however were not equal to his wishes. For soon 
after his arrival in Canada he was made prisoner in company 



36 DEATH OI^ DR. m'cALLA. [1800-1810. 

with Thompson and .several of his officers at Trois Riviers. 
After several months confinement on board ot a loathsome 
prisonship he was permitted to return lo his friends on parole 
and was restored to his congres^ations in the latter end of 
1776. But the tranquility he enjoyed here was not long till it 
was interrupted by an order issued by the commander of 
the British army then in Philadelphia for apprehending him 
on a pretense of his having violated his parole in praying for 
his country. He had timely notice of this order and returned 
to Virginia. Having received information of his release from 
parole by an exchange of prisoners he returned to the uncon- 
trolled office of his ministry and took charge of a respectable 
Academy in Hanover County. Btit it pleased the head of 
the Church by a train of providences to remove him once more 
to a station better suited to iiis inclinations in Christ Church 
Parish where in undisturbed retirement he might pursue his 
beloved studies and indulge his amp'e mind in inquisitive 
research. Through liis whole residence in this country, 
though other subjects occupied a portion of his regard, his 
attention was principally directed to the sacred scriptures. 
He read them diligently in the originals and in the several 
languages into which they have been translated; collected 
and compared the various readings from many authorities and 
had it in design, had life been spared him, to have digested his 
remarks and arranged them in an order which would have 
rendered them useful to posterity. But infinite wisdom 
determined otherwise. An afflictive providence in the death, at 
the age of twenty-six, of a most amiable, excellent and dutitul 
daughter, an only child, the wife of Dr. John R. Witherspoon, 
accelerated the event, which Irequent attacks on a constitu- 
tion already almost exhausted by protracted disease must 
' soon have been biought to pass. He bore the affliction with 
exemplaiy submission and while he felt, he blessed the hand 
that laid the stroke upon him. In religion he found resources 
sufficient to support his spirit, but not sufficient to fortify his 
enfeebled frame against the power of disease. In calm sub- 
mission to the paternal will of God he met the King of 
Terrors with the composure and submission of a Chri-stian, 
and sweetly resigned his soul into the arms of the Saviour, in 
whom he had long placed an unswerving confidence. 

Dr. McCalla was in person of a graceful figure, polite, ea.sy 
and engaging in his manners, entertaining and improving in 



1800-1810.] DEATH OF DJl. m'cALLA. 37 

his conversation, of S lively fancy and a generous heart; of 
unfettered liberality and undissembled candor.' He was easy 
of access; a friend to mankind; but peculiarly attached to 
men of science and religion. His powers of mind were equal 
to his piety and benevolence. He justly held a conspicuous 
place in the foremost rank of learned and good men. He whs 
a profound scholar, combining the wisdom of antiquity with 
the refinement of modern literature. In biblical learning, 
criticism, and sacred history, he was exceeded fcy none. As 
a divine his theological opinions were founded solely on the 
authority of the Scriptures, and without servile attachments 
to party distinctions of any name, he professed himself a 
moderate Calvinist. , On the subject of Church government he 
was liberal; but thought, says the writer from whom we quote, 
" the popular plan of Congregational Churches the most con- 
sonant to apostolic and primitive practice, and best fitted to 
' promote the interests of. piety and religion. 

"As a. preacher the eloquence of his manner, the perspicuity 
of his style, the abundant variety of his information, enforced 
by a manly and almost unequaled eloquence, at once charmed, 
convinced and interested. The subject of his pulf)it addresses, 
never uninteresting, seldom speculative, were always calcu- 
lated to inform the understanding and improve the heart. To 
liave been languid or unbenefitted under his ordinary preacli- 
ing would have evidenced great insensibility or great 
depravity. 

"As a teacher of youth he had a peculiar facility of com- 
municating the knowledge with which he was so copiously 
endowed, and the peculiar happiness of commanding obedi- 
ence and respect without severity or hauteur. As a man of 
piety and virtue, with as few infirmities as usually fall to the 
lot of good men in the present world, his example in every 
department of life was worthy of imitation, and displayed a 
rectitude of mind which could only result from perfect 
integrity of principle. His loss to the Church, to the partner 
of his life, to his friends and country is unspeakable. 'Well 
done, good and faithful servant," and "a mansion in Heaverj,is 
his reward." — -Soiitii Carolina Gazette. 

Dr. McCalla published a sermon at th-e ordination of James 
Adams in 1799. In 1810 two volumes of his works edited 
by his son-in-law. Dr. John R. Witherspoon, were published 
with notices of his life by Dr. Hollingshead. These volumes 



38 DORCHESTER AND BEACH HILI^. [1800-1810. 

contain nine sermons on different subjects; Remarks on the 
"Age of Reason," by Thomas Paine, over the signature of 
"Artenias ;" Remarks on Griesbach's Greek Testament ; An 
Essay on the Excellency and Advantages of the Gospel ; Re- 
marks on the Theatre and Public Amusements, in thirteen num- 
bers; Hints on Education.infourleen numbers; the Sovereignty 
of the People, in twelve numbers; a Fair Statement and 
Appendix to the same in eighteen numbers, containing an 
address to Pre.sident Adams ; Servility of Prejudice Displayed, 
in nine numbers ; Federal Sedirion and Anti-democracy, in 
six numbers ; a Vindication of Mr. Jefferson, in two numbers; 
and the Retreat, a poem. 

The Congregational Church of Dorchester and Beach 
Hill. Of the restoration of the church edifice, probably the 
oldest now standing in South Carolina, and the revival of the 
church organization after the Revolution we have made men- 
tion, Vol. I. p. 566.* The Rev. James S. Adams, who was 
one of the original members of the Congregational Associa- 
tion of South Carohna, remained in charge of this Church 
until the 5th of March, 1805, when he resigned on account of 
declining health. During his ministry of .six years he had been 
"greatly beloved and eminently successful in the work of the 
ministry. But the loss o,t his first wife and children, as was 
believed through the insalubrity of his situation, and his own 
very feeble health, induced his return to the healthful air of 
his native hills, in York District where he was born. His 
resignation was reluctantly accepted by the Congregation, 
who in a letter highly complimentary to him, signified their 

*Dec. 1, 1800. The Congregational Church of Dorchester and Beach 
Hill was first organized and the churches used alternately for public 
worship about A. D., 1700. The first, of brick, now stands in the Parish 
of St. George, Dorchester, on a tract of ninety-five acres. The other, of 
wood, wa^ (destroyed long since by fire or material decay and was on 
another parcel of land, of ninety-five acres in the Parish of St Paul. 
This is the land given to Trustees, of whom Dr. ^tevens, deceased, 
was the last survivor. By the removal of most part of the worshippers- 
with their minister, Kev. John Osgood, about forty years ago, said 
churches have been neglected, and fallen into a decayed state, and for 
BoiAe time past, no worship of any kind has been regularly carried on 
in the Parish of St George, Dorchester. The petition for the Act of 
Incorpuration also speaks of the said two tracts and one-twenty-sixth 
part of undivided land around Dorchester, given in trust for said 
Church. The records in 1802 speak of the fourth payment of Madam 
Fenwick's legacy as received, and the fifth in 1803, another in 1805, and 
so on in 1816, 1818. 



] 800-1810] MIDWAY CHURCH, GA. 39 

appreciation of his services and their regret at the separation. 
Mr. Adams was reported among the absentees at the meet- 
ings of the Association until early in 1803. He had addressed 
them on the 26th of November, 1808, from Lincoln County, 
N. C, requesting a dismission from their body, giving reasons 
for his absence since his removal from the Lower Country. 
His reasons were sustained and his request was granted. The 
Church then called the Rev. B. M. Palmer, pastor at Beaufort, 
who must have visited them, as there is evidence that $2J 
were paid him for services, Failing in this application they 
request Dr. Hol'ingshead, June, 1805, to aid them in their 
efforts to secure the labors of a settled minister, offering a 
salary of ^860. They request, Dec. 30, Rev. Mr. Mcllhenny 
to serve tliem, and he consents to do so [i8o5] as long as he 
shall remain in that vicinity. The number of members in tlie 
Dorchester Qhurch in i804was twenty-six, white; sixteen, 
black ; total, 42. The church received the fourth payment 
from Madam Fenwick's Trust Fund [see Vol L, p. 569,] in 
1802 and the fifth in 1805. 

■ Historically related to this is The Congregational 
Church of Midway, Liberty County, Ga., which migrated 
from Dorchester, S. C, in 1752-54, (Vol. I., p. 268, 269, 
376, 377,) had enjoyed the labors of the Rev. Abiel Holmes, 
afterwards D. D. In May, 1784, Mr. Holmes being in 
South Carolina, and the Midway Cliurch learning of his 
intention of entering the ministry, made application to hitn to 
preach for them one year. He consented to their proposal, 
and in the following August commenced his ministerial labors 
among them. Li June, 1785, being about to return to New 
England, he was solicited by the Church and congregation to 
receive ordination and to become their pastor. For this pur- 
]iose he was ordained at New Haven on the 15th of September, 
1785. The ordination took place in the College Chapel the 
day after Commencement in connection with the Concio ad 
Clerum, wliich was delivered on that occasion. He returned 
to Georgia in November following, and assumed the pastor- 
ship of Midway Church. His health becotuing impaired he 
went to the North in the Sumner of 1786, and, instead of 
returning to his charge in the Autumn, as he had intended, he 
made an arrangement with his friend, Mr. Jedediah Morse, 
afterwards Rev. Dr. Jedediah Morse, then a tutor in Yale Col- 
lege, by which an exchange of duties and place was effected. 



40 STONEY CREEK. [] 800-1810. 

Mr. Morse resigning his place as tutor, and Mr. Holmes tak- 
ing /«« place in the tutor.ship. Mr. Morse was ordained on 
the 9th of November, and the next day set out for his place 
of destination in Georgia. Here he remained about six 
months, during which time overtures were made to him of 
settlement from James Island, Sunbury and Savannah.. Mr. 
Holmes having held the tutorship for a year, returned to his 
charge in November, 1787, and continued in great harmony 
with his people until 1791, when ill health compelled him to 
leave the State, though he always remembered with great 
affection the Church and society at Midway. He was suc- 
ceeded in December, 1791, by C\rus Gildersleeve, who first 
preached as a licentiate, was ordained by the Presbytery of 
New Brunswick, in 1792, and continued in this pastoral 
charge till 181 1. 

The Independent Presbyterian Church of Stbney Ckeek. 
This Church was fully organized with pastor, elders and dea- 
cons, ordained with prayer and laying on of hands, and held 
that "such churches as have not officers so ordained are dis- 
orderly, there being something still wanting'; but atth^same 
time believed that every particular Churcii of Christ is inde- 
pendent; and that no one Church hath any priority orsuper- 
intendency above or over another." It therefore was not 
represented in Presbytery. Its pastor, however. Rev. James 
Gourlay, was a member of the Presbytery of Charleston, in- 
corporated in 1790. He continued Pastor of this Church till 
his death, Jan. 24ih, 1803.* 



*The following is his epitaph : "Sacred to the memory of the Rev. 
James Gourlay, who presided as Minister about thirty years over the 
congregation of Stoney Creek Church, much beloved by his flock, and 
esteemed by all who had the pleasure of his acquaintam-e. He was a 
native of ^cotland, and departed this life on the 24th of Jan., 1803. 

This stone is erected by his affectionate congrejation as a memorial of 
their respect for his long and faithful labors among them, in the Gospel 
of .Jesus Christ." M6S. of Rev. Robert M. Adams. 

There is found among Mr. Gourlay's papers the following project of 
an Association for the promotion of religion ; but whether it ever went 
into operation we have no knowledge. 

The subscribers, ministers and representative^ of certain congregations 
of Christians in Beaufort District, conceiving that by uniting together for 
the purpose of religious improvement and the extension of the Redeem- 
er's Kingdom, they may obtain so desirable an end, do agree to form 
ourselves into a society for these general purposes, as well as for any 



18O0-181O.] EEV. JAMES GOUKLAV. 41 

As far as appears from the records of the Cluirch there was 
no pastor or supply for tlie next four j'ears, when the Rev. 
Robert Montgomery Adams fom Scotland was called and 
settled. Mr. Adams, as appears from his papers, was en: 
gaged as a student, preparing for the ministry at Edinboro' 
from the year 1794 to April, 1800. He was tutor in the 
family of H. Gavin Park for over three years, as was usual 
with can(hdates for the ministry, who needed the income such 
services procured. The certificates of- his Theological Pro- 



other which may condiire to the particular benefit of our congregations, 
and to be governed by the following Rules and Regalations : 

1st. This society shall be called the Protestant Union and shall consist 
of the pastors'and congregations of any Christian Protestant denomina- 
tion, whose tenets agree in tlie main, with what is mentioned in the 
following Rule : 

2d. We agree to admit ipto this Society any Congregation whose 
■articles of faith are, the Unity of the Godhead in three distinct sub- 
sistencies, Father, Son and Holy Spirit; the necessity of Divine Ctrace 
to renew tlie heart, and the all' sufficiency of the atonement, mediation 
and righteousness of the God-man, Christ Jesus ; and in the operations 
of the Holy Sjiirit, as, also, of the absolute necessity of holines.s in lieart 
and life without which no one can see God. We reject no one from 
our Society upon the account of any differences in rites anil ceremonies 
as far as these may be implied or expressed in the Holy Si-riptures. 

3d_ The Society shall have one general meeting in the year at such 
time and place as sliall be agreed upon at each meeting. 

4. The Society shall consist of the Pastor of each Church or Congrega- 
tion, and of one or more lay delegates, but not exceeding thref. 

5. The objects of the meeting shall be to enquire into the State of 
religion in the bounds of each Congregation, to settle disputes that may 
arise between the Pastor and his people, but in this respect only as an 
advisory council; To as.sist vacant congregations with ministerial ser- 
vices occasionally ; to wati:h over each other in love, and to excite and 
animate one another in i: holy walk and life, and generally and spei-iaby 
all such things relating to church government as mav be brought before 
it. 

6. The meeting of the So-iety shall always begin and end with prayer, 
and these meetings shall never separate without participating together 
in the most Holy Communion of the Lord's Supper, to which all worthy 
communicants of any Protestant Church may be admitted. 

7th A Moderator and Secretary shall bo chosen at each annual meet- 
ing for that period and to remain in office only during the meeting. 
Hi.s power.-i are to observe order in the transactions of the Society, to 
put the questions, &c. The Secretary is to Iceep a fair account of the 
minutes, &c. 

8th. At the opening of the annual meeting an appropriate sermon shall 
be preached by one of the pastors, and the meeting close with the same 
by another, besides intermediate discourses agreeably to circumstances. 



42 REV. ROBT. M. ADAMS. 1800-1810.] 

fcssoi's yet exist which reveal the care taken by the Church 
of Scotland in the training of their ministers.* 

He was licensed by the Presbytery of Ayr, September 30, 
1801. The certificate of his licensure is as follows: 

At Ayr, the tliirtieth day of September, one thousand, eight hundred 
and one years. Which day the Presbytery of Ayr, having taken into 
oonsidetation, that Mr. Robert Adamj, student in Divinity, after passing 
the requisite course of study at the University, had laid before them 
satisfactory testimonials from the Professor oi' Divinity, respecting his 
proficiency, his character and his having delivered the usual Discourses ; 
that their Committee of private e.Kamination had reported him as qual- 
ified to be entered on public probationary trials and that the concur- 
rence of the Synod thereto having, in consequence of intimation to 
Presbyteries, been obtained in due form, Mr. Robert Adams had accord- 
ingly been admitted to said trials, all of which he having gone through ; 
Did on a review of his whole appearances declare their satisfaction with 
the specimens he had given of his qualifications to be a licentiate of this 
Church, and authorize their Moderator to license him. Whereupon 
the questions pre.scribed b\' the 10th, Act of Assemby, 1711, were put 
to him, to a'l which he gave satisfying answers ; also the Act, 17-59, 
against Simoniacal practices was i-ead to him, and then he did iudicially 
subscribe the Formula. After which the said Mr. Robert Adams was 
licensed by the foresaid Presbytery to preach the Gospel of Christ and 
exercise his gifts as a Probationer for the Holy Ministry, and he is 
.allowed an extract of this his license in common form when called for. 
Extracted by WILLIAM PEEBLES, Pres Clk. 

He preaclied at Camregan from 1801 10x804. Froin 1804 
to 1806 he was assistant Minister to Dr. Gordon at Sorn. A 
new society was formed in this parish which called him as 
their minister on a salary of ;£'iOO Sterling, whose house of 
worship was to bs in Sorn or Cattune. Not wishing to divid.e 
ihe parish he prudently declined this offer. Migrating to 
America, after some short time spent as an assistant teacher 

*Edinburoh, 25th April, 1800.— That Mr. Robert Adams was enrolled 
as a student of Divinity here in the two last sessions; that he attended 
the hall for a ve.ty short time on each of them ; that he delivered a 
Lecture and Exegesis, both of which I approved as certified by 

A HUNTER, S. T. P. 

"That the bearer Mr. Robert Adams hath been enrolled here as a 
student of Theology for four sessions, 1794, 'j, 6 and 7 ; That he attended 
the Theological Lectures so assiduously through the three former ses- 
sions as not to have been noted ab.sent in any one of them above eight 
or nine times, and that in the last he was present for the first month, 
but seldom afterward ; that he delivered a homily during the cur- 
rency of these sessions, and that so far as is known to me his behaviour 
hath been in all respects unblamable and suitable to his profession as 
i^ertified. ROBERT FINDLAY, S. S. Theo. Prof. 

Glassgow, Nov. 18, 1798. 



] 800-1810.] STOREY CREEK. 43 

under Dr. BiiLst in the College at Charleston,* he became 
pa.stor at Stoney Creek in Prince William Parish, Beaufort 
Di.strict, South Carolina, in 1807. 

Mr. Adams, in a letter to his parents, speaks pleasantly of 
his new home: " In my letters of last summer," says he, "I 
gave you an imperfect description of this part of the United 
States. The Parish of whicii I am minister is reckoned one 
of the most wealthy and beautiful of the whole State. Many 
of lier gentlemen are possessed of an immense number of 
slaves, and, of consequence, very ample landed property. 
Their crops of cotton, rice, indigo, and others, are very abun- 
dant. Their mansions sometimes splendid, with every ele- 
gance and luxury. Some of the most respectable and worthy 
of them are members of my church, and elders of the congre- 
gation. The funds of the church are sufficient to pay their 
clergyman and defray every necessary expense. I have 
enjoyed as good health since I came to America as ever I did 
in Europe. Last summer my congregation gave me leave of 
absence five months, and will do the same this summer, by 
which lime I shall be enured to the climate." After writing 
a letter to Rev. B. M. Palmer, of Beaufort, (afterwards D D.,) 
to secure him lodgings there, where he had spent the preced- 
ing summer, he alters his mind, resolving to spend the sum- 
mer at Rock Spring, in the neighborhood of which he had a 
church erected, and where he regulacly officiates. "At Rock 
Spring and at there are twelve families, who make 

these places their summer residence, and who are the most 
wealthy and respectable in St. Luke's Parish. The society 
at Rock Spring is certainly the most pleasant and amiable I 
have ever met wiih in the course of my life. They are all 
people of good information, some of them extremely rich, and 
their sole occupation during the Summer months is to enjoy 
themselves. They exliibit human felicity in its fairest forms. 
The public dinners are both frequent and splendid, and every 
evening, Sundays excepted, are devoted to the cliarms of 
music or the pleasures of conversation. If rational enjoy- 
ment, combined with elegance of taste and agreeableness of 
manners, is anywhere to be found, it is at Rock Spring. I 
administer the Lord's Supper at my new church on the second 
Sabbath in September, and will be assisted by two Presbyte- 

*Historiral Sketch of the Charleston College, Vol. XII. American 
Quarterly Eegister, p. 168. 



44 STONEY CREKK. [1800-18,10. 

rian clergymen, Mr. Beck and Mr. Crawford. I do not know 
if you have heard of Mr. Crawford. He is pos.se.ssed of very 
ample property, of very respectable character, and I am toKi 
i.s a man of talents, but his delivery is not agreeable. He and 
Mr. Beck have a church about thirty (?) miles from Rock 
Spring, where they alternately officiate, without salary, as 
tliey are both independent. J think it would be an object 
worthy our attention to have these gentlemen members of our 
Presbytery, which I believe they very much wish." There 
then follow some remarks about Dr. Kollock, with certain 
-speculations as to the strength of Presbytery, (if they had the 
new church built for him, Prince William's, Saltkehatchie and 
Pon Pon together,) with some few gentlemen in North Caro- 
lina,* and should meet now in North Carolina and now in 
Georgia. Mr. Adams was accustomed to write the first draft 
of his letters, mingled up with snatches of sermons, in a vei y 
obscure hand, while his careful writing was plain, and often 
beautiful. We do not know t© whom this letter was ad- 
dressed, probably to Dr. Buist, nor are we certain that we 
have rendered every word correctly. 

Notwithstanding the glowing description, colcur de rose, 
above given of society in Prince William's and St. Luke's, he 
confesses to another friend that he " has had to contend with 
those who blasphemed the name of the Divine Majesty, vio- 
lated the sanctity of the ffoly Sabbath, and opposed or neg- 
lected the worship due to His most holy name in the family." 

His lists of communicants, found scattered among his 
papers, embrace names of the most respectable families of the 
neighborhood, as Postell, Wigg, Baker, Kensey, Jenkins, 
Taylor, Main, Farr, Bowman, Roberts, F'orshae, Pilot, North, 
Neufville, Webb, Cuthbert, Doylie, Hutson, Hutcheson, 
Findlay, Richardson, Fraser, Love, Gadsby, Chancey, Davi-i, 
John-itiine, Frampton, McLeod, Heyward, Cuthbert, Lamb- 
right, Porchcr, Metier, Ferguson, Pringle, Getch, Sliepheard, 
Morrison, Gilbert, some of whom 'may have been occasional 
'Communicants from other neighboring churches 

At this point a report of the hiring of the pews shows the 
following names as the supporters of the church: James 
Bowman, Frederick Fraser, Charles Love, J. R. Pringle, J. E. 

*Dr. Buist had written to him JIarch 24, 1808: " Two Minisiers from 
North Carolina have written to me, proposing to be admitted members 
of our Presbytery." 



1800-1810.] COJ^GKEGATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 4 5 

McPherson, John A. Oglevie, J. A. Cuthbeit, A. F Gregorie, 
Robt. Reid, Wm. Heyvvard, Jno. Frampton, Jno. McLc(id, 
Wm. M. Hiitson, Kenney J. Jtnkin.s, Chri.stophcr T. Daniier, 
W. H. Williamson, J. Lockwood, J. S. Taylor, Mrs. Maine;, 
Dr. Richardson, Ed. Nuiifville, Jno. Izd. Wright, R. Brown, 
Josiah Heyward, By Dr. Ramsay, the Stony Creek church 
is represented as not only Presbyterian, but as connected 
with the Presbytery of Charleston, of which its minister, 
Robert M. Adams, was a n)ember. (See liis History, Vol 11, 
p. 25, published in 1808.) 

THE CONGKEGATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

An application made towards the close of the year 1800, 
by the Indepen'dent Congregational Church in ilie neigh- 
borhood of Waynesboko', Burke Co., Georgia, to the 
mil-listers of the < :ongres.Tational Churches of Charleston and 
its vicinity, for the ordination of a pastor, gave origin to the 
" Congregational Association of South Carolina," which was 
organized on the 25th of March, 1 801, and remained in ex- 
istence for iwenty-one years. The circumstances, as set 
forth in the first pages of their records, are as follows : 

"Application having been made some time in the latter end 
of the year 1800. by Mr. Loami Floyd, a candidate for the 
ministry, to the Rev. Dr. Hollingshead and the Rev. Dr. 
Keith, of Charleston, and to the Rev. Mr. Adams, of Dor- 
chester, to concur in setting him apart, by solemn ordination, 
to the sacred office; and, also, to as.sist him in soliciting the 
concurrence and aid of such ministers in the neighboihood of 
Cliarleston, on the solemn occasion, as they might think 
proper to have associated with them in this important trans- 
action ; application also having been made, by letter, from 
the Independent Congregational Church in the vicinity of 
Waypesboro', Burke Count)', in the State of Georgia, to the 
ministers of the Independent Congregational Churches in and 
and near Charleston, to set aside Mr. Loami Floyd to the 
ministerial ofifice, that he might more effectually exercise the 
functions of his ministry among them; the above named 
gentlemen, to whorn these applications were first presented, 
agreed to take the advice of the Rev. Mr. McCalla, of the 
Independent or Congregational Cliurch of Christ Church, and 
the Rev.- Mr. Price, of the Presbyterian Church of James' 
Island; and, if the way should be clear in other respects, to 



46 CONGREGATIONAL ASSOCIATION. [1800-1810. 

request their attendance witli theni at the solemnity, at such 
time and place as may be aijreed upon hy them jointly. 

" In the meantime, the Rev. Dr. Hollingshead, having con- 
ferred on the subject of Mr. Floyd's application, gave it to 
him as their opinion, that, though they could not determine 
wliat might be the mind of the ministers in the vicinity who 
ought to oe consulted on the occasion, yet it would hi proper, 
before any regular proceedings could be had in the business, 
that Mr Floyd should furnish them with a more particular 
account of the church of which he is invited to take the pas- 
toral charge ; and that, as Mr. Floyd is a stranger to them, 
and has belonged to another connection, it would be proper 
he should produce a certificate of his good standing with that 
connection at the time of his witlidrawing from them. 

Mr. Floyd, accordingly, on the 19th of January, 1801, 
presented to Dr. Hollingshead and Dr. Keith a certificate of 
his not having been accused of any immorality when he with- 
drew from the Methodists, signed by John Garven, Secretary 
of their Conference, held at Camden, dated January 6th, 1801. 
This certificate being satisfactory, invitations were sent to the 
Rev. Dr. McCalla, the Rev. Thomas N. Price, and the Rev. 
James S. Adams, requesting their attendance in Charleston 
on the 25th of March, if that day should not be inconvenient 
to them, to proceed to Mr. Floyd's examination, and, if ap- 
proved of, to set liini apart by prayer and imposition of hands 
to the work of the ministry. 

Agreeably to this invitation, the following gentlemen, the 
Rev. Dr. Hollingshead, the Rev. Dr. Keith, the Rev. Messrs. 
James S. Adams and Thomas H. Price, met at the Rev. Dr. 
HoUingshead's, on the 2Stii day of March, 1801, and they 
agreed to form themselves into an Association ; to assume the 
style and title of The Congregational Association of South 
Carolina, and tlit Rev. Dr. Hollingshead being appointed Mod- 
erator, opened the Association with prayer, and Mr. Price was 
chosen Scribe. 

The following account of the Independent Congregational 
Church, near Waynesboroiigh, was laid before the Associa- 
tion : 

'* We, the underwritten, a Committee of the Independent 
Congregational Society, in the vicinity of Waynesborough, 
Burke County, Georgia, being desirous to have tlie gospel 
preached among us, together with the administration of all 
its ordinances, do represent our situation to the Rev. William 



1800-1810.] CONGREGATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 47 

HoUingsliead, D. D,, the Rev. Isaac S. Keith, D, D.,the Rev. 
Daniel McCalla, M. A., the Rev. James Adams, and the Rev. 
Thomas Price, and the other Minister.s of their vicinity, whom 
they may think pro[)er to consult on the occasion." 

" On the eleventh day of August, in the year of our Lord 
1790, a charter of incorporation for our congregation was 
obtained from His Excellency Edward Telfair, Governor of 
the State, who had been authorized by an Act of the General 
Assembly, passed the 23d day of December, 1789, to grant 
such charters of incorporation." 

"On the 20th of Se[)tember, 1790, Mr. Henry G. Caldwell 
was received as minister, and on the 3d day of March, 1794, 
he resigned the appointment. Since that time we have had 
no established minister, or regular performance of Dii-ine 
worship. In the Spring of 1799 Mr. Floyd was introduced to 
the congregation by one of its members, but Mr. Floyd being 
at that time engaged as an itinerant preacher, could not make 
a permanent settlement, and only visited us at convenient 
intervals. He was requested then to become the pastor of 
our congregation, but his engagements prevented him from 
giving us any decisive answer. In January, 1800, he returned 
to Georgia, and expressed a wish to render us his ministerial 
services. The congregation made arrangements for his sup- 
port, and a regular ministry, we hope, is only wanting to 
organize the congregation in a proper manner." 

" Exc'ted some time past by the same desire which now 
prevails among us, we addressed the Ministers of the Inde- 
pendent Congregational Church, in Charleston and its vicinity, 
requesting the ordination of Mr. Floyd. We return you our 
thanks for your attention to our request. As you, however, 
thought it not sufficiently explicit, we are willing to give all 
the satisfactory information on the subject in our power. We 
hope that what has been said will merit your attention, and 
that our recommendation of Mr. Floyd will justify his being 
ordained, and fenable him to perform the various ministerial 
functions as pastor of our congregation." 

(Signed,) " DAVID ROBINSON. 

"JOSHUA E. WHITE. 
"WILLIAM DOUGLASS, 
"J. WHITEHEAC. 
"AMOS WHITEHEAD, 
"ALEX'R CARTER. 
•■GEO. POYTRESS." 



48 CONGREGATIONAL ASSOCIATION. [18uO-lS10. 

Mr. Floyd was ordained, in pursuance of these proceedings, 
in the Independent (or Congregational) Church, in Archdale 
Street, March 26, 1801, Dr. Hollingshead preaching the Ser- 
mon from Romans x., 15. Mr. Adams offering the ordination 
prayer, and Dr. Keith delivering the charge to the pastor. A 
letter vvas'addressed to the Ciiurch in Burke County, inform- 
ing them of the fact, and of the hope the Association enter- 
tained that his mmistry among them would be abundantly 
blessed. 

At a subsequent meeting the following resolutions were 
adopted for their better regulation, till such time as a more 
ample Constitution should be adopted, (pp. 17-19): 

Resolved, i. That this .'\ssociation presumes not to exercise 
any authority over the Churches with wMch its members are 
in connexion, it being our opmion -that every Church has a 
rij^ht inherent in itself to be governed, on the principles of the 
Gospel, by its own members. 

2. Tliat a perfect equality be preserved among the members 
of the Association. 

3. That the stated meetings of the Association be held on 
■ the second Tuesdays in May and December, at such places as 

m,iy be agreed unon at each time of adjournment. 

4. That a Moderator and Scribe be chosen at every stated 
meeting. 

5. That nvtxy meeting of the Association be opened and 
concluded with [iraytT, and that the business before the AssOt 
ciation be attended to in order. 

6. That the object of the Association being humbly to en- 
deavor to promote the Kingdom of Christ in the world, the 
members agree, as far as may appear expedient to each one, to 
report the state of religion in the society with which he is 
cnnnected, and that means be proposed for promoting the 
interests of religion, nnd mamtaining its life and power in our 
coiigre'^ation. 

■7. That tiie Association also receive and consider applica- 
tions from churches to ordain their ministers. 

8. That the Moderator, with the concurrence of any mem- 
ber, may call an occasional meeting of the Association, when 
they sh.ill think it expedient. 

9. That a fair record be kept of the proceedings of the As- 
sociation, in-a book provided for that purpose, and that there 



KSOO-1810.] CONGREGATIONAL ASSOCIATIOX. 49 

be a stated clerk, who shall h^ve the custody of said book, 
into which he shall transcribe the minutes of the Association, 
and whatever other papers thev' may think proper to insert in 
it, and that siid boik be produced at every meet'ng of the 
Association. 

lo. That the Scribe shall furnish the stated Clerk with a 
correct copy of the minutes from session to session. 

The Rev. Drs. Hollingshead and Keith were appointed a 
committee to suggest a plan for providmg a fund for promot- 
ing the interests of religion. This committes reported that 
there are many indigent and ignorant families in the State, 
and some considerable districts entirely destitute of the Gos- 
pel, which might be benefitted by the well directed exertions 
of a society to be formed for this purpefse; that subscription 
papers should be offered to persons in their own connection ; 
that if a sufficient amount could be raised among their own 
denominations, others should not be solicited. (See also 
Keith's Works, p. 267.) That two objects should be princi- 
pally aimed at, the distribution of books on the most necessary 
subjects of religion, which was all they could probably do at 
first, and when their funds should be sufficiently enlarged, the 
sending out of missionaries to preach the Gospel where people 
were unable or unwilling to support ministers among them- 
selves. Funds were to be raised by annual subscriptions of 
members, by donations of others not members, by charity 
sermons, and by the publication of small tracts, the profits of 
which, though small, might enhance the stock of the society. 
These recommendations of the committee were approved. 
Members were to give five dollars as a donation, and to sub- 
scribe five dollars annually. Some fifty subscribers were soon 
obtained, whose subscriptions would yield ^250 annually; 
.some ^750 were subscribed by members, as donations, and 
some ^530 by persons not wishii;ig to become members, and 
thus the projected society was ushered into existence on the 
1 2th of January, 1802. 

The original members of Congregational Association of 
South Carolina, at its formation, in 1801, were the Rev. Wm. 
Hollingshead, D. D., the Rev. Isaac Stockton Keith, D. D., 
The Rev. James S. Adams, and the Rev. Thomas H. Price. 
The Rev. Loami Floyd became a member on his ordination, 
March 26, 1801, and the Rev. B. M. Palmer on the 28th of 
4 



50 CONUKEGATIONAL ASSOCIATION. [1800-1810. 

April, 1804. The Rev. Dis. HoIling.shead and Keith, and the 
Rev. Mr. Price, were originally Presbyterian Ministers, and 
the Rev. Mr. Adams, previous to his ordination, in 1799, was 
a Licentiate of the Presbytery of Orange. 

During this decade the Church in Beaufort re-appears, 
now an Independent or Congregational Church. In our first 
volume it appears as a Presbyterian Church, having its con- 
nection with the old Presbytery of Charleston, (pp. 279, 322, 
400,402,474) 

It is in connection with this church that we first meet with 
the name of B. M. Paltner. He was the fourth of the sixteen 
children of Job Palmer, and his eldest son, and a grandson of 
the Rev. Samuel Palmer, who died in 1775, the only minister 
for forty years, and for most of that time the only physician of 
Falmouth, Mass. Th'e father, Job Palmer, migrated to Charles- 
ton before the War of the Revolution, was exiled by the 
British to Philadelphia, where, in a fortnight after the arrival 
of his parents in that city, B. M. Palmer, the first of that 
name, was born on the 25th of September, 1781. From early 
life Dr. Palmer was equally distinguished for exemplary 
morals and piety, and high talent, and the promise of boyhood 
and youth was fully realized in ripened manhood. He re- 
ceived his school education at the College of Charleston, 
under Rev. Bishop Smith, who then presided over that institu- 
tion, and giaduated at Princeton College, under Dr. Samuel 
Stanhope Smith, greatly indebted to his pastor, Dr. Keith, by 
whose efforts the means of pursuing his education were fur- 
nished. He studied divinity under Drs. Hollingshead and 
Keith, and was licensed on the 7th of June, 1803, by theCon- 
gregatioi^al Association of South Carolina. He preached to 
a Congregational Church, organized m Beaufort, which soon 
sought him as their pastor in the following terms: 

" TO THE REVEREND THE MODERATOR OF THE CONGREttA- 
TIONAL ASSOCIATION OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

" Beaufort, S. C, December 4th, 1803. 

" Reverend Sir and Gentlemen : 

"The Independent or Congregational Church in Beaufort having 
received satisfaction in the ministerial labors of the Rev. Benjamin M. 
Palmer, who was licensed by you lately, and having given him a call, 
unanimously, to undertake the office of Pastor to the 'said Church, 



1800-]810.] B. M. PALMER'S ORDINATION. 51 

request you to ordain him to this offije, agreeably to your for.n? and 
institutions. 

" In behalf of the Church, 

" We are, &c., 

"STEPHEN LAWRENCE, \ n „ 
"JAMES E. B. FINLKY, (" -'^«««''"'» 
" SAMUEL LAWRENCE, Sen., 1 „r , „ 
"JOHN BENTON, '] Wardens" 

Mr. Palmer was ordained, pursuant to this reque.st, at Beau- 
fort, on the 28th of April, 1804. At this time the Church had 
18 white and 2 black members. In 1806 the number of white 
members was 24, of black 6. The Independent Church of 
Beaufort was incorporated December 21, 1804, (Statutes at 
Large, Vol. VIII., p. 223.) 

A " Plan of Union " proposed by the General Association 
of Connecticut in 1801, and adopted by the General Assem- 
bly of the Presbyterian Church in America, to take effect in 
the mixed population of the new settlements, provided, that 
if any Church of the Congregational Order should call a 
Presbyterian mini.ster as their pastor, the Church might still 
conduct its discipline on Congregational principles, the minis- 
ter being subject to his 6wn Presbytery ; any difficulty be- 
tween the minister and, his Church, or any member of it, 
should be referred to the Presbytery to which the minister 
belonged, if both parties should agree to it, otherwise to a 
council, one-half Congregationalists and the other half Pres- 
byterians, mutually agreed upon by the parties. 

Congregations might be composed partly of Presbyterians 
and partly of Congregationalists. They might agree in 
choosing and settling a minister. In this case, the Church 
should choose a Standing Committee from its communicants, 
whose business it should be to call every member to account 
who should conduct himself inconsistently with his Christian 
profession, and give judgment on his conduct. If the person 
condemned be a Presbyterian, he shall have liberty to appeal 
to the Presbytery ; if he be a Congregationalist, he may 
appeal to the body of the male communicants. In the one 
case the decision of the Presbytery shall be final, unless the 
Church appeal to the Synod, or from that to the General 
Assembly. If he be a Congregationalist, he may appeal to 
the body of tlie male communicants, and from this an appeal 
may be made to a mutual council. If said Standing Commit- 



52 PLAN OF UNION. [1800-18UI. 

tee of any Church shall depute one of themselves to attend 
the Presbytery, he may have the same right to sit in Presby- 
tery as a Ruling Elder of the Presbyterian Church. This 
Plan of Union is found in the Assembly's minutes of 1801, 
pp. 221, 224 and in Baird's Digest, p. 555. 

There is a remarkable coincidence of dates between the 
origin of The Congregational Association of South Carolina 
and that of The Plan of Union. The former was organized 
on the 25th of March, 1801, and the Overttire of the General 
Association of the State of Connecticut to the General 
Assemby of the Presbyterian Church of the United States 
bears date in the same year. The Plan of Union was 
adopted by that Assembly on the 29th May, 1801, and was 
ratified by the General Association of Connecticut before the 
meeting of the Assembly in 1802. It remained in. force 
until it was abrogated in 1837, a year memorable in the 
Presbyterian Church in these United States. 

But though these two acts were cotemporaiieous, or nearly 
so, there was this difference, that the Southern organization 
was intended to separate the Congregational element from the 
Presbyterian, by providing a specific organization for the 
former ; while the Northern plan was adapted to accom- 
modate the state of affairs in a newly settled country, so 
that Presbyterians and Congregation alists could be members of 
one and the same Church ; the discipline to be conducted, if the 
party were a Congregationalist, as far as possible after the 
Congregational form, and if a Presbyterian, as far as possible 
in accordance with the form of the Presbyterian Church. 

A good understanding between Congregationalists and 
Presbyterians had existed in earlier times. Of this "the 
Heads of Agreement" drawn up by the ministers of London 
in i6go, for a basis of Union between the two sects, is an 
evidence. Of this, Increase Mather, President or Rector of 
Harvard University, being then in England, was greatly instru- 
mental. The principle of Presbyterianism, of higher and 
lower courts, had also been introduced, in a modified sense, in 
the Saybrook Platform, adopted in Connecticut in 1708, which, 
besides the Association of the pastors of a particular district, 
provided for a Consociation, covering a larger district, to 
which these Associations should report, and the decision of 
which should be final. 



1800-1810.] FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 53 



CPIAPTER III, 

In the preceding chapter we have given such an account as 
we have been able to coinuile of the Independent or Congre- 
gational Churches of the Low Country. We have seen them 
separating themselves more distinctly from their Presbyterian 
brethren and organizing themselves for more independent 
action. We now turn to those Churches more strictly Pres- 
byterian. The first we mention is the French Protestant 
Church of Chakleston, the only survivor of the Huguenot 
Churches of the Low Country or of the States. It had lost its 
house of worsliip, we have seen, vol. I, 570, in the great fire 
of June 13,1796. It was rebuilt in 1800,* but the congrega- 
tion had been dispersed. The Rev. Marin DeTargny, whose 
register begins January, 1805, seems to have ministered to 
the people till 1808. The last entry in his register is in 
November, 1807. From this date to the end of this decade 
the Church was without a pastor. 

The First Presbyterian Church in the city of Charles- 
ton continued to enjoy through the larger part of this decade 
the labors of its beloved pastor, the Rev. Dr. Buist. On the 
28th of October, in the year 1805, he was appointed by the 
Trustees of Charleston College, Principal of that institution. 
He had for years taught a large grammar school, which he 
now removed to the college building. His assistants were a 
Mr. O'Dunovan, of Ireland, the Rev. Robt. M. Adams, of 
Scotland, Mr. Hedley, an English Episcopal Minister, Mr. 
Raphael Bell, afterwards a licentiate of Charleston Presbytery, 
Mr. Assalit, a French teacher, and Mr. (afterwards the Hon.) 
Mitchell King. The plan of the college was to educate boys 
for practical life, or for the learned professions. The course 
marked out for the first class was arranged for nine years, 
that of the second class for eleven years. There were about 
one hundred boys in the various stages of education, none 
of whom graduated under Dr. Buist's administration, no class 
having attained a higher rank than that of Sophomore. Dr. 
Buist had the choice and superintendence of the subordinate 
teachers, confining his own instructions to the highest classes 
which were co-ordinate with those of the college proper. For 

*Daniel Ravenel, 1799 Mills. 



54 EEV. DR. BUIST. [1800-1810. 

this position he was eminently quahfied, both because of his 
own attainii.ents in classical learning and his ideas of college 
discipline. (Am. Quart. Register, vol. XII., p. i68.) Under 
his guidance the college attained a respectability it had not 
acquired before, and if his superintendance could have 
continued longer, it would have passed, ere long, from 
the character of a grammar school which it substantial Ij* 
was, to an institution for the higher branches of learning 
and science. Dr. Buist retained his Scotch notions of Presby- 
terian Church government, but he cautions his friend; Robert 
M. Adams, against 'pushing them too far. ' You know 
enough t'rom your own people," (those of Stoney Creek) he 
says, "to find that we cannot carry the principles of Pre-sby- 
terianism to their full extent in this part of the world; and 
we must rather do what we can, than what we wisli or think 
best." (MS. Letter, Feb. 29, 1808.) It was through him that 
the old Presbytery of Charleston made its overture for union 
with the General Assembly in 1804, "but without connecting 
themselves with the Synod of the Carolinas." (Vol. I, p. 675.) 
The Hon. Mitchell King, to whom he was partial, and who 
was invited by him to occupy a situation as teacher in the 
College, informs us as to his general habits. In his (Dr. 
Buist's) very short absence from the College, his communica- 
tions in respect to its government were ordinarily made to 
him. He owned a farm, about four or five miles from town, 
where he ordinarily spent his Saturday holiday. Thither Mr. 
King sometimes accompanied him, and almost every Satur- 
day he dined with him. " From early life," says Mr. King, 
" he was a great student, and his love of learning and knowl- 
edge seemed to increase with his increasing years. When 
he was first called to the ministry, he composed a great num- 
ber of sermons, which, after his marriage, and with the cares 
of an increasing family, and the labors of conducting an im- 
portant literary institution, he was, in a great measure, 
obliged to continue to iise, His excellent delivery still 
recommended them to his hearers. Had he been spared, 
and enabled to give himself to the composition of new ser- 
mons, it is confidently believed that, with his increased learn- 
ing, and experience, and knowledge, he would have left works 
behind him which the world would not willingly let die. 
The sermons which were published after his death were 
among his early productions, and are by no means to be re- 



1800-1810.] HIS BURIAL. 55 

garded as adequate .specimens of his attainments and abilities 
in the later period of his life. It is hardly necessary to say 
that, with his literary tastes and great diligence, he was a pro- 
ficient in various departments of learning, While he was a 
student at the University, as well as afterwards, he was pas- 
sionately fond of the .study of Greek. I have heard him say 
that, during his college course, he was accustomed frequently 
to start from his sleep and fine himself repeating some favor- 
ite Greek author." 

But the life of Dr. Buist was cut short " in the midst of his 
days." On the 27th of August, 1808, he had invited a friend 
whose wife, with her infant child, was suffering in health, to 
accompany him to his farm, hoping the jaunt might be bene- 
ficial to both. On the way he complained of feeling unwell, 
on the next day, being Sabbath, a physician was sent for, and 
on Wednesday night, August 31st, at half-past 11 o'clock, he 
expired, after an illness of only four days, in the 39th year of 
his age. He was interred in the Scotch Church-yard, in a 
spot of ground he had some time before chosen, attended by 
the Masonic Lodge, the St. Andrew's Society, the congrega- 
tion, the College boys, headed by their Masters, and a num- 
ber of friends. A greater concourse of the citizens has never, 
I understand, been witnessed in this city." (The Letter of 
Clias. E. Rowand to the Rev. Mr. Adams, Rock Spring, near 
Coosahatchie, dated Sept. 14th, 1808.) His funeral service 
was performed by his intimate friend, the Rev. Dr. Furman, 
of the Baptist Church. More elaborate eulogies have been 
pronounced upon him', but we here produce the following 
closing portion of a sermon delivered by Rev. Robert M. 
Adams, of the Stony Creek Church, in the First Pres- 
byterian Church, Charleston, probably on a communion 
occasion, some short time after his death, which we have met 
with among Mr. Adams' manuscripts. 

" These reflections on the universality and consequences of 
death recall forcibly to our remembrance the decease of your 
late worthy and ever to be lamented Pastor. If, in the circle of 
your domestic connections, you have had a friend or a brother 
whom you tenderly loved, whose name was dear to your 
heart, and in whom you experienced all that affection can 
confer or virtue adorn, the tear of sensibility must run down 
at the recollection of your loss. 

" Let us contemplate him, for a moment, as a man, as a 
scholar, and as a minister of the Gospel. 



56 DR. BUIST. [1800-lSlO. 

" As a man — he was distinguished by those quah'ties which 
adorn human nature, and add to the splendor of illustrious 
intellectual power, the charms of pure and energetic virtues. 
Possessed of tliose superior endowmonts of mind with which 
few of the sons of men are favored on an equal, and almost 
none in a superior degree, he shone as a star of the first mag- 
nitude, keen and penetrating, he, at one intuitive glance, 
discriminated characters, and was able to appreciate worth 
and excellence. He looked beyond the external appearance, 
and entered deep into the recesses of the human heart. 
Hence, he detected the pretensions of arrogance, and exposed 
the concealed artifices of hypocricy. With a candor, which 
is the fairest ornament of human nature, and discovered the 
purity and excellence of his own heart, he never for one 
moment would prostitute integrity for the fleeting applause 
of the time-serving sycophant. But, most distinguished as 
the powers of his mind certainly were, he never effected that 
superiority which disgusts rather than gains the admiration 
and love of others. On the contrary. Dr. Buist was modest 
and unassuming^a perfect judge of merit in others, he often 
undervalued or imperfectly appreciated the qualities in him- 
self but, in another's character, he would have admired as 
bright and luminous. Hence, in society, he was a most 
agreeable and pleasingcompanion, whose mind, being replen- 
ished with an inexhaustable store of the most interesting 
anecdotes or useful and improving truths, he had the peculiar 
felicity of communicating in an easy and engaging manner. 
Nor was he less amiable in his dome.stic relations than in his 
social intercourse with mankind. As a husband and as a father 
he discharged with exemplary fidelity the duties of his sta- 
tion. 

"As a scholar, Dr. Buist was eminently distinguished. 
Possessed of those powers of mind which are essential to the 
acquisition and communication of knowledge, he was dis- 
tinguished in very early life as one who bade fair for future 
excellence. Hence, the first university in the world, for the 
learning of its Professors and the number and attainments of 
its pupils, conferred on him the highest honors with which 
genius rewards merit. His acquisitions of skill in the learned 
languages have seldom been surpassed, and his acquaintance 
with the various departments of philosophy were peculiarly 
distinguished. Indeed, he seems to have been fitted by 



1800-1810.] I>H. BUIST. 57 

Providence to act in a more enlarged sphere of useful labor 
than is generally the lot of a preacher of the Gospel. Of 
this his fellow-citizens seem to have been fully aware, and 
unanimously called him to the head of an institution, in the 
conducting of which he has gained to himself immortal 
honor, and will live in the grateful remembrance of the suc- 
ceding generation. His place in the College of Charleston 
may be occupied by another, but there is little hope that it 
will ever be filled by one so illustrious and successful. 

As a minister of the Gospel, Dr. Buist has ever been 
esteemed as occupying the first rank. This was the depart- 
ment in which he chose to excel — to which all the force of 
his genius was devoted — and in which he soon felt that his 
efforts were to be successful. For, from the veiy commence- 
ment of his theological studies, he gave pressages of iiis 
future attainments ; and in the societies of his youthful com- 
panions, laid the foundation of that splendid reputation which 
for near twenty years of meritorious service, continued to in- 
crease, and which has procured for him, as a religious 
instructor, access to the understandings and hearts of the 
most cultivated inhabitants of the United States. 

" To you, my brethren, who have long enjoyed the ines- 
timable blessing of his religious instruction, it is unnecessary 
to describe the qualities of the luminous, fascinating eloquence 
with which he was accustomed to enlighten and arouse your 
hearts. We have never heard any one who' excelled, or even 
equalled him, in the most distinguished requisites of pulpit 
oratory, in profoundness of thought, in vivid flashes of imagina- 
tion, or in pathetic addresses to the heart. There never was 
a public teacher in whom all these were combined in juster 
proportions, placed under the directions of a more exquisite 
sense of propriety, and employed with more uniform success 
in conveying useful and practical instruction. Standing on 
the foundation of the Apostles and the Prophets, he exhibited 
the doctrines of Christ in their genuine purity, separated from 
the dross of superstition, and traced with inimitable elegance 
through all their beneficial influence on the condition, on the 
order, and on the virtue both of public and private life. 
Hence, his discourses united in the most perfect form the 
attractions of utility and beauty, and frequently brought those 
into this sacred temple who would otherwise have been found 
in the society of the foolish or the abodes of the dissipated. 



58 SECOND PRESBYTEBIAN CHURCH. [1800-1810. 

The wavering have acknowledged that his sermon.s established 
their faith, and the pious have felt the flame of divine love 
kindled with greater ardor iti their hearts when, under his 
ministrations, they worshiped in the temple or drew near to 
present their offerings on the holy altar. 

" But. divine wisdom has seen meet to remove him, in tlie 
midst of his usefulness, from the Church on earth to the 
Temple in the Heavens. He has gone to give an account of 
his stewardship ; we are left beliind to mourn his loss. Let 
us pray thit tlie great Shepherd of Israel may give you 
another pastor, who will lead you amid the green pastures and 
beside the .still waters, until you shall pass into that blessed 
state where the Lamb which is in the midst of the throne 
shall lead you to living fountains of water, and God Himself 
shall wipe away all tears from your eyes." 

. Dr. Buist was married in 1797 to Mary, daughter of Capt. 
John Somers. She was a native of South Carolina, though 
her father was from Devonshire, England. Mrs. Buist died 
in 1845. They had six children, four sons and two daughters ; 
of the sons, two became ministers of the Presbyterian Ciiurch, 
Rev. Arthur Buist and Rev. Edward T. Buist, D. D., one, 
George, a lawyer, and one a physician. In 1809 a selection 
from Dr. Buist's sermons was published in two volumes, 8 
vo., with a brief sketch of his life. Dr. Buist was succeeded 
in 1809 by Rev. John Buchan, D. D., of Scotland, who was 
" called by the unanimous voice of the Church, with the 
approbation of the Rev. Presbytery of Charleston." [Charge 
by Rev. Robt. M. Adams, in MS.j He was regularly 
installed by the old Presbytery of Charleston. 

THE SECOMD PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, CHARLESTON. 

The number of Presbyterians multiplied in the city and 
throughout the State. The Church in Charleston wa.s found 
insufficient to accommodate those who wished to worship 
with Presbyterians The house was always crowded, seals 
could not be procured, except by long delay and the neces- 
sity of another Presbyterian Church b>;came apparent. 

Previous to 181 1, the First Presbyterian Church was the 
only accommodation for Presbyterians in Charleston. As 
early as the year 1804, the necessity of a new erection was 
felt and the design encouraged by Dr. Buist, then pastor of 



lSOO-1810.] SECOND PRESBYTERIAN' CHURCH. 59 

the church. The Rev. Mr. Malcomson, who arrived from 
Ireland in 1894, and had been settled as pastor for many 
years in Williamsburg, in tiiis State, was engaged to prearh 
for those who wished to form another congregation, and the 
temporary use of the French Churcii was procured. His 
death, which occurred in September of the same year, 
blighted the sanguine hopes which were entertained that ere 
long another Presbyterian Church and congregation would 
be formed. It was not until tlie year 1809, when the inability 
to find accommodation in the existing church, made the 
matter urgent, that the determination was finally and effectu- 
ally made to enter upon the formation of the present Second 
Presbyterian Church. 

It was on Wednesday evening, F'ebruary 8th, 1809, that 
the following gentlemen being assembled at the house of Mr. 
Flemming, entered into, an agreement to unite their efforts 
to secure a suitable building for a Presbyterian Church, viz : 
Benjamin Boyd, William Pressly, John Ellison, Archibald 
Pagan, George Robertson, Samuel Robertson, William Wal- 
ton, James Adger, Caleb Gray, John Robinson, Alexander 
Henry, Samuel Pressly, William Aiken, John Porter. 

At a subsequent meeting on March 6th, a subscription 
paper for the support of a minister was presented, when by 
the subscription of a number present, of one hundred dollars 
each, for two years, more than a sufficient salary being sub- 
scribed, a committee was appointed to request the Rev. 
Andrew Flinn, then connected with the united congregation 
of Williamsburg and Indian Town, to organize and take 
charge of the congregation, with a salary of two thousand 
dollars. That committee consisted of Benjamin Boyd, John 
Cunningham, Joseph Milligan, Samuel Robertson and John 
Robinson, who is, in 1837, the only present surviving mem- 
ber. This invitation, the claims of his charge having been 
voluntarily surrendered, Mr. Flinn accepted; when a irieeting 
for the formation of a Second Presbyterian Church was held 
at Trinity Church on Monday evening, April 24th, 1809. 
Committees were appointed to attend to the secular biisiness, 
to purchase a site for the erection of a church and to obtain 
subscriptions. The first standing committee to attend to all 
the secular affairs of the chuich and to purchase a site for 
the church, were Benjamin Boyd, John Cunningham, Joseph 
Milligan, John Robinson and Samuel Robertson. 



60 JAMES ISIjAMD. [1800-1810. 

Tlie committee to procure subscriptions consisted of Ben- 
jamin Boyd, John Cunningham, Joseph Milligan, Alexander 
Henry, John Stoney, John Eihson, William Porter, George 
Robertson, James Gordon, William Aiken, William Walton, 
William Pressly, John Robinson. 

As a record of the munificence of the donors, who were 
not confined to Presbyterians, it was resolved that the names 
of the subscribers should be preserved in parchment and 
deposited in the archives of the church. This parchment 
though somewhat defaced in one part, is still preserved. By 
May i6th, the plan of the church was presented by William 
Gordon, who was appointed to build it, and who immediately 
entered upon the work. In 1809 an Act of incorporation wan 
obtained. 

The Presbyterian Church of James Island. — In 1801 the 
Rev. Thomas H. Price, of the Presbyterian Church of James 
Island, was one of the persons who was consulted as to the 
ordination of Mr. F"loyd, and one of the original members of 
the Congregational Association, organized March 25, 1801, 
(see p. — ,) yet while the other Churches whose ministers united 
in that act are styled " Independent or Congregational," this 
is styled " Presbyterian " , 

The ordination sermon of Mr. Price was preached by Dr. 
McCalla, but in what year we are not informed. See McCalla's 
Works, series IX., vol. I,, p. 247. 

Mr. Price is reported in the minutes of the Association, 
through this decade, and was the Scribe of that body, and the 
Associa ion once met at his house. Dr. Ramsay, also, in 
1808, reported this Church as belonging to the Independents, 
(Hist., Vol. II., p. 18,) but without an act of the congregation 
itself, this is not positive proof of any change of its original 
character. The Church was reported by Mr. Price at the be- 
ginning of this decade to have a membership of 27 whites and 
6 blacks. Total 33. At the close its white membership was 
20, its black 26 — total 46. Mr. Price, himself, originated in 
the Bethel Congregation in York County, and was a licen- 
tiate of Presbytery. 

We retain the name of James Island among the Presbyte- 
rian Churches a/though it seems not to have been fully con- 
nected with Presbytery until November, 1853, when it was 
represented in Presbytery by an Elder, Mr. Edward Freer. 
It had, however, been dependent on Presbytery for the preach- 



1800-1810.] JOHN'S ISLA^'D AND WADMALAW. 61 

ing of the Word and pastoral services. There were other 
Churches bearing the name of Presbyterian, which .remained 
for a series of years independent, without any direct represen- 
tation in Presbytery, except through its ministerial supply. 

The Pkesbyterian Church of John's Island and Wadma- 
LAW had applied to the Presbytery of South Carolina for the 
ordination of Rev. James Mcllhenny. We have seen (Vol. I., 
P- 573)) that this Presbytery was divided, and by the division 
two Pre.sbyteries, the First and the Second Presbyttries of 
South Carolina were created. The territory on the Southwest 
side of Broad River, [which as it flows on becomes (on receiv- 
ing the Saluda) the Congaree, and this (on receiving the Wa- 
teree) the Santee.] in its course to the ocean would embrace 
the John's and Wadmalaw Islands. 'J he Second Presbytery 
of South Carolina " having received satisfactory information 
of the earnest desire of the Church on John's and Wadmalaw 
Islands to have him ordained at this time to settle among 
them, proceeded, on the I2tli of February, 1800, at its meet- 
ing at Fairforest, to set apart Mr. Mcllhenny to the work of 
the gospel ministry by prayer and imposition of the hands of 
Presbytery," Rev, Andrew Brown preaching the ordination 
sermon, and the Rev. William Williamson delivering the 
charge to the newly (Jrdained minister, " after wliich Mr. Mc- 
llhenny, being invited, took his seat as a member of Presby- 
tery." " The Clerk was directed to write a letter to the 
Church on John's and Wadmalaw Islands, giving them offi- 
cial inforrriation of the ordination of Mr. James Mcllhenny as 
their pastor, and also on the expediency of having him in- 
stalled among them if practicable. Mr. Mcllhenny soon after, 
on March 13, 1800, was married to Mrs. Susannah Wilkin- 
son,* relict of Francis Wilkinson, Esq., Dr. Keith officiating. 
On the 9th of April, 1801, a letter was received by Presbytery 
trom Mr. Mcllhenny, giving his reasons for absence from the 
sessions, and expressing his desire to resign his pastoral 
charge, " whereupon it was ordered that the Clerk cite that 
Church to appear by their representation at our next stated 
sessions to show cause, if any they have, why the Presbytery 
should not accept the resignation of Mr. Mcllhenny." 

At the Fall meeting, September 24, 1801, the Church ad- 

*This was his second marriage. He first married Miss Jane Moore, of 
Bethesda, York, who lived but a short time, leavjnj^ him one child, 



62 EDISTO ISLAND. [1800-1810. 

dressed Presbj'tery, by letter, and the result was that Mr. 
Mcllhenny was released from his pastoral charge, (the reason 
alleged being '■ want of harmony between the parties,") and 
the Church declared vacant. We do not see any other acts 
of that Presbytery during this decade touching the churches 
of the Low country. In 1806 the Rev. Dr. Clarkson, who 
had been a member of the Philadelphia Presbytery, was a 
licentiate of the same in 1795, and was reported as pastor of 
Greenwich and Bridgetown in 1796, became pastor of this 
Church. In 1808 Dr. Ramsay reports this Church as one of 
'' seven congregations which look up to the Presbytery of 
Charleston for religious instruction," and Dr. Clai'kson as one 
of the " five ministers of which the Presbytery consists." His 
ministry continued into the next decade. 

Presbyterian Church, Edisto Island. — The Rev. Donald 
McLeod continued pastor of this Church. He did, indeed, on 
March 2, 1803, signify his intention to resign. But on the 
19th of March, 1804, they renewed their call, raising his 
salary to ;£^300, it having been ;£'200 before. The Rev. Mr. 
McLeod was at this time the stated Clerk of the Presbytery 
of Charleston. 

Wilton Church. — We have seen. Vol. I., p. 576, that the 
Rev. Andrew S eele was ministering to "this congregation in 
1800, and that he removed to Mississippi, and for the reasons 
there given had devoted himself to the practice of medicine. 

In a paper dated April 19th,, 1803, mention is made of a 
Thomas Stewart, who ws.^ probably a minister, and served the 
con£;regation for some time. 

From 1803 to 1807 no record remains to show who minis- 
tered to the congregation. Previously to 1807, or early in 
that year, the church building erected in the pine land about 
three miles from the former site, at the Bluff, and a few hun- 
dred yards from the road vrhich runs parallel with the , Edisto 
or Pon Pon River, was burned, the fire having communicated 
to it from the woods. 

There is a "notice" bearing date May ist, 1807, request- 
ing the members of the Wilton congregation to assemble on 
business of importance, at the ruins of the Church lately 
burnt. This meeting was held May 21st, when it was re- 
solved "that a committee be appointed to examine into the 
state of the funds and property of the congregation generally, 
and to enquire what would be the cost of rebuilding the 



1800-1810.] 8ALTKEHATCHEE. 63 

Church, and the means vvhereby it may be done." IVJr. 
Cliampney, Mr. Ashe and Mr. Hamilton were appointed the 
committee. The only report of their examination remaining 
is the list of donors which wa.s published in our first volume, 
p. 577. which, being without date, was [lublished with the 
history of the period from 1790 — 1800; but it isjustas proba- 
ble that it belongs here. 

The spot where the Church stood, which was built when it 
was judged expedient to remove it from the Bluff, is marked 
by some remains of the ruins and a few grave stones which 
still stand in tolerable preservation. On one of these is the 
name of John Berkley, of honored memory, who was one of 
the Deacons of the Church ; and on another that of Mrs. 
Maltby, the widow of Rev. Joiin Maltby, who was pastor of 
the Church from 1769 to 1771. A few hundred yards from 
this spot are a few remaining signs of the place where the 
parsonage stood. (M5S. of J. L. Girardeau, D. D.) 

Bethel Presbyterian Church and Congregation of Pqn 
PoN had the Rev. Andrew Steele as its pastor, who seems to 
have served this Church, as well as Wilton, till 1802, when the 
Rev. Loami Floyd, who had relinquished the charge of the 
Church at Waynesboro', Ga., was installed its pastor. Mr. 
Floyd continued a member of the Congregational Association, 
and reported in December, I 806, "thfit the Lord's Supper had 
not been administered in the Church of which he is pastor for 
many years, until Sabbath, the 7th of that month, when he 
had the happiness to administer the sacrament to 14 persons, 
5 of whom were whites, and 9 persons of color." (Minutes 
of Association,- p. 49.) 

Saltkehatchee. — This church still existed, but after the 
death of Mr Gourlay, was probably dependent on occasional 
supplies. They erected a new house of worship, and invited 
t'he Rev. Dr. Buist to open it for them on the second Sabbath 
in May, 1808. On the 25th of November, 1809, they ad- 
dressed Rev. Mr. Adams, through their trustees, William 
Patterson, Archibald S.Johnston, and Wm. C. V. Thompson, 
requesting a portion of his services, " if agreeable to the 
gentlemen, trustees of Prince William's. Our funds," they 
add, '' are not considerable, but your labor shall be recom- 
pensed." They request an answer " against the commencement 
of a new year." This church was incorporated December 17, 
1808, by the name of " The Saltkehatchee Independent Pres- 
byterian Church." (Statutes, Vol. VIII. 248.) 



64 SAVANNAH WILLIAMSBURG. [1800-1810. 

During thi.s decade, Savannah, the sister city to Charleston, 
had received into the pulpit and pastorate of the Independent 
Presbyterian Church, the much admired and greatly beloved 
Dr. Henry KollocU, who removed to that city in the fall of 
1806, while Charleston had lost Dr. Malcoinson, whose his- 
tory belongs to Williamsburg, in the first year of his residence 
in that city, in 1804, and his friend, Dr. Buist, followed him 
to the eternal state four years later. 

The Church in Williamsburg became divided in the way 
we have described in the first volume, pp.486, et seq., and 578, 
et seq. The feud which had been created was not to be 
healed till years had elapsed and one generation had passed 
away. The party that retained possession in law, and, also, 
the tiiie of the Williamsburg Church, had Dr. Malcomson as 
their pastor till his removal to Charleston, in 1804. The 
church remained without the stated means of grace for many 
years, receiving occasional supplies from Rev. Messrs. Knox 
and Thompson.* In 1809 the Rev. Thomas Ledly Birch, of 
Washington, Pa., and a native of Ireland, was invited to visit 
the congregation with a view to settlement, but he declined 
coming." (Wallace, p. 88.)t 

Dr. Stephenson, Pastor of the Bethel Church, whose 
memoir is given in Vol. I, 581, et seq., was a man if peculiar 
earnestness, faithfulness and piety. The beginning of this 
century was signalized by extensive revivals of religion in 
many parts of the Southern Church. They began in Kentucky, 
in the summer of 1799, but reached their height in that State 
in 1800 to 1801. Crowds flocked to the sacramental occa- 
sions, and as the neighborhood did not furnish sufificient 
accommodations, they came in wagons loaded with provisions, 
and fitted up for temporary lodging. Camp-meetings thus 
arose, the first of which was held in Kentucky m July, 1800, 
in the congregation of Mr. McGready, formerly of North 
Carolina. One was held at the Waxhaw church, in South 



*ThiB Mr. Thompson was from North Carolina, and a man of some 
excentricity Dr. MoC. and his brother went into the church one day, 
after service had commenced. Mr. T. drew out his watch and said : 
' ■ It is half-past ] 1 o'clock." Having occasion to allude to Dr. Wither- 
spoon, of Princeton, he interposed the correction : " He is no connec- 
tion of the Witherspoons here, though — not at all." 

t " Rev. Thomas Ledlv Birch wns permitted to emigrate to America 
on account of his sympathy with the rebellion." (Beid's Hist, of 
Ireland, Vol III, p. 428, Note 45.) 



1800-1810.] BETHEL CHURCH, WILLIAMSBURG. 65 

Carolina, on the 2 1st of May, and another at Nazareth on the 
2d of July, i802, accompanied with ever memorable re- 
vivals, and attended, in the case of many, with remarkable 
bodily agitations. In the summer of this year, a camp-meet- 
ing was held, following the example which had thus been 
set, at the Sand Hills, near the road, three miles above Kings- 
tree, which was attended by the Rev. John Brown (aftei wards 
D. D.), of the Waxhaw church. Rev. Duncan Brown, of 
Hopewell, and the Rev. Mr. McWhorter, of Salem. Mr. 
(afterwards Dr.) Stephenson's preaching had already been at- 
tended with happy results to his people. Dr. Brown had just 
enjoyed a blessed work of grace among his flock, in which 
Mr. Stephenson, among others, had assisted. He opened the 
meeting with a sermon in e.xplanation and defense of t\te re- 
vival, now becoming more and more extended, which con- 
vinced the people that the work was genuine, and the 
wonderful scenes which occured were accompanied by the 
influences of the Holy Spirit. There were, indeed, doubters 
and opposers. " The exercises " which attended this revival 
in Kentucky in a more extreme degree, had accompanied it 
in South Carohna, and were exhibited here ; and Mr. Mal- 
comson did not conceal his disapprobation of these things, 
nor did Dr. Buist, as the note appended to his discourse on 
Mr. Malcomson's death will show. The two congregations 
were intermingled with each other. Their houses of worship 
were less than one hundred yards apart (Vol. I, p. 488), and 
they were supplied with water from the same well ; yet Mr. 
Malcomson's people were not affected by these exercises, nor 
were the negroes, which is harder to be believed. Mr. 
Stephenson continued pastor of this church till his removal 
to Tennessee, in 180?. The Rev. Andrew Flinn succeeded 
him in the Bethel church in 1808. After a short interval,* 
he was succeeded by Daniel Brown, of the Fayetteville Pres- 
bytery, whose ministry was signally owned by God, especially 
in his labors among the blacks f The only statistics we find 
of this church are for the year 1802, when it reported to the 
General Assembly 104 communicants. In about 1806 or 

*Less than a year. 
' tWe find, too, that the Presbytery appointed for this church during 
this period occasional supplies, viz : G. G. McWhorter, in 1807 ; Duncan 
Brown, John Cousar, and Andrew Flinn in 1808, and Duncan Brown 
and John Cousar in 1809. 
&. 



6C ME. MALCOMSOX. [1800-1810. 

1807, the Bethel congregation gave up their original site, and 
built a new hou.se of worship about half a mile distant from 
the former. 

Of Mr. Malcomson, whose name has been introduced in the 
preceding pages, Dr. Buist speaks in the sermon preached at 
his funeral, in the following terms : 

" There he continued for nearly ten years, discharging 
with fidelity and diligence the duties of his pastoral office, 
much and justly esteemed by the members of his congre- 
gation. 

Wiih his ministerial functions hp combined (what should 
always, if possible, be united in remote country settlements, 
where a physician .seldom is resident), the profession of medi- 
cine;»in which he possessed no small degree of skill, and 
which he practised with considerable success. He also con- 
tributed largely to the benefit of the district in which he was 
settled, by promoting the institution of an academy which he 
afterwards superintended with credit to himself and profit to 
his pupils. And, at a later period, he vindicated with ability 
and success, both from the pulpit and the press, the cause of 
genuine and rational religion, in opposition to some mis- 
guided men who wished to maintain that the kingdom of 
heaven consists not so much m righteousness, peace, and joy 
in the Holy Ghost as in enthusiastic raptures, and in violent 
bodily contortions and agitations which they absurdly 
denominated being religiously exercised. In that district there 
unhappily existed, long before his residence in it, religious 
and political divisions and prejudice.<!, too deeply rooted, and 
too inveterate to be easily eradicated ; and though his useful 
labors, upright conduct and very obliging and agreeable 
manners gained him the sincere and universal attachment of 
his own congregation and of all men who had discernment to 
appreciate and liberality to acknowledge merit, he found that 
the most inoffensive conduct will not always secure from the 
tongue of the slanderer those whom he has resolved to perse- 
cute, and he experienced, o.i various occasions, the unhappi- 
ness of living in a society where, though we are for peace, 
others are obstinately bent on war. With a view to tscape 
the evils of this state of society, in hope of providing more 
amply for the education and support of a numerous and 
increasing family, and induced by the opinion of respectable 
friends, that his labors as an instructor of youth and a minis- 



1800-1810.] MR. MALCOMSON. 67 

ter of religion, would here meet with encouragement and 
success, he removed to Charleston in the beginning of this 
year. Here his expectations were more than realized. Lib- 
eral and discerning men did justice to respectable talents, to 
attainments far above mediocrity, to upright and exemplary 
conduct, to agreeable manners and to an unexampled suavity 
and piacidness of disposition which is justly deemed one of 
the be.-;t proofs of a Christian temper. He had obtained a 
respectable and numerous academy; daily accessions were 
making to a congregacion already considerable for numbers 
and justly and sincerely attaciied to their pastor, and he had 
the fairest prospect of being highly useful and respected in 
the community, and of making a handsome provision for his 
family.* When, alas ! to the inexpressible grief of his family 
and friends and to the great loss of society, in the prime of 
life, in the full vigor of his faculties, in the thirty-sixth year 
of his age, he is removed from us to occupy a more exalted 
station in anotlier region of God's infinite dominions. 

We, who witnessed its closing scene, are able to add an 
authority still more unexceptionable and impressive. For 

" A death-bed's a detector of the heart : 
' " There tir'd dissimulation drops the masli : 
'' There real and apparent are the same." 

YOUNQ. 

How much was it to be wished that the infidel and the 
worldling had be^n present in the last moments of our de7 
parted friend ! That they who foolishly barter an eternity of 
bliss for an hour of transitory enjoyment, had heard his senti- 
ments on the vanity of all sublunary things ! That they who 
are carried down the stream of pleasure, unmoved by the 
sorrows, and insensible even to the joys of others, had wit- 
nessed the heart-rending but instructive scene, when, finding 
liis end approaching, he called his family and friends around 
him, comforted his afflicted consort, exhorting her to trust in 
the living God who had all along befriended them, and who 
would still prove her protector and guardian ; when he took 
his infant child in his arms, blessed her, and commended her 
to the providential care of the Almighty ; when he charged 
such of his offspring as had understanding sufficient to com- 
prehend his meaning, to persevere in the virtuous course in 
which they had been initiated, and diligently serve Him 



68 INDIAN TOWN. [1800-1810. 

whom their father had served ; when he expressed to his 
weeping friends and some of the affectionate attendants on 
his ministry who were present, his ardent wi.shes for the suc- 
cess of the gospel, and for the interests of reh'gion and virtue, 
declared his unfeigned assent to the truth of Christianity, 
devoutly thanked God for the comforts and hopes of religion, 
and desired his friends to join in the performance of that 
divine exercise of praise, which he was soon to enjoy in per- 
fection in the mansions above." 

Indian Town Presbyterian Church was associated with 
Bethel as the pastoral charge of Dr. Stephenson, and he 
resided in its vicinity. He labored successfully and satisfac- 
torily among them for the space of nineteen years. He 
preached his valedictory sermon at Indian Town on Ae 28th 
of February, 1808, and set out for Maury County, Tennessee, 
with a colony of about twenty families of the Bethel Church 
(some part of whom, however, had preceded him), and set- 
tled on a tract of land which they had jointly purchased from 
the heirs of General Green. He was succeeded in the pas- 
torate by Rev. Andrew Flinn, afterwards D. D., in 1809. 
The history of James White Stephenson, as written by Rev. 
J. A. Wallace, subsequently pastor of the churches of Bethel 
and Indian Town, is given by us in our first Volume, pp. 581, 
587, and was also published in the Southern Presbyterian 
Review, Vol. VI., p. 102. 

It was during the ministry of Dr. Stephenson that Thomas 
Dickson Baird, afterwards D. D., became a resident within 
the bounds of this congregation and a member of this church. 
He was born in the County of Down, Ireland, on the 26th 
of December, 1773, of parents who were members of the 
Burgher Secession Church. In early life he had a strong 
desire for knowledge, and for a liberal education, w'nich his 
father felt obliged to deny him, intimating to him that he was 
destined to the trade of a blacksmith. But while tailing at 
the anvil he made himself acquainted with arithmetic, and 
advanced considerably in Lilly's Latin Grammar, which was 
the more difficult as it was itself written in the Latin tongue. 
He was at the same time a diligent student of the scriptures, 
and acquired a good knowledge of .systematic theology. At 
eighteen he became a member of the church to which his 
parents belonged, and afterwards joined the Reformed Church 
or that of the Covenanters. On the 12th of December, 1796, 



1800-1810.] THOMAS DICKSOX BAIRD, D. D. 69 

he was united in marriage witli Isabella Mackey, and returned 
again to the Associate Church. 

He was a participant in the Irish rebellion of 1796, and. 
eluding the vigilance of the authorities, in the year t802 he 
embariced for America and landed at Newcastle, Delaware, 
on the 9th of July. He was employed at his trade in Penn- 
sylvania nearly three years, when, receiving letters from a 
relative in Williamsburg, S. C.,he left Philadelphia in March, 
1805, and traveled by the way of Charleston to the place 
wiiere his relative resided. In the following autumn his wife 
was seized -with the prevailing fever, which proved fatal, and 
shortly after his two little boys fell victims to the same dis- 
ease and were laid by the side of their mother. He himself 
was then seized by the same malady, and escaped death as if 
by a miracle. The man who made the coffins for his wife 
and children was still living in 1858. It was at this period 
that Mr. Baird began more seriously to meditate the purpose 
of entering the ministry. He had already united with the 
church at Indian Town, and gradually became reconciled to 
singing the version of the Psalms then in use. 

His purpose of entering the ministry was subsequently 
thwarted again and again. Yet it was not abandoned. He 
wrote a sermon while he was yet at Indian Town which he 
exhibited to a few of his friends. The vestiges of his house 
were still shown a few miles from the church on the 6th of 
February, 1858. Persevering in a purpose so early formed, 
in April, 1809 he quit his worldly occupation, sold the little 
property he had accumulated and again entered on a course 
of study. He availed himself of the instruction of the Rev. 
Moses Waddel, then the principal of a very popular school 
at Willington, Abbeville District, S. C, while at the same 
time he was acting as tutor in the institution. In the spring 
of J 81 1 he was taken under "the care of the Presbytery of 
South Carolina, as a candidate for the ministry, and on 8th 
of April; 1812, was licensed to preach the Gospel. 

The succe.ss of the Presbyterian colony led forth by 
Dr. Stephenson, may be known by the following hi.story of 
" the Frierson Congregation," so called by the prevalence 
of that name among them. And, indeed, down to this 
time, several of that name have entered the Pre.sbyterian 
ministry. 



70 THE FRIERSON COXGREUATIOK. [1800-1810. 

A REMARKABLE CONGREGATION. 

We take the following sketch from correspondence of the Louisville 
Presbyterian Herald .- 

The history of the Frierson congjegation is somewhat unique and 
peculiar, and deserves from me more than a passing notice. About the 
commencement of the present century a number of families belonging 
to a Presbyterian congregation in South Carolina, determined to emi- 
grate to the West for several reasons. Tlie land on which they lived 
was much exhausted and the climate of South Carolina was so 
unhealthy that their children sickened and died before arriving at the 
age of maturity. They had heard of a promised land in the West and 
determintd to seek a residence in it But they formed a resolution to 
carry with them the institutions of the Gospel, and to implore the 
blessing of God on their enterprise. They could not go unless God 
went with them, and they determined to acknowledge him in all their 
ways. Their minds were bent on making a settlement in Louisiana, 
but to reach that territory which had been but recently ceded to the 
United States, it was necessary to pass through Tennessee. Louisiana 
was at that time supposed to be a perfect paradise. In the spring of the 
year 1805, four families came out and settled for a time in the neigh- 
borhood of Nashville, to prepare the way for the n^moval of the whole 
colony. They had to traverse mountains and nearly all the way they 
had to pass throngh an unbroken wilderness. But Providence was 
kind to them and " they arrived in the vicinity of Nashville at the 
time the purchase was made from the Indians of the lands whereon 
they afterwards settled, of which purchase they knew nothing previous 
to their emigration." Such is their own statement, made in a journal 
or history of the colony, which is still in existence. That purchase of 
Indian territory was the means, in the hands of Providence, of fixing 
the permanent residence of the colony of Tennessee. 

In the year 1806, eleven other families removed from South Carolina. 
Temporary places of abode had been prepared for them in the neigh- 
borhood of Franklin, about twenty miles southeast of Nashville. Their 
journey was a prosperous one. They thankfully recorded that the rivers 
were lowered so that they had not to ferry a single stream, nor had they 
a single shower of rain to wet them or to make tiie I'oads muddy. Not 
an accident of a serious nature occurred during the journey. These 
families traveled in two companies. One company rested on the Sab- 
bath day and conducted public worship by singing, praying and read- 
ing a sermon. The other had hired wagons to convey their families, 
without any written agreement, binding the drivers of their wagons to 
stop on the Sabbath day, and when the Sabbatli came they geared up 
their horses and would go forward. The party that kept the Sabbath 
arrived at their journey's end just one hour after the other, with their 
wagons and horses in a much better condition. Resting on the Sab- 
bath had proved to be profitable both to man and beast. 

In 1807, the colony purchased five thousand acres of land from the 
heirs of General Greene, in Maury County, and prepared to settle on it 
permanently. 'I hey went into the cane brake, divided their land and 
built a house of worship in the center of their tract near a spring, and 
then went to work to build small cabins for the accommodation of their 
families. We do not believe that the same thing can be said of any 
settlement that has ever been made in the West. I never heard of any 



1800-1810.] THE FRIBRSON COXGRECJATION. 71 

other emigrants who built a house of worship before they cut flown a 
single stiuk of timber to make i.'onifortable residences for their own 
families.' AVliat is also remarkable, they had no preacher with them, 
and tiieir worship bad to be conducted by laymen. Their pastor did 
not join them until several years after their removal into the wilder- 
ness. He first paid them a visit, and afterwards moved into tlie midst 
of them. With pleasure we make the following extracts from the his- 
tory of the congregation. It gives a pleasing view of the state of feel- 
ing among the Friersons on a very important subject : 

" A Committee named our Sooiety Zion In the fall of 1808, Rev. 
Gideon Blackburn preached for us; in the winter, the Rev. Samuel 
Finley._ In the spring of 1809, Rev. James W. Stephenson removed to 
our neighborhood, and became our stated supply. Six elders were 
elected and set apart for that office ; two had been previously set apart, 
so that the session consisted of eight elders. 

The houses not being large enough to accommodate the people, we 
erected a stand and made a shed before the meeting house. In August, 
180.9. the sacrament was administered for the first time, and we trust 
much good resulted. 

About this time a goodly number of our black people appeared to be 
under awakening influences and petitioned to be admitted to church 
privileges. To our shame we have to acknowledge that the education 
of these people had hitherto been criminally neglected. A great num- 
ber of them had been the companions and nurses of our infantile years. 
They had been doomed to hard slavery in order to procure means for 
our education and to let us live in ease, and yet we had not taken that 
pains and trouble which we ought to have taken in training them and 
teaching them a proper knowledge of the God who made them, of their 
lost condition by nature, of the pure requisitions of God's law, or of the 
plan of salvation through a Redeemer. * * * * * j^ 
sense of that neglect made a considerable impression on the minds of a 
number of the congregation. The session resolved to pay due attention 
to them, and to take them under charge as catechumen. 

[Sprasjue'.s Annals, vol. III., pp. 550, 1554, vol. IV., 476, 
478.] 

The Churches of Hopewell and Aimwell, on Pee Dee, 
united, both, a.s "vacancies," remained under one and the 
same pastoral charge through the most of this decade. At 
the beginning of the century they were vacant and were 
dependent still on occasional supplies. (See Vol. I., p. 593.) 
On September the 29th, 1803, Duncan Brown applied to the 
First Presbytery of South Carolina, which embraced that por- 
tion of the State Northeast of the Broad, Congaree and Santee 
Rivers, to be received under their care, pijoducrng a certificate 
of dismission from the Presbytery of Orange. The tradition 
is, that he was pastor of the two churches from the year 1800. 
He may have preached to them as a licentiate from that date, 
and probably did so, but he was not connected with the Pres- 
bytery to which these churches were amenable till the date 



72 HOPEWELL AKD AIMWELL. [1800-181C. 

mentioned above. A call from these two churches for his 
pastoral, services was presented to the Presbytery at this meet- 
ing, and by him accepted.* At an intermediate meeting, lield 
at Hopewell, on the 19th of November, 1803, he was solemnly 
ordained to the whole work of the gospel ministry by prayer 
and the imposition of hands, and installfd as pastor of the 
united congregations of Hopewell and Aimwell (Pee Dee.) 
The ordination sermon was preached by the Moderator, Rev. 
Geo. G. McWhorter, and the charge delivered by Rev. Jas. W. 
Stephenson. He remained in this pastoral charge, faithfully 
performing its duties, until October 2d, 1809, when the pas- 
toral relation was dissolved at his own request, and with the 
concurrence of his people. He was at the same time dismis.sed 
to join the Presbytery of Transylvania. t 

The only statistical reports we find of Hopewell and Aim- 
well during this period are for the year 1.805. Total commu- 
nicants reported 57 Infants baptized 5. For the year 1807, 
communicants 56; Baptisms, i adult and 12 infants. 

The Presbyterian Church o^ Black Mingo still had the 
Rev. William Knox as its pastor. He was a minister of the 
old school, and probably regarded many of his brethren as 
too rigid, and perhaps fanatical. 

• THE RED BLUFF CHURCH. 

The site of the old Red Bluff Church is still to be seen in 
Marlboro' County, on the west bank of the Little Pee Dee 
River, on a high bluff, from which it takes its name. It was 
perhaps the oldest Presbyterian Church in the State on the 
cast of the Great Pee Dee. We have failed to get the exact 
date of its organization. It was doubtless organized some 
years previous to the great revival of 1802, by Scotch settlers, 

*This call was signed by Alexander Gregg, .Tames Bigham, Jr., E. 
Birch, David Bigham, William Gregg, Sr., John Muldiow, Joseph Gregg, 
Thomas McCall, Hugh Mnldrow, Alex. Gregg, Jr., Jeremiah Brown, 
John Cooper, James Hudson, Samuel Bigham, John Gregg, Samuel 
Gregg, S. 1 ritchard, Charles Rinacklea, John McCown, Hanor Davis, 
JRobert Gregg, James Neuter, Gavin Witherspoon, John Ervin, Hugh 
Ervin, Stephen Thompsim, Moderator of the meeting, Rev. James Ste- 
phenson, of South Carolina Presbytery, and Pastor of Williamsburg 
Church. (MSS. ofEev. W. A. Gregg.)" 

fMSS. Minutes of First Presbytery of South Carolina, pp. 53, 55, 60, 61 
and 124. 



] 800-18] 0.] RED BLUFF CHURCH. 73 

who came down into that region from the Cape Fear settlement. 
At that time (i8o3) Rev. Cohn Lindsey was preaching there 
to a regular organized church, and, as far as we can learn, a 
church of some considerable strength. Here, as elsewhere, a 
good degree of excitement, and, perhaps, some excesses 
attended the revival meetings. Mr. Lindsey, it is said, at first 
tolerated, then afterwards took strong grounds against the 
revivalists, and a goodly number of the congregation sided 
with him. This caused two parties in the church, very bitter 
in their feelings toward each other. The revivalists were 
called the New Lights. They did not at first secede from 
the church, but invited Rev. Murdoch Murphy, of Robeson 
County, who held the same views, to preach for them on a 
different day from Mr. Lindsey's appointment. A well estab- 
lished tradition said the Old Lights, or anti-revivalists, to 
defeat this movement, built a high rail fence around the church 
on the night previous to the appointment of Mr. Murphy. 
The elder who kept the church key, (Mr. John McRay.) siding 
with the New Lights, leaped over the fence, opened the church 
door, ?nd bid the minister and congregation to fo low, which 
they did, and worshiped without further molestation. After 
this. Mr. Murphy preached at private houses until a new 
house of worship was erected by the revivalists, about one and 
a half miles east of the old church. This was called Sharon 
Church, and continued a number of years a separate organiza- 
tion. After Mr. Lindsey's death the two parties came to- 
gether again at the old stand. Which party was right in this 
controversy we cannot fully determine, but are rather inclined 
to side with the revivalists. There was' evidently more piety 
on that side, and their views, after lopping off excesses, finally 
prevailed in the community. Had Mr. Lindsey been a more 
pious and prudent man, this breach in the household of faitli 
might have been prevented. This leads us to say of Mr. Lind- 
sey, that in the judgment of posterity he was a man of some 
talent, but little piety. A well founded tradition says that he 
was often assisted into the pulpit by some one of the elders, 
and preached to the people under the influence of strong 
drink, and would say to the people : '' Do not as I do, but as I 
say." We have learned the name of but one elder during Mr. 
Lindsey's tirne. Mr. John McKay, whose name is mentioned 
above, and who withdrew with the revivalists. The elders of 
Sharon were John McRay, Hugh iVIcLaurin, Duncan Rankin, 



74 blaCk river, wixvaw. [isoo-isio. 

Daniel Mclntyre, and Archibald Thompson. After the re- 
union the followinsj elders were elected: Daniel McLeod, 
Daniel McLaurin, and John McRae. Mr. Murphy supplied 
the Sharon Church but a short time. He removed Westward, 
and was succeeded by Rev. Malcom McNair. (Liberty Co., 
Ala., Dr. Wall's Diar., &c., p. lo.) 

Some attention was drawn to Presbyterianism in other 
localities in this general region of the State. " A few people 
near the Long Bluff on Pedee Rfver, and a people near 
Kingstree. request to be noticed by this Presbytery." [Min- 
utes of the First Presbytery of South Carolina, September 21, 
1802.] On the 15th of March, 1805, Murdoch Murphy, who 
had been appointed in October, 1804, by the Synod of the 
Carolinas, a missionary for the lower part of South Carolina, 
was received as a licentiate from Orange Presbytery, N. C. 
A call was presented to Presbytery for his pastoral services 
from a conj^regation by the name of the churcli and congre- 
gation of Black River, Winyaw, in Georgetown District, 
which was put in Mr. Murphy's hands and by him accepted. 
On May 17, 1805, an Intermediate Presbytery was held at 
Black River Church, tlie evening session being held at the 
house of Mr. Samuel Green. On the following day the ordi- 
nation services took place at the church, the Rev. Geo. G. 
McWhorter preaching the sermon, Dr. Stephenson proposing 
the constitutional questions to the candidate, and the usual 
charge being given to the minister, the Rev. Murdock Mur- 
phy, and the address to the people over whom he was placed. 
This church was located very near the spot where an Epis- 
copal Cliurch had stood in former days. Mr. Murphy was 
dismissed March 2d, 1809 to the Presbytery of Orange, and 
it is not probable that his connection 'with this church con- 
tinued longer. [Mm. ist Presbytery, p. 116] 

Salem Church (Black River). — The Rev. Joiui Foster 
was released from his pastoral charge at the meeting of the 
PresbyteVy at Bethesda, Maich 27, 1801. On the i6th of 
March, 1805, he was cited to appear before Presbytery, at its 
next stated meeting, to answer for non-attendance upon its 
sessions and neglect of ministerial duty. The citation was 
renewed at the next session. On the 13th of March, 1806, 
he appeared and plead bodily indis|josition as his reason, 
which was accepted. He was again cited September 29th, 1807, 
for the same fault and for indifference to their orders. The 



lSOO-1810.] SALEJI, BLACK RIVER. 75 

citation was repeated with greater sharpness and severity on 
March 3d, 1808, and lie was ordered to appear at the next 
session to answer the charges exhibited against hii;n. At 
the fall sessions, October 3d, '''Mr. Foster, being called to 
answer to the several specific parts of such charge, was heard 
in each in his own defense in justification for supposed neglect 
ot duty as stated in the same, and his reasons were such as 
induced the Presbytery to- acquit him. However, Mr. Foster 
unequivocally denies his violation of his own word, and 
promises, as stated in such charges, and Presbytery, without 
any hesitation, admit that such charge is to be considered as 
carrying with it some degree of harshness." [Minutes, p. 102,] 

The -strictness of the Presbytery is at the same time shown 
by the citation of the Rev. Murdock Muiphy to appear per- 
sonally or by letter at the next stated sessions to inform them 
" of the reasons of his former non-attendance." 

'' The Rev. John Foster continued to fulfil the ministerial 
duties," says M. P. Mayes, clerk of the session of Salem 
Church, " until the time he left us and removed to the back 
country. Our church was now vacant, with only occasional 
supplies. Rev. Mr. Roxborough gave us a sermon or two, 
and perhaps others. In September, 1802, the Rev. George 
Gray McWhorter came on as a missionary from some onq of 
the North Carolina Presbyteries,* preached to us, pleased us, 
and became our pastor, without any Presbyterial installation. 
On September 2d, 1804, the Brick Church was dedicated by 
him, and two elders — William Wilson and Charles Story — 
were ordained." 

There is one error in this statement. Mr. McWhorter was 
a member of the Old Presbytery of South Carolina, organized 
in 1785. He was ordained pastor of Bethel and Beershcba 
in 1796 ; was one of the original men)bers of the Fint Pres- 
bytery of South Carolina, on the division of the Old Presby- 
tery, and was released from his charge of Bethel and Beer- 
sheba by act of Presbytery, September 29, 1801. Salem had 
67 communicants in 1807. 

* Rather from the First Presbytery of South Carolina. The Old Pres- 
bytery of South Carolina was set off from the Presbytery of Orange in 
]785. On the 6th of November, 1799, it was divided into the Pint and 
Second Presbyteries of South Carolina, the waters of Broad River on 
their way to the Ocean being the southern boundary of the First Pres- 
bytery. 



76 CONCORD — NEWHOPE — MIDWAY. [1800-1810. 

Concord Church, Sumter District, was organized by- 
Rev. George G. McWhorter about l8o8 or 1809, while he 
acted as pastor of Salem Church. It is about eight miles 
from Sumterville. on tlie road to Kingstree and Georgetown. 
The Pre.sbytery to which the Rev. Mr. McWhorter at that 
time belonged was known as the First Pre.sbytery of South 
Carolina, the original Presbytery of South Cyrolma having 
been divided in 1799 inco the First and Second Presbyteries 
of South Carolina. 

Newhope. — This was a church gathered, we believe, by 
the labors of the Rev. John Cousar while yet a licentiate. A 
call was presented to him through the Presbytery on the 29th 
of September, 1 803. " The First Presbytery of South Caro- 
lina held its ninth regular ses.sion at this church. And on 
the i9th of March, 1804, during the session, the Rev. Geo. 
G. McWhorter preached an ordination sermon from Jeremiah 
I : VII., last clause, ' For thou shalt go to all that I shall send 
thee, and whatsoever I shall command thee thou shalt speak;' 
after which Mr. John Cousar was, by prayer and the imposi- 
tion of hands of the Pre.sbytery, solemnly ordained and set 
apart to the exercise ot the whole of the gospel ministry, and 
installed ijastor of the congregation of Newhope. A suitable 
charge was then given by Mr. Walker, after which Mr. Cousar 
took his seat in Presbytery." [Minutes, p. 60.] Newhope 
had 21 communing members in 1805. It had 23 in 1809, and 
10 infants were baptized that year. Mr. Cousar was dismissed 
from Newhope, and the church declared vacant, April 5, 1811. 
[Minutes of Harmony Presbytery, p. 28.] 

Midway is another church over which Rev. Mr. Cousar 
presided. It is named in the Assembly's Minutes in 1808, 
and had twelve communing members in 1809, when the 
Lora's Supper was administered among them for the first 
time. An account which we have received of it is as follows: 
" Sometime in September, 1801, the following named gentle- 
men, John Witherspoon, John Witherspoon, Jr., R. Archibald 
Knox, William Mcintosh, Thomas Rose, Sr., Daniel Epps, 
John McFaddin, Thomas McFaddin, and Samuel Fleming, 
met at the house of Mrs. Mary Conyers to deliberate as to 
the propriety of organizing a Presbyterian Church in the com- 
munity. The result was favorable to such an organization. 
No documents are accessible informing us' who organized the 
church. We only know that a church was organized, and 



1800-1810.] COLUMBIA. -JJ 

that the two Witherspoons, aboved named, and Archib.ild 
Knox were its first elders. A plain building, costing nomore 
than g 180, was first erected On November loth, 1802, the 
building was completed, and called Midway, because it was 
half-way between Salem (Black River) and Williamsburg 
Churches. The Rev. G. G. McWhorter. pastor of the Salem 
Church, on invitation, gave one-fourth of his time to the new 
church. He preached his first sermon in Midway October 
22d, 1803, and continued to supply the church till January i, 
1809. The Rev. John Cousar, in March, 1809, gave to this 
church one-half his time, and to Bruington the other half 

[Ephesus] Church or Congregation. — On the i8th of 
March, 1803, "^ supplication " was received "from a people 
on Tomb's (Tom's) Creek, in Richland District, requesting 
that they may be enrolled on our minutes and be known by 
the name of Ephesus, and be appointed supplies." [Minutes 
of First Presbytery, p. 48.] Tnis request was doubtless attend- 
ed to by the Committee on Supplies. The appointments for 
general supplies are recorded but five times during this de- 
cade. Samuel W. Yongue supplied it by appointment three 
of these times. The neighborhood is about twenty or twenty- 
five miles from Columbia, in "the Fork " of the Wateree and 
Congaree, where now a different denomination prevails. 



CHAPTER IV. 

COLUMBIA — MR. DUNLAP. 
1800—1810. 

Columbia Church. — The death of the Rev. David Ellison 
Dunlap occurred, as we have seen (Vol. I, p. 596), on the 
loth of September, 1804, his wife and he dying on the same 
day, and being interred in the same grave. f We learn 

t Mr. Dunlap was licensed April 16th, 1793. was appointed, Sep- 
tember 25th, to preach at James' Island, John's Island and Wadmalaw, 
Fishing Creek, Ebenezer, Bethel, N. Pacolet, Milford and Nazareth, each 
one Sabbath, and a+ Lebanon, two. From Lebanon he received a call. 
In April, 1794, he was ordered to preach at John's Island and Wadma- 
law, Dorchester, Bethel, Lebanon, Fishing Oreek and Nazareth, each 
one Sabbath, at Colnmbiafour, and the restat discretion. He was called 
to Columbia September 23d, 1794, and was ordained and installed June 
4th, 1795, the Presbytery meeting in the State House, where his. ordina- 
tion took place. (See Vol. I, p. 595.) 



78 REV. JOHN BROWN, T). D. [1800-1810. 

nothincr more of the congregation to which he ministered 
until 1810. It is not mentioned among the churches of the 
first Presbytery (either as vacant or otherwise), in the report 
made by this Presbytery to the General Assembly in 1808. 
There are two conjectures : one that it was never fully organ- 
ized under Mr. Dunlap ; another, that it had become wholly 
disintegrated as a church after his death. In the Act of the 
Legislature, passed December 19th, 1801, Rev. D. E. Dunlap, 
Rev. John Brown, and Rev. Samuel W. Yongue, and Thomas 
Taylor, one of the fir.'^t elders of the Columbia Church, were 
named among the Trustees of the College of South Carolina, 
at that time founded. There were no other clerical members 
named. It may be that this denomination was, at this time, 
and had been before, more thnn any other, devoted to the 
education of our youth. Mr, Dunlap was present at the first 
meeting of the Trustees, at the house of the Governor, on the 
1 2th of February, in the City of Charleston. At this meeting, 
the Rev. Jonathan Maxy, former President of Brown Uni- 
versity, and then President of Union College, was elected 
President of the College of the State, and the Rev. Robert 
Wilson, then Pastor of the Presbyterian Church of Long 
Cane, was chosen the first Professor of Languages, an office 
which he did not accept, though afterwards he became Presi- 
dent of the University of Ohio. Rev. Joseph Caldwell was 
elected Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy in 
i8o5,but declined the appointment. The election of the Rev. 
John Brown to the Professorship of Logic and Moral Philoso- 
phy in South Carolina College, April 25th, 1809, was con- 
nected with the renaissance, or with the regular ecclesiastical 
organization of the Church in Columbia. The early history 
of Rev. (afterwards Dr.) John Brown we have briefly given in 
our first volume, p. 616. He removed to Columbia in the 
early fall of the same year, and the religious interests of the 
Presbyterians in this community, and those favorable to their 
doctrines and discipline, engaged his attention. 

We were greatly in error in saying, in our first volume, 
that he was born in " Chester District." It appears that he 
was born in Ireland, in Antrim Co., on the 15th of June, 
1763. His father, who was not blessed with the wealth of 
this world, with many others, availed himself of the " King's 
bounty," as it was called, by which he obtained a free passage 
to America, and a title to 160 acres of land in one of the 



]800-]810.] BETHESDA, OP CAMDEN. 79 

Carolinas. He chose his location in Chester District, S. C, 
and lived to see his son John a distinguished minister of the 
Gospel. We have there spoken of the limited period of his 
school education, in all, but eighteen months, during a part 
of which time he was a schoolmate of Andrew Jackson. At 
the age of sixteen, as we have there said, he exchanged the 
, groves of the academy for the bustle of the camp, and fought, 
under General Sumter, the battles of his country. Having 
improved his mind by private study, he put himself under 
the instruction of Dr. S. E. McCorkle, of Salisbury, N. C, 
and was licensed by the Presbytery of Concord in 1788. 
After this he was engaged in teaching, became pastor of the 
Waxhaw Church, and remained as such for some ten years. 
At the time of his election to the Professorship in South. 
Carolina College, he had given up the pastorship of Waxhaw, 
and had resorted again to his favorite employment as a teacher. 

Rethesda, of Camden. — Of the settlement of the town of 
Camden we have written. Vol. I, pp. 495-497. We have 
mentioned (p. 598) the statement of Mills — that there was 
a Presbyterian liouse of wor.ship there before the Revo- 
lution. We did not mention the statement of Rev. Dr. Fur- 
man (Appendix No. VII to Ramsay's History) that the Pres- 
byterian house of worship was burnt by the British. The in- 
scription on the tombstone of Miss Smith, referring to her 
legacy, is spoken of (p. 497), as is also the ordination of Mr. 
Adams, of Massachusetts, for Caindfen, and the preaching of 
Mr. Logue. But whatever outward demonstration of Presby- 
terianism there may have been, it seems to have disappearetl. 

During the year 1804, a number of gentlemen united 
in the laudable effort of building a Presbyterian Church on the 
site assigned by the founder of Camden for that purpose, and 
having finished the undertaking by voluntary subscription, 
the first act on record is the following, dated 12th July, 1803, 
viz : 

1st. Resolved, That the Society, for the purpose of inducing 
the Rev. Andrew Flinn to settle in Camden as the regular 
pastor .of the congregation, will guarantee to him the sum 
of eight hundred dollars a year during his continuance 
to discharge the duties of pastor. 

2d. Resolved, That if the assessment on the pews should 
not be sufficient to raise the above sum of eight hundred dol- 
lars, a subscription be opened to make up the balance. 



80 BETHESDA, OF CAMDEN. [1800-1810. 

3d. Resolved, That the persons whose names are hereunto 
subscribed agree to carry the above resolutions into effect, 
and secure the above guarantee. 

Signed — Isaac Alexander, Isaac Dubose, Wm. Lang, Joseph 
Brevard, Zick Cintey, John Kershaw, Abram Blanding, 
John Adamson, Jas. Clark, John McCaa, Ben Carter, Win. 
Parker, Jas. Mickle, John Kirkpatrick, Francis S. Lee, Saml. 
Bread, Jonathan Eccle.s, Henry H. Dickinson, Danl. Rose, 
William Huthison, Jamis Young, John Trent, J. D Diveaux, 
Thomas Wilson, James W. Ker, William Cloud, Jos. 
H. Howell, Reuben Arthur, Alexander Mathison, Wylie 
Dangham. 

At a meeting held the 6th July, 1805 of the Presbyterian 
congregation, at the Court House, Camden, Dr. Isaac Alex- 
ander was appointed Chairman, and Abram Blanding, Secre- 
tary. The names above enrolled being all present. 

Resolved, That the congregation for the purpose of secur- 
ing the services of the Rev. Andrew Flinn, do hereby guar- 
antee to him the sum of eight hundred dollars per annum 
during his continuance to discharge the duties of pastor. 

The Rev. Andrew Flinn, having accepted the call from the 
Church, entered upon the duties of the office on the ist of 
January, 1806. 

At a meeting of the congregation held at the church on 
the 20th of February, 1806, an election for Ruling Elders 
was held, when the following persons were duly elected, viz : 

Isaac Alexander, William Lang, John Kirkpatrick, William 
Ancrum, James S. Murray. 

Mr. William Ancrum having declined to act as Elder, Mr. 
Zebulon Rudolph was elected in his room. 

Meanwhile Rev. Mr. (afterwards Dr.) Flinn, at the meeting 
of the First Presbytery of South Carolina, held at Zion 
Church (Winnsboro') on the i itli of March, 1806, presented a 
certificate of dismission from the Presbytery of Orange, by 
which he was licensed and ordained and was received as a 
member in connection with that Presbytery. At the same 
time " the Rev. Duncan Brown in behalf of a people in the 
town of Camden and its vicinity, petitioned that the said 
people may be taken under the care of this Presbytery, be 
known by the name of Bethesda of Camden, and receive sup- 



J800-1810.] ANDREW PLINN, D. D. 81 

plies." The prayer of their petitioner was granted. Presbytery 
on the next day appointed the Rev. Andrew Flinn "stated sup- 
ply at Bsthesda of Camden until thsir next niseting, and that he 
attend to the organization of that society." At their nextsession 
at Bethel, York, September 30 and October i. Mr. Flinn re- 
ported that he had acted as stated supply, and had effected 
the organization of the Society as he had been directed. At 
their next meeting.'March 4th and 5th, 1807, the call from 
Camden was presented to Presbytery, placed in his hands, 
and by him accepted, and the Rev. William C. Davis was 
appointed to embrace the earliest opportunity to install Mr. 
Flinn as pastor of the congregation. The fir.st of these dates 
are tVom the MS. account of the church l)y the venerable Jas. 
K. Douglas, written late in 1852; the last is from the minutes 
of Presbytery. 

ANDREW FLINN, D. D., 

The Rev. Andrew Flinn was born in Maryland in 1773. 
His parents removed to Mecklenburg County, N. C, when 
he was little more than a year old. When he was twelve 
years of age his father died, leaving his widowed motner with 
si.x small children, and with stinted means. The extraordi- 
nary promise of his youth induced certain of his friends to 
encourage him to pursue a life of study, and to aid him in its 
prosecution. He prepared for the University of North Caro- 
lina under the instruction of Rev. Dr. James Hall and some 
others, where he graduated with distinction in 1799. He was 
licensed to preach by the Presbytery of Orange some time in 
1800, and his first pulpit efforts excited great attention. Hav- 
ing preached at Hillsborough and some other places, he 
accepted in January, 1803, an invitation to supply the pulpit 
in Fayetteville, vacated by the resignation of Dr. Robinson, 
where he was ordained in the month of June and installed as 
pastor. The labor of teaching, which he was obliged to add 
to those of the pulpit, proving too oppressive, he felt himself 
obliged to resign his charge and accept the invitation to Cam- 
den. He remained here till 1809, when his pastoral relation 
with the concjregation of Bethesda of Camden was dissolved. 
A temporary arrangement for the supply of the pulpit was 
made with the Rev. W. Brantly, until a regular pastor dould 
be procured. On the i6th of October, 1809, the Rev. B. R. 
6 



82 ZION CHURCH, WINNSBORO. [1800-1810. 

Montgomery was called, with a salary of g6oo. Bethesda, of 
Camden, was reported as having thirty-three communicants 
in September, 1809. 

As our thoughts turn towards the Zion Church they pause 
for a momLMit on the locality of the German Reformed Pkes- 
BYTERJAN Church ON Cedar Creek, and to the name of Du- 
bard, its preacher, at the period of the revolution. The organ- 
ization has long since passed away, and been superseded by 
one of ai^other denomination, but the name of the ancient 
minister still remains, and was borne by A. F. Dubard, a 
Christian man of many virtues, well known and much appre- 
ciated, who was killed a few months .since, in these times of 
misrule, by an assassin's hand as he was quietly returning in 
the evening on the public highway, from the town of Colum- 
bia lo his own dwelling. 

Zion Church (Winnsboro') had applied to be received 
under the care of the Presbytery of South Carolina in Octo- 
ber, 1799. 

It had been agreed at the fall meeting of the Presbytery 
in 1798, that the Presbytery of South Carolina should be 
divided, and that Broad River, in its whole course to the 
Ocean, should be the dividing line between the two bodies 
thus constituted. The Synod of the Carolinas was to act on 
this proposition, at its impending meeting at Hopewell Church 
on tne 31st of October, 1799. This division was effected. 
The members on the northeast side of the river constituted 
the First Presbytery of South Carolina, and the members on 
the southwest side were to be known as the Second Presbytery 
of South Carolina. This action was taken by the Synod of 
the Carolinas, and The First Presbytery of South Carolina held 
its first session, as direrted, at Bullock's Creek {alias Dan) on 
the 7th of February, 1800. At its second meeting, attJnity 
Church, on the 29th of September, 1800, Zion Church re- 
newed its petition for supplies. These occasional supplies, 
the first of whom is said to have been the Rev. Robt. McCul- 
loch, it was privileged to enjoy, and the administration of 
baptism to their children. Their next supply was' the Rev. 
John Foster, who had been called in March, 1801, from Salem 
Church, Black River, to the Presidency of Mount Zion Col- 
lege. He was employed to preach to them a part of his time, 
and this arrangement continued during the two years of his 
presidency. 



1800-1810.] EEV. GEORGE REID. 83 

On- the 27th of September, 1805, a letter was laid before the 
First Presbytery of South Carolina, at its session at Richardson 
Church, endorsing a ca'l from the congregation of Zion Church, 
for the pastoral services of George Reid, a licentiate under the 
care of the Presbytery. The confidence of the Presbytery in 
the ability of this young man in matters of business, is mani- 
fested by their electing him tlieir treasurer on the resignation 
of his piedecessor in that office. (Minutes, p. 43, 72).* The 
call, on the next day, was put into the hands of Mr. Reid, 
and by him accepted; but it appeared by an accompanying 
letter that the congregation had elected elders who were 
willing to serve, but had never been ordained. The llev. 
Samuel B. Young, of Lebanon Church, was appointed to or- 
dain and install them in their office before the next legular 
meeting of Presbytery, which it was agreed should be held at 
Zion Church, Winnsboro'. The ordination of the elders took 
place according to appointment, and was duly reported. 
(Minutes, p. 79.) 

These transactions occurred on the 28th of September, 
1805, at a meeting held at Richardson Church. The next 
regular session of Presbytery was held at Zion (Winnsboro') 
on the nth of March, 1806, and on the 13th, Mr. Reid was 
ordained "to the whole of the "Gospel ministry, the ordination 
sermon being preached in the college by the Rev. John B. 
Davies, from i Thess., ii : 4, and after the rite of ordination 
was performed, '' a suitable and pathetic charge was addressed 
to Mr. _ Reid and the congregation by tlie Rev. Andrew 
Flinn." (Minutes of First Presbytery, p 79.) In June, the 
sacrament of the Lord's Supper was dispensed to this Church 
for the first time. Twenty-seven communicants and two 
elders united in celebrating the sufferings and death of their 
Lord and SavJour.f In 1807 their pastor left them." (MS. 

* A two-fold delegation waited upon Mr. Reid, at this time, of men 
held in high esteem, one in behalf of the Mount Zion Society, which 
had elected him President of the College, and one in behalf of the con- 
gregation, expecting, between the two offices, to secure to him a com- 
petent support. At that time there Was no division in the community, 
all apparently favoring the Presbyterian faith and order. 

t The communion was held in an outbuilding in Mr. Creighton 
Buchannan's yard (afterwards Mr. McMaster's), and was an occasion of 
great joy to the Church. Measures had already been inaugurated for 
the constructing of a church edifice ; a suitable lot had been given as 
its site by Maj. Thomas Means. The corner-stone was laid in 1809, but 
the church was not finished nntil 1811. The Court House was the or- 
dinary place of public worship. 



84 LEBANON CHUECH, FAIRFIELD. [1800-1810. 

Hist. Session Book.) The record in the Presbyterial Minutes 
dates the dissolution of tiie pastoral connection by act of 
Presbytery, on September 29th, 1807. (Minutes, p. 90. of First 
Presbytery of South Carolina.) At the same time.Mr.Reid 
applied for leave to travel out of the bounds of Presbs tery for 
six months, which leave was granted, and Mr. Reid and Mr. 
Stephenson, who had obtained leave for- one year, were furnished 
with certificates of their standing. The Zion Church was de- 
clared vacant, and John Foster was twice appointed by Presby- 
tery to supply it. Mr. Reid appears to have returned from his 
travels after a brief absence, and to have resumed nearly his 
former position in the community. The congregation were 
satisfied with him as a preacher, and those who had children 
and relatives in college, and the students themselves, recog- 
nized his abilities as a teacher. The Society in Charleston, 
however, withdrew their countenance from him. For a 
season he continued to teach on his own account in the col- 
lege, until notice was served upon him that another pro- 
fessor would be appointed. The trustees in Winnsboro' 
recommended Rev. John Foster, who was appointed a 
second time as principal in the school. The congregation, 
however, or the large majority of them, desired him to con- 
tinue, both as their pastor and the teacher of their children. 
As soon as it became necessary to give place to Mr. Foster 
in the college building, other and desirable quarters were 
procured for him, and he continued his usual labors in both 
capacities through the remainder of thisdecade. Dui;ing the 
entire period of Mr. Reid's ministry, the general interests of 
religion prospered. 

Mount Zion Congregation was incorporated by the Legis- 
lature December 20th, 1810. (Statutes, Vol. VII, p. 258.) 
An earlier incorporation had been made March 19th, 1778. 
{Ibid, p. 139.) 

The Elders in Zion Church: James Beaty, elected in 1805, 
had been an elder in Mt. Olivet Church ; John Porter, elected 
in 1808, an elder elsewhere before; Wm. McCreight, elected 
in 1808, installed January 15, 1809, had been an elder in 
Lebanon Church, Jackson's Creek. 

Lebanon Church (Jackson's Creek) Fairfield was minis- 
tered to by Rev. Samuel Yongue, during this decade. We 
have been able to learn but a few facts pertaining to its his- 
tory. The two congregations of Lebanon and Mt. Olivet 



1800-1810.] OFFICES IN CHUHCH AND STATE. 85 

remained united under liis pastoral care. (Sse vol. i, p. 599.) 
Mr. Yongua's compensation from his churches' was small, as 
it was wont to be at that time, and alas, still is with ministers, 
his family was increasing, and he sought and obtained the 
offices of Clerk of Court and Ordinary, whose duties, with the 
assistance of his family, he continaed for a length of time to 
perform, and which enabled him to live in spite of the small 
compensation for ministerial services he received. His ab- 
sence from the meetings of Presbytery were, under these cir- 
cumstances, quite frequent. In reference to cases of this 
kind the Presbytery exhibited great solicitude, as it was 
faithful also in other cases in watching over the conduct of 
its members. On the 7th of October, 1807, we find the fol- 
lowing action recorded : Whereas the Synod of the Caro- 
linas at their last sessions, in consequence of an overture 
introduced through the Committee of Overtures, requesting 
their opinion respecting the propriety of ministers of the 
Gospel accepting and holding civil offices whjch divert their 
attention from their ministerial duty and bring reproach upon 
the sacred ministry, have expressed their disapprobation of 
such conduct and passed a resolution requiring those Pres- 
byteries where such instances are to be found, to adopt the 
most effectual measures to induce such ministers to lay aside 
such offices and devote themselves wholly to their ministerial 
duties. Therefore 

Resolved, That the Rev. Samuel W. Yongue and the Rev. 
William G. Rosborough be cited to appear at our next sessions, 
that the Presbytery may enter into a conference with them 
with respect to the inconsistency of their continuing in those 
offices which they respectively hold. 

Ordered that the clerk furnish each of those members 
before mentioned with a copy of this minute, accompanied 
with a citation to appear at our next sessions. 

At their next session, held at Bethel Church, " the Presby- 
tery entered into a free conversation with the Rev. Messrs. 
Yongue and Rosborough, and, after some time spent on the 
business, 

" Resolved, That the matter, as a general question of disci- 
pline, be referred to the General Assembly for their decision. 



86 MT. OLIVET HOEEB [1800-1810. 

" The question is in the words following : ' Is it inconsistent 
with the discipline of the Presbyterian Church in the United 
States of America that ministers of the Gospel hold any civil 
office under our civil Government?' " 

The Rev. William C. Davis, who represented the Presby- 
tery in 1808, reported that the General Assembly answered 
this question " in the negative, i. e., that it is not inconsistent." 
(Minutes of the First Presbyter)' of Soulh Carolina, pp. 85, 88, 
103.) The direct action on this case was to reaffirm the decision 
of the Assembly, in 1806, in the case of Rev. Boyd Mercer, of 
Ohio (who, being too infirm in health to discharge the regular 
duties of the ministry, devoted himself to the functions of an 
Associate Judge), that "there is nothing in the Scriptures, or 
in the Constitution, acts, or proceedings of the Presbyterian 
Church in these United States expressly prohibitory of such 
union of office." That decision, however, is accompanied 
with a caution to the clergy "against worldly-niinded- 
ness," exhorts thetn " not to aspire after places of emolument 
or civil distinction ; " reminds them " that the care of souls 
is their peculiar business, and they who serve at the altar 
ought, as far as possible, to avoid temporal avocations." 
(Minutes 1806, p. 363 ; 1808, p. 399; Baird's Digest, p. 69.) 
Lebanon Church reported 1 20 members in 1810. 

Mt. Olivet. — This Society, which haa usually been called, 
from the stream near which it stood, the Wateree Chukch 
AND Congregation, requested Presbytery (the First Presby- 
tery of South Carolina) at the fall meeting in the year 1800, that 
it, in future, should be known on the Minutes by the name of 
Mount Olivet. It was a portion of the charge of Rev. Samuel 
Whorter Yongue. He was licensed April i6th, 1793, and 
supplied this congregation some two or three years. He 
received a call to this charge in conjunction with Lebanon, 
and was ordained in February, 1796, and became pastor here 
in 1798. The salary voted him, October, 1799, was ;£'40 
sterling for half his time. The full organization of the con- 
gregation, as indicated by the rules adopted by it, was in the 
year 1796. The first house of worship was a frame building, 
which served the uses of the congregation for about forty 
years. 

HoREB Church. — This church was formed, according to 
the recollection of the oldest member of the congregation 
who was living in 1850, about the time Mr. McCaule resigned 



1^00-1810.] CONCORD — AIMWELL. 87 

the Presidency of Mt. Zion College and the charge of Jack ■ 
son's Creek, 2. ,?., about 1791 or 1792. Its first elders, ac- 
cording to her recolleaion, were James Brown, one by the 
name of Boyd, and another, name not remembered. It is 
near Crooked Run, a tributary to Cedar Creek, and affluent 
of Broad River, and was first known on the Minutes of the 
Presbytery by the name of the stream, " Crooked Run." It 
requested, on ttie 8th of February, 1800, that it should be 
known by the naTie Horeb, and should receive supplies. It 
presented, through Presbytery, a call to Wm. G. Rosborough 
for his services, September 30, iBoD, simultaneou-ily with 
Concord Church. On the 4th of February, 1801, Mr. Ros- 
borough was ordained by tiie First Presbytery of South Carolina 
(then holding its third session at Horeb), as pastor of the united 
congregations of Concord and Horeb, Rev. John B. Davies 
preaching the sermon from 2d Cor., iv., 5. Rev. Robt. B. 
Walker presided, and gave the charge to the pastor and 
•people. On the 13th of March, 1806, Mr. Rosborough was 
released from his pastorate here, and the church declared 
vacant. The church was often called by the name of its first 
settled pastor, and is so named in Mills' atlas and map of the 
State. It was now dependent for some time on occasional 
- supplies. Horeb Church is about eight miles south from 
Winnsboro. 

Concord Church is about ten miles from Winnsboro', and 
was, as we have seen, united with Horeb under Mr. Ros- 
borough, in the same pastoral charge. He retained the pas- 
torship of Concord until his death. 

AiMWELL Church (on Cedar Creek) is about eight miles 
west of Winnsboro'. It was received under the care of the 
old Presbytery of South Carolina, October 25, 1799, just 
before its division into the First and Second Presbyteries. 
The first church edifice seems to have been built about 1799, 
on land given by Francis Robinson the year previous. John 
Rosborough was the first elder. About two years elapsed, 
when Wm. Robinson was ordained as elder. Rev. George 
Reid, who was ordained as pastor of Zion Church, Winns- 
boro', and was principal of Mount Zion College, preached to 
this church for about 7 years before he removed to Camden. 
If this were the case, Mr. Reid's ministry must have com- 
menced here in about 1802, and while he was yet a licentiate. 
The church consisted, it is supposed, in Mr. Reid's time, of 
about thirty members. 



88 HANGING ROCK — MILLER's. [1800-1810. 

The church of Beaver Creek is situated on the stream so 
called, about 21 or 22 miles a little west of north from Cam- 
den. The Rev. Robert McCulloch fcad been dismissed by 
the Presbytery from the pastoral charge of this church in 
October, 1792, '' in consequence of the congregation failing 
greatly in the support promised in the call. The congrega- 
tion is, at present, in a broken, disorderly state." (Historical 
account sent up to the Assembly in April, 1694.) It remained 
vacant during this decade. It was supplied, under order of 
Presbytery, by Rev. George G. McWhorter, in 1808, and by 
Robt. McCulloch in 1809. On March 1st, in this year, the 
First Presbytery held its regular sessions at this church. 

Hanging Rock, named from one of the tributaries of Little 
Lynch's Creek, was in the general neighborhood of Beaver 
Creek church, and, probably, in Lancaster District. Mr. 
McCulloch was ordered to supply it at two different times, in 
1807 and 1808. Beaver Creek and Hanging Rock are re- 
ported, in 1808, as " vacancies " able to support a pastor. ■ 

Miller's Church. This, with Beaver Creek and Hanging 
Rock, were reported as vacant in 1800, but are represented 
as able, united, to support a minister. The First Presbytery 
of South Carolina held its eleventh stated session at this 
church on the 15th and i6thof March, 1805. The attendance 
was small — G. G. McWhorter, J. B. Davies and John Cousar, 
ministers present, with James Crawford and William Carter, 
elders ; absent. Rev. Messrs. Alexander, McCulloch, Stephen- 
son, Walker, Yongue, Foster, Rosboruugh, and D. Brown. 
Miller's Church does not appear on the Minutes of Presby- 
tery much longer. It was, probably, soon absorbed by the 
church of Beaver Creek. 

Catholic* Church, Chester District. Rev. Robert McCul- 
loch continued the pastor of this church, in connection with 
PuRiTV, until his lamentable fall. In consequence of this, he 
was, on the 13th of November, i8oo, deposed from the min- 

*The reason for giving the name " Catholic " to the Church was 
owing to the mixed character of the families who united in erecting the 
house— consisting of emigrants wlio had been connected with the dif- 
ferent branches of the Presbyterian Societies of Ireland, viz : the Pres- 
byterian (so-called), the Associate and the Keformed Presbyterians, or 
the Covenanters — agreeing that it should become the property of which- 
soever should succeed in obtaining the first settled pastor, and it thus 
became the property of the Presbyterian Church, under the care of the 
General As.sembly. 



1800-1810.] CATHOLIC CHURCH. 89 

istry and suspended from the privileges of the church. These 
things are proofs of human imperfection ; and yet religion 
has its place in the world, and the Church still stands ; nor 
were such instances of defection, even of renowned servants 
of God, wanting in Scripture times. It was probably in view 
of this, and moved by the evidences of his repentance, that 
his Church, September 28, 1801, petitioned for his restoration 
to the ministry. This the Presbytery did not then grant, 
first, because it would be improper to return him to the minis- 
try before he was received into the communion of the Church, 
and secondly, there should be very satisfactory evidence of 
repentance, reformation and aptness to teach. But after he 
should give satisfaction to the Church, Presbytery had no 
objection that he should use his talents among them in their 
religious meetings for their instruction, yet in such a way as 
was consistent with the dutic-s of a private Christian only.. 
In those unofficial labors he engaged, holding prayer meet- 
ings, accompanied with exhortation, through the congrega- 
tion, and drawing back to him the affections of his people. 
On the 17th of March, 1802, the congregation renewed their 
petition, being satisfied of his repentance and that he v/ould 
be as useful as ever in tlie ministry, if not more so, if restored. 
Presbytery, after careful enquiry and full communication with 
the offender absolved him from the sentence of. deposition 
and appointed him to preach in their vacant Churches. This 
he did both to his own Church and to others. For several 
years he was reported as a minister withtjut charge, and 
Catholic Church as vacant. The defection of Mr; McCullocli 
was followed by a great decline in Catholic congregation just 
when the interests of religion were advancing rapidly else- 
where. Many withdrew from the communion of tiie Cliurch, 
some of whom joined the Covenanters, some the Old Asso- 
ciate, and some the Associate Reformed, and some remained 
out of the communion of any Church. The Reformed Pres- 
byterians and many of those who regarded themselves as 
a branch of the Kirk of Scotland, kept up their " Society 
meetings," taught their children the principles of religion, 
and observed the Sabbath strictly. Those Presbyterians who 
were of Irish birth were warned by friendsin the old country 
to beware of the " New Lights." Without discriminating, 
they included under this term not only those inclined to 
Socinianism who had come here from Ireland, but the Ameri- 



90 HOPEWELL, CHESTER DISTRICT. [1800-1810. 

can Presbyterians, and Whitefield, and the advocates of Mod- 
ern Revivals. Hence they were little affected by tlie revivals 
which prevailed in many congregations of the South in 1802, 
upon which many of the Irish, and the Scotch no less, looked 
with disapprobation. 

Between 1802 and 1805 John Brown, Sr., a soldier of the 
revolution; John Graham and Samuel Ferguson, were added 
to the session, and after the death of John Graham, Joseph 
Simpson was elected in his place. Mr. McCuliock continued 
to preach at Catholic. In the years iSo/and 1808 he preached 
one-fourth of his time at Rocky Mount. On the first of the 
year 1809 he commenced preaching in the neighborhood of 
Beckhamville, at a newly built church called Bethlehem, a 
branch of Catholic, one-fourth of his time. (Papers of Rev. J. 
B. Davies, D. C. Stinson, and Rev. Jas. H. Saye.) 

HOPEWELL, CHESTKR DISTRICT. 

"A new Church had arisen in the former bounds of Catholic, 
of which we were not aware when our first volume was issued. 
The separation between Hopewell and Catholic took place in 
1788. These people had existed as one society for about 
seventeen years. The two old elders, Thos. McDill and Da- 
vid McQueston, who had been elders in Ireland, assisted at 
the first communion at Catholic. The division between these 
Churches was geographical. Draw a line from Hugh McDon- 
ald's and Robert Parker's, the plantation now owned by Mrs 
Moore, Sam McCallough's plantation, now owned by VVm. 
Caldwell, David McCallough, now Caldwell's mills, on Bull's 
Creek ; Robert Jamison's and Corder's. West of this line is 
Hopewell ; east, Catholic, down to Catawba River. Those 
families that seemed to be all connected, divided this line, to 
wit : Geo. Cherry and wife, brother-in-law to Chestnut, to 
Moffatt, McDill and Meek. They lemained in Catholic. The 
brother-in-law of David McQueston was a ruling elder in old 
Richardson Church. At that day people entered the Church 
most convenient to them. After January, 1801, when Rev. 
Robert McCuliock was suspended from the ministry, many 
persons went over to Hopewell Church, to wit : Sam, Macauly 
and family, David Macauly and the Nixon girls, step-daugh- 
ters, and some others. F"rom Purity, Ed. McDaniel, a ruling 
elder, and Matthew Elder's family. There were frequent 



1800-1810.] PURITY CHURCH. 91 

changes from one Church to the other, even down to the 
present time." 

Purity Church, the congregation of which bordered upon 
that of Cathohc, and which was united under the same pasto- 
rate, is in the centre of Chester District (or as it is now called 
county, as vas the case formerly), and had its house of worship 
within two miles of Cliesterville. While the Presbytery was 
in session at Catholic Church in the case of Mr. McCullock, 
it is alleged that there were many outside and improper influ- 
ences introduced on the part of the prosecution. Tlie resent- 
ment of the people against the accuser was so great for the 
manner in which he attempted to bias testimony and suborn 
witnesses that it was found necessary to apply for a military 
guard to protect his person. There had manifestly been 
great imprudence on the part of the accused and a criminal 
intent. This he admitted, but denied criminality of outward 
act. He was deeply afflicted at the decision but bowed sub- 
missively to it. There was a decided opinion in relation to 
him. But he won back the affections, confidence and sym- 
pethies of the congregation of Catholic, which remained till 
they were earnest for his restoration, and did not rest till it 
was accomplished. Purity Church did not unite in the peti- 
tion, nor were they willing to receive him. It therefore re- 
mained vacant with only occasional supplies until 1806. In 
March, however, 1802, a call was sent up to the First Pres- 
bytery of South Carolina for the ministerial labors of Thomas 
Neely (then a licentiate), by Purity and Catholic Churches 
conjointly. It was infoimal, not being duly certified, and 
probably coming only from a minority of Catholic Church. 
It was returned to the congregation with explanations. Cer- 
tain grievances of a portion of this congregation were laid 
before Presbytery. 

" The petition of a number of persons representing them- 
selves as beirjga part of Purity congregation, praying redress 
of certain grievances, was taken under consideration, and 
after some general observations were made, on motion, it 
was — 

Resolved, That each paragraph be separately considered. 

" The first paragraph was then read as follows.: We believe 
that the Churches had all the, instituted means of grace and sal- 
vation before the existence of camp meetings among us, nor can 
we think that there is any divine warrant for them. 



92 PURITY CHURCH. [1800-1810. 

" From observations dropped from different quarters of the 
house, It appeared that a diversity of opinion prevailed on 
this subject. Therefore, upon motion made, the question was 
put whether we had a divine warrant for camp meetings or 
not, and carried in the affirmative. The yeas and nays being 
required to be inserted in the minutes, are as follows : 

Yeas — The Rev. Messrs. Alexander, Stephensan, Brown, 
Walker, Davis, Rosborough and Messrs. McCreary and 
Crafford, Elders — 8. 

Nays — The Rev. Messrs. McCulloch, Dunlap, Yongue and 
S. IVIcCulloch, Elders — 4. 

" The second paragraph was read as follows : Ministers of 
other denominations have been permitted to preach in those as- 
.semblies and to associate zvith our ministers in the exercise of 
religion without the apptobation of our Church or even any terms 
of religions correspondence, union and communion entered upon 
by the parties themselves, known to us. 

" Respecting this paragraph we take the liberty to observe 
that inasmuch as the petitioners have not been sufficiently 
explicit in pointing out the denominations to which they 
refer we conceive that we cannot give an explicit answer in 
this case. 

"The third paragraph was read, viz : Members of the Metho- 
dist persuasion have been admitted to the table of the Lord in 
communion with the Presbyterians. We do conceive that the 
Methodists are very erroneous in some of the most important 
articles of the Christian religion, and therefore we consider it 
highly improper that such a toleration should be granted to that 
class of people in the Presbyterian Church. 

" R<;specting this paragraph we also observe that we cannot 
think that merely the circumstance of a man's being called a 
Methodist is a sufficient reason why a person should be 
excluded from the communion of the church, provided he 
be otherwise qualified, and as the petitioners have not defined 
the particular doctrines held, or supposed to be held by the 
Methodists, which they conceive to be erroneous, we cannot 
with propriety go into a decision on them. 

'' The fourth paragraph was read in these words : 

" Another subject, which tve take the liberty to represent and 
state ^ is, that a t egular system of psalmody has been introduced 
into this congregation contrary to our consent and approbation. 



1800-1810.] EEV. THOMAS NEELY. 93 

The truth is, iice are not as yet persuaded tliat it is our duty to sing 
any oilier but the Psalms of David in Christian tvorship. We 
must claim the privilige of tvorshippiug God agreeably to the 
dictates of our oivii consciences, and in the way which ivas for- 
merly practiced in this congregation. 

*" On this subject we would observe thaf, in as much as the 
late Synod of New York and Philiidelphia, and the General 
Assembly, have already made certain regulations on the sub- 
ject of Psalmody, we beg leave to refer the petitioners to their 
printed extracts ; at the same time observing that, as the 
Synod aforesaid, and the General Assembly, do not oppose 
the use of any particular system of Psalmody, or any con- 
trary to their wish, neither do we." 

" On the I ith of March, 1806, Purity united with Edmonds 
(a church recently organized some eight miles northwest of 
Chester C. H.) in a call-to Mr. Neely to become their pastor, 
and he was accordingly ordained and installed over these 
two churches, on the 17th of October in that year, the Rev. 
W. C. Davis presiding and delivering the charge, and Rev. 
J. B. Davies preaching the sermon from 2d Cor., iv. 13. last 
clause. Mr. Neelj' was a native of York District, pursued 
his theological studies with Dr. Joseph Alexander, of Bullock's 
Creek, and continued in this charge throuiJh the remainder 
of this decade. In the last part of it he labored in the midst 
of much bodily infirmity. On September agtii, 1809, he ex- 
cused himself from attending on Presbytery (as also did Rev. 
Mr. r>.osborough) for this reason, and requested that supplies 
be appointed toJiis charges until the design of Providence in 
respect to him may be ascertained." During the labors of 
Mr. McCulloch witli Purity congregation, the Bench of Elders 
consisted of Wm. Lewis, Edw. McDaniel, Robert Boyd, 
James Kennedy, Andrew Morrison, and John Wilson. In 
1800 appear the names of John Bell and Hugh Gaston. 
After the trial of Mr. McCulloch, John Bell and Edward 
McDaniel withdrew to the Associate Reformed Church at 
Hopewell, under the charge of Rev. John Hemphill. John 
Wilson removed to the State of Kentuck-y. One year pre- 
vious to the settlement of Mr. Neely, William Bradford, John 
Harden, and Robert Walker were ordained ruling elders. 
These three, with James Kennedy and Wm. Lewis, consti- 
tuted the eldership at this time. 

The Rev. John Douglas, who is our authority for much of 



94 PURITY, ITS FIRST CHURCH EDIFICE. [1800-1810. 

what we have here said, in his History of Purity Church, 
written in 1865 and pubhshed in 1870, thus describes the 
houses of worship : " The first house of worship erected by 
this congregation, which was many years before Mr. 
McCulloch's day, was a small loghouse, which stood only a 
few paces in the rear of the site of the present building. It 
was made of the roughest materials, not of such cedar trees 
and fir trees as Hiram gave Solomon. It was neither ceiled 
with cedar, nor painted with vermilion, nor did it go up with- 
out sound of hammer or axe. Each neighbor brought in his 
own unhewn log, freshly cut from the adjacent forest ; thus, 
nearly in a day, a shelter was provided that would screen the 
worshipper from the summer's scorching sun and the pelting 
storms of winter. It was built of round logs, covered with 
clapboards, fastened down witii weiglit-poles. It was built 
on a piece of vacant land of about eleven acres in extent." 
It seems that the architect of " tJie second temple " had not 
studied among the ruins of Athens, Corinth or Ephesus. 
" It was during Mr. McCulloch's ministry at Purity, the 
second house of worship was built. This stood directly in 
front of the present church. It was, no doubt, the design of 
its framers that " the glory of this latter house should be 
greater than the former." Unlike Solomon's chariot it was 
not made of the wood of Lebanon, nor were its pillars of 
silver, nor its coverings of purple, nor was it always paved 
with love. It was a loghouse, though its timber were 
hewed, had a shingled roof, but like Noah's ark had but one 
window and not many doors. Accurately to describe its 
form or dimension by cubit or rules, would require much 
greater architectural skill than the writer professes to pos- 
sess, although he still has its ineffaceable picture distinctly 
daguereotyped in his mind. As for its form there could 
have been no idolatrous design to violate the second com- 
mandment, for '' it was not niade in the likeness of anything 
that was made," " neither was it made according to the pattern 
God gave Moses in the Mount." It was intended more for 
" the useful than the ornamental" One of the most memo- 
rable reminiscences connected with this venerable house of 
God (especially with the juveniles), was its so-called "seats" 
or benches. They were of split timbers, hastily hewed and 
not carefully planed, with high, strait-backs, so high from the 
floor the young could not touch it with their toes, conse- 



1800-1810.] EDMONDS — FISHING CHEEK. 95 

quently they had no means of shifting po.sition or relieving 
the tedium so peculiar to them in " tiiis prison of boyiiood." 
Even to those of riper years and more devout feelings, they 
were so unpliant and so uncomfortable that they must hnve 
felt more like being seated on the " stool of repentance" than 
engaged in the pleasant devotions of the sanctuary. Though 
unique and rustic in its exterior, this house served its day 
and was pulled down to give place to one more becoming the 
service of God. It is very plain the authors of this iiouse of 
worship did not agree with a celebrated modern Doctor of 
Divinity, that cushioned seats are truly "means of grace." 

Edmonds Church, mentioned above, says Rev. John B. 
Davies, was reorganized as a church September 22, 1802, and 
for two or three years was supplied by Mr. George Reid, a 
licentiace of the First Presbytery of South Carotina. It is 
near Sadler's Cross Roads in the northern part of Chester 
District. It was fully organized by Rev. Robt. B. Walker, 
and as such reported to Presbytery in 1 805. In 1806 they 
united with Pyrity under the ministerial labors of Rev. 
Thomas Neely, who served them through the remainder of 
this decade. 

Fishing Creek (upper) and Richardson's (formerly Lower 
Fishing Creek). — The Rev. John B. Davies became, as we 
saw, Vol. I, p. 603, pastor of these churches May 14, 1799, and 
continued so, far beyond the period of which we now write. 
In common with many otiier churches, they shared in the 
quickening and refreshing intluences of the Holy Spirit in 
1802, which continued on with happy results for some four 
years. The following additions were made to the session in 
successive years: In 1801, Hugh Gaston; in 1804, Josiah 
Porter, Charles Brown, Wm. Walker, and D. Davis ; in 1808, 
James Steele, James Wallis, and Samuel Lewis. The fol- 
lowing is a list of communicants at the beginning of his min- 
istry, in 1799, viz: Rev. J. B. Davies, Pastor; Samuel Neely, 
David Carr, David Neely, Thos. Neely, and Thos. Latta, 
Elders; Mrs. Polly Davies, Sarah Neely, Margaret Carr, 
Agnes Neely, Prudence Neely, Martha Latta, John and 
Margaret Latta. Eliza Chambers, Widow McClure, Martha 
Gaston, Hugh McClure, Jane McClure, Mary Porter, David 
and Jane Davis, Thomas and Agnes Wright, Wm, Anderson, 
Joseph Walker, Widow Bishop, Widow McColloch, Mary 
Elliot, Jas. and Jane Armstrong, Charles Brown, Wm, and 



96 bullock's ceeek. [isoo-isio. 

Agnes Thorn, John and Martha Walker, Jane Walker. Eh'za- 
beth Lemon, Widow Knox, David, Margaret and Sarah 
Boyd, Cliristopher and Rose Strait, John Mills, Sarah Gill, 
J'lsiah and Rachel Porter. Total — 48. Received in 1799. 
Elizabeth Mills, Elizabeth Neely, Isabel Allen, Sarah McHugh, 
Thomas Miller, making a total of 53 at the beginning of 
this century. The total of members at the end of 1800 was 
60; at the end of i8or, 68 ; of 1802, 65 ; of 1803, 68 ; of 
1804, 77- Down to this time, 80 had been received into the 
Church on profession, and 24 by certificates. Some had 
died, many had been dismissed, and the number at the begin- 
ning of 1810 was 75. 

In Richardson Church there were elected as elders, in 
18 10, David Patten, Thomas Nesbit, and Abram Walker. 
This church was part of the charge of Rev. J. B. Davies. 

Bur. lock's Creek. — At the commencement of this century 
the Rev. Joseph Alexander was still the pastor of this church. 
We have anticipated, in our first volume, a few years in this, 
indicating, as we have done, on page 603, his release from 
his pastoral charge, which took place by his own request on 
the 27th of March, 1 80 1. He speaks of the number of com- 
municants being small, and reduced from what it once was, 
amounting, at that time, to 85 ; of their diminished interest, 
in public worship, and in the business of the Church ; of their 
perfect inattention to the collection of his stipend, and want 
of interest in his ministry, as the reasons of his request. It 
betokens a low state of religion in a community when these 
things are so. But it is the calamity which often comes 
upon the aged minister, though he may have worn his life 
0ut in the service of the Church. He was honored, as we 
have before said, with the degree of Doctor of Divinity, in 
1807, some two years before his death. He was held in 
honor by his brethren in the ministry, as the foUo'wing reso- 
lution of the Presbytery shows : 

" Resolved, That the death of the Rev. Dr. Joseph Alexan- 
der, who departed this life on the 30tli day of July last, brings 
to our lively recollection the sense we entertamed of his great 
usefulness in planting many of our churches, and in devot- 
ing forty or fifty years of his life to the propagation of the 
Gospel in these Southern States." (Minutes, September 29, 
1809.) 



1800-1810.] NAZARETH CHURCH. 97 

Dr. Alexander was succeeded, for a season, by William 
Cummins Davis, who was born December i6, 1760; was 
graduated at Mt. Zion College, where he was both student 
and tutor, in 1786; was licensed by the Presbytery of South 
Carolina in 1787 ; was ordained as pastor of Nazareth and 
Milford churches in 1789. He was released from this charge 
in 1792. He was dismissed to the Presbytery of Concord, 
October 13th, 1797, and, soon after, was settled as pastor of 
OIney, N. C. In 1803 he was appointed by a commission of 
Synod to " act as a stated missionary " to the Catawba Indians 
until the next stated meeting of Synod, and to superintend 
the school in that nation. In 1805, by permission of the 
Presbytery of Concord, he supplied the church of Bullock's 
Creek. On the 30th of September, 1806, he was received 
into the First Presbytery of South Carolina, and at the same 
meeting, a call was presented to him from Bullock's Creek, 
which he accepted, and a committee was appointed to install 
him. He was twice appointed commissioner to the General 
Assembly, and in 1808 he attended the sessions in Philadel- 
phia. He was, also, in 1805, 1806, 1807 and 1808; on the 
General Assembly's Standing Coinmittee of Missions. He 
was, therefore, so tar, a man held in honor, of a vigorous in- 
tellect, of considerable influence among the people, an inter- 
esting preacher, given more than most men to metaphysical 
speculation. This led him into error, which brought him 
under the notice of ecclesiastical courts, and was followed by 
dissentions and divisions for many years. Of these our pages 
will shortly speak. The only recorded statistical report from 
Bullock's Creek is in 1807, in which it reported 70 communi- 
cants and 7 baptisms. 

" Nazareth Church," says the Rev. Robt. H. Reid, 

" was organized by Dr. Alexander. He continued to preach as their 
stated supply until after the Revolutionary War. He was succeeded by 
the Rev. William C. Davis The road that leads from this place to 
Pinckney ville on Broad River, was first opened by tliis congregation, as 
a bridle way for Dr. Alexander to travel when he came to preach to 
them. For the following excellent biographical sketch of Dr. Alexan- 
der, which I kiiow will be read with interest, I am indebted to the 
kindness of Robert Y. Russell, of York District: 

" Of the nativity and early training of Dr. Alexander, we are not, at 
this late day, prepared to speak with certainty. So far as a general im- 
pression remains upon the mind of the writer, he entertains the opinion 
that Dr. Alexander was a native of Pennsylvania. He graduated at 
Princeton College, New Jersey, in 1760 ; was licensed to preach the Gos- 



98 DR. JOSEPH ALEXANDER. [1600-1810. 

pel by the Presbytery of Newcastle in 1767, and in October of that year 
was dismissed as a licentiate to the Hanover Presbytery, and accepted 
a call from Sugar Creek, N. 0. He was ordained at Buffalo on the 4th 
of March, 1708. and in May following, was installed pastor of Sufrar 
Creek, N. C, where he for several years performed the duties of his 
office in the midst of a papulation deservedly ranked amongst the most 
intelligent, virtuous and patriotic of the early settlers of the American 
colonies. In so fair a field, his highly cultivated mind, professicjnal 
zeal, and ardent patriotism, all found ample scope for successful, devel- 
opment. Under the mighty causes then at work to stamp upon the 
American mind its permanent character, young Alexander felt the 
vivifying influence, and soon became prominent as a powerful preacher 
and an earnest remonstrant .against the oppressive measures at that 
day sought to be enforced upon the colonies in America. However 
painful the task to relinquish a station of service in which he found so 
much that accorded alike with his tastes and with what he had pro- 
posed to himself as the great aim of his life, nevertheless, so urgent 
were the calls that with distressing frequency fell upon the minister's 
ear, from hundreds of destitute churches and congregations, all over 
the Southern country, that our young minister felt it impossible longer 
to resist the " Macedonian cry," and in obedience to the suggestions of 
duty, yielded the pleasant and flourishing field of his labors to other 
hands, and removed with his family to South Carolina." About the year 
177() he settled in Bullock's Creek Congregation, York (then Camden) 
District, of which he assumed the pastoral charge, and entered promptly 
upon the. duties of his mission. He found himself surrounded with 
amoral waste stretching in all directions over an immense area, with 
here and there the cabin of a pious Pennsylvanian or a Scotch-Irish 
Presbyterian. From these Bethels in the wilderness, the rjiorning and 
the evening prayer had come up in remembrance before God ; and in 
answer, the dawn of a gospel-day was now rising upon the darkness 
whiclj had so long enshrouded the Broad River Valley. 

Like Paul at Athens, the newly arrived minister felt his spirit stirred 
within him, as he surveyed the wild and rugged fields he had under- 
taken to cultivate. 

All his resources were taxed to their utmost to meet the exigencies of 
his people, but implicitly confiding in the pledges of the Master whom 
he served, and encouraged and sustained by the hearty co-operation of 
the few pious families whose urgent appeals had brought him amongst 
them, he diligently persevered in his work, and saw it advance with 
slow but steady progress. In the tract of country he occupied, the 
forests abounded with game, and the streams with" the finest of fish. 
Luxuriant grasses clothed the hills, and almost impenetrable cane- 
breaks darkened the creek and river low-lands Hence with the 
exception of the labor required to cultivate a few acres planted in corn 
and wheat, to bread the family, and a patch planted in tobacco, and 
another in indigo (the commercial staple of upper Carolina at that day) 
to procure a few dollars to meet unavoidable expenses, the settlers 
along the Broad River and its tributaries, composing, what was then 
called Bullock's Creek Congregation, passed their time in what the 
Mantuan Bard would have termed "inglorious ease." The amusement 
of fishing and hunting furnished not only a delightful entertainment to 
the pleasure-loving lords of the forest and their wild growing lads, but 
at the same time contributed largely to the stock of materials necessary 
to family subsistence, and were, therefore, looked upon as a, commenda- 



1800-1810.] DR. JOSEPH ALEXANDER. 99 

ble feature in their .system of provisional economy. Meanwhile the culti- 
vation of the mind, and the importance of subjerting the moral and reli- 
gious elements of our nature to the renovating; and transporting power of 
tlie Gospel, seemed to be matters that few had bestowed a practical 
thought upon. This state of things rendered it necessary for Mr. Alexan- 
der to undergo immense labor in bringing the scattered materials on which 
lie had to operate within the sphere of his ministerial influence. No one 
who properly estimates the unyielding nature of inveterate habits, forti- 
fied by the native hostility of the human heart to the otfices of religion, 
but will at once admit that nothing short of Divine wisdom and power 
could have directed and crowned liis efforts with success. To win this 
numerous class of the population ,to virtue and religion, he must first 
conciliate their attachment to himsell, which he accomplished, after a 
time, by means of regular family visitations. The familiar and friendly 
intercourse established in this way between himself and his thought- 
less parishioners soon won upon their regards, and secured a patient 
ear to such suggestions as he chose to offer on the subject of religion, 
as hp sat by their firesides, encircled with a listening houseliold. 

Ere long, our judicious and zealous pastor had the satisfaction to look 
down from his pulpit on a Sabbath morning and mark, now one, and 
then another, and there a third one, of the families upon whom he had 
bestowed his attentions and his prayers, timidly entering the doors 
of the church, and, fearful of attracting the notice of the congregation, 
quietly seating themselves in the nearest vacancy to listen to the 
preaching of the Gospel. From witnessing the fruits of this apostolic 
measure, Mr. Alexander was stimulated to ply his energies with an 
industry so untiring that, in due time, a crowded auditory thronged the 
house of worship and gave evidence of their appreciation of the gospel 
at his mouth by a profession of their faith in Christ, and an exhibition 
of the fruits of that faith in a life of practical holiness. 

Thus, under the early ministry of Or. Alexander, was a church-altar 
erected on Bullock's Creek, and a flame enkindled upon it whicii has 
not ceased to give forth its light through all the changes of well-nigh a 
century, up to the present hour So long as he was able to serve the 
Church as a minister, he was careful to employ a portion of his time in 
fostering the growth of family-religion by going from house to house 
throughout his congrega'ions, conversing with heads of families, in- 
structing the youth and children of the household, and uniting with 
them in prayer for the Divine blessing. He was accustomed at stated 
periods to conduct oatechetical examinations, held on his own appoint- 
ment in the several quarters of his congregations, at which both old 
and young were strictly enquired at concerning their knowledge of 
Divine truth, and their experience and progress in practical religion. 
Those wisely-directed labors were productive of the very best fruits. 
The congregations under his care advanced apace in the acquisition cf 
Bible knowledge, the pastor and elders were cheered with frequent and 
large accessions to the communion of the Church from the youth under 
their joint care and instruction, and the several churches in charge of 
the beloved minister became vigorous and flourishing branches of the 
" True Vine," clothed in beauteous foliage, and laden with the fruits of 
righteousness. 

In addition to the church of Bullock's Creek, Dr. Alexander organizea 
(as we have been informed) Nazareth Church, in Spartanburg District, 
and Salem Church, in Union District— a section at that day composing a 
part of Ninety-Six — in each of which his ministry contributed greatly 



100 DE. JOSEPH ALEXANDER. [1800-1810. 

to advam'e the cause flf religion, and to further the interests of our 
National Independence. 

During the lapse of nearly forty years, embracing the memorable 
period of the American Revolution, Dr. Alexander continued to serve 
the churches wliioh his labors had been blessed in planting and rearing 
up until within the last three or four years of his life, when the infirmi- 
ties of age forced liim to demit his pastoral charge, and to rest forever 
from his ministerial toils. 

We have learned, from the men who grew up under his ministry, 
that his style of preaching was bold and pungent, leading the under- 
standing captive to the demonstrations of truth, and the applicatory 
appeals with which he was accustorped to close his sermons, terrible as 
the storm, scattering in fragments the strongholds in which sin and im- 
penitence seek shelter and repose. Fidelity to the character and to the 
valuable services of this excellent man demands that a note be made 
of the influence of his efforts in the cause of his country, as well as in 
that of the Church and the Gospel. 

Ofsoardentva type was Dr. Alexander's patriotism, that from the 
days when the Stamp Act and Boston Port Bills passed the British Par- 
liament until the hour when the snioUe cleared away from the last gun 
fired in defence of our National Independence, the glowing fires of his 
truly American heart, impatient of control, burned with intenseness in 
his conversation, and with the force of lightning shot from the pulpit, 
when on suitable occasions he drew the picture of our country's wrongs, 
and in the names of humanity, liberty and religion, summoned her 
sons to the rescue. His unfaltering and spirited liostility to British 
tyranny and oppression, and to Tory butchery, arson and plunder, pro- 
cured for him a prominence that frequently perilled his property, his 
person, and the regular exercise of his professional functions. But he 
had, with mature deliberation, transferred his temporal all on board the 
bark of the Kevolution, and resolved to share her fortunes, and with 
her to sink or swim. 

In the dark day of Carolina's prospects, when the British and Tory 
ascendency lowered like the clouds of death over her sky, from the 
seaboard to the mountains, so fierce and threatening was the storm 
that raged around the partisan preacher, and so deep was his hold upon 
the afl'ections of his people that the few men and lads of Bullock's Creek 
not out at the time in the public service, habitually repaired to church 
on the Sabbath morning with their rifles in their hands, and, stationing 
themselves around what the next generation called " The old Log Meet- 
ing House," guarded the minister and the worshipping congregation 
while he preached the Gospel to them On the very spot where these 
services to God and the country were performed 'has the writer sat and 
listened with spell-bound attention to the recital of these stirring 
scenes, at the lips of some of the venerable actors themselves, as the 
tears shot down their cheeks, aiid told with an impressiveness still more 
forcible than their words, the price it had cost them to place in our 
hands the charter of Freedom and the unchallenged right to worship 
the God of our fathers according to the sanctions of the Bible and the 
dictates of conscience. May Bullock's Creek preserve the legacy unim- 
paired so long as civil liberty and sound Christianity are allowed one 
acre on earth they can call tlieir own. 

Emerging from the perils of the revolution. South Carolina, from the 
peculiarly trying position allotted her in the bloody drama, presented a 
picture calculated to awakeji the tenderest sympathies nf the human 



1800-1810.] DR. JOSEPH ALEXANDER. 101 

heart. Her farms and plantations had been burned with fire— lier fac- 
tories, worlc -shops, academies and .school-houses, that had escaped the 
vandalism of the foe, were left to silence and decay— the sires and sou.s, 
the mothers and daughters who had survived the carnage of privations 
incident upon the war, were reduced to poverty — in a word, the plow- 
share of devastation had torn through and ruptured all the resources of 
her former prosperity. But thanks to Heaven over the dreary desola- 
tion, the voice of liberty and independence nowrung with a restorative 
power and awakened into life and activity the intellectual, the moral, 
and the physical energie.s of all classes, and immediately summoned 
them to the noble work of repair and improvement Ever ready to 
move with the foremost in planning and prosecuting measures promo- 
tive of good, to mankind at large and to his countrymen in particular. 
Dr. Alexander, impressed with the duty of lending his aid to the diffu- 
sion of learning throughout the State, embarked with other literary 
men of the country in the business of opening schools and seminaries 
for the benefit of the children and youth, who from the necessity of 
the times -had been hitherto almost entirely neglected. About the 
year 1787, he opened a capital school near his own residence, situated 
a little over a mile southwest of Bullock's Creek Church, and in a few 
months the infant seminary was thronged with young men from his 
own and the adjoining Districts. For a number of years he continued 
to discharge the duties of Preceptor with eminent ability, and hg,d the 
happiness in after years to see many of his pupils in stations of honor 
and usefulnes as clergymen, physicians, jurists and statesmen, ilany 
Presbyterian ministers, wlio from the beginning of the present century 
until the time of their death contributed largely to give strength and 
extension to that arm of the Church in York and the neighboring 
Districts, had been not only classical students of his, but were also 
indebted to him for their early attainments in Theological science The 
late venerable Governor Johnson furnishes to the memory of many of 
us, a specimen of the solid stamp of true South Carolina character and 
early scholarship with which himself and many others of Dr. iVlexan- 
der's pupils were permitted during a long life, to adorn society and 
benefit the State. Governor Johnson entertained while he lived, a high 
regard for his venerated Pre.;eptor, and spoke with pride of his once 
flourishing academy standing on a ridge-land in the Bullock's Creek 
forest. 

From an intimate personal acquaintance with a number of the old 
men of Bullock's Creek congregation, who had grown up from children 
under the ministry of Dr. Alexander and who were tried and honored 
officers and soldiers of the Revolution, and members and elders of the 
church, the writer had an opportunity of forming a tolerably accurate 
estimate of the mighty results which acrue both to the Church and the 
State, from the permanent labors of an enlightened and faithful gospel 
ministry. The religion, the morality, the patriotism and the sound- 
common. sense maxims of the Bible, had been brought to bear, with a 
steady and formative influence upon the youthful mind in the congre- 
gations with whose interest and progress the greater part of Dr. Alex- 
ander's life had been identified, and the result was that a generation of 
men matured under his pastoral instructions, whose worth to their 
country as soldiers in war and as citizens and Christians in peace, is 
beyond all our powers of appreciation. What these men had been on 
the field of battle we could only learn from the pen of the historian; 
the scars which they carried on their persons, and their own recital of 



102 BETHESDA CHURCH. [1800-1810. 

the scenes of mortal strife through which they had passed ; but what 
they were as men and as citizens ii-e hiow, for we listened to their words 
and looked upon their lives as they passed with noble and venerable 
bearing before our eyes. As Christians, they bowed with reverence to 
the authority of the Holy Scriptures, in all they believed and in the 
duties they performed. The family altar, the, sanctity of the h'abbath 
and the House of God, were enshrined in their hearts. Their lives 
were a lucid comment on the wisdom, the purity and the strength of 
primitive Presbyterianism as an embodiment of the doctrines of Chris- 
tianity and of the elements of nationa' prosperity and greatness. But 
they have passed from amongst us, and with the venerated man whose 
labors and example contributed so much to make them all they were, 
have gone into the communion of an immaculate and glorious church- 
fellowship near the throne of God, and are become citizens of an illus- 
trious commonwealth, the grandeur and perpetuity of whose honors 
and immunities were not won by the valor of the soldier on the battle- 
fields of earth, but were achieved by the blood of the cross, and are 
bestowed by the hand of Him who is the Prince of the kings of the 
earth. 

Dr. Alexander closed his eventful life on the 30th of July, 1809, in the 
74th year of his age, and was buried in the churchyard at Bullock's 
Creek. A simple stone taken from the mountain quarry of our District, 
stands at the head of his grave, inscribed with his name, his age, and 
the time of his death, and marks the resting place of all that was mortal 
of this eminently useful and patriotic Divine. L. 

York District, July 24th, 1855. 

Rev. James Gilliland, Jr., was licensed by the Second 
Presbytery of South Carolina, April 8th, 1802, and was or- 
dained the pastor of Nazareth and Fairview, on the 7th of 
April, 1802. (Vol. I, p. 626.) He was a lively speaker, a 
good scholar and popular in his manners. The church 
flourished greatly under his pastorate. 

Bethesda Church enjoyed the labors of its beloved and 
excellent pastor the Rev. Robt. B. Walker. " As to the nu- 
merical strength of the church previous to this century we 
have" says Mr. Harris, " no definite information, but it wa.s 
probably large from the first. In the beginning of the century 
we have been informed, the membership was about one 
hundred." 

Since the year 1804, when large additions had been made 
to the membership, we have reliable data, from which we 
ascertain that the average annual report of members for fifty 
years wis one hundred and sixty, being the highest in 1818, 
when it was nearly four hundred, and lowest in 1850, when, 
in consequence of tlie years of immense mortality preceding 
and also the extensive emigration to the West, it was reduced 
to one hundred and five (105.) 



1800-1810.] BETHESDA CHUKCH. 103 

There must evidently then have been frequent and impor- 
tant accretions to the communicants in the church to fill up 
the breaches made by death and emigration; and this is what 
might be expected fi-om the character of her ministry, and 
the churche's known fidelity to her children and families, and 
by the aid of the Divine Spirit. But besides this gradual but 
constant increase of members, there was at intervals a very 
large influx mto her communion, for Bethesda has enjoyed 
several seasons of general religious awakening, and as Father 
Walker used to say, " the people expected one every fifteen 
years." The first of these occurred in the beginning of this 
century, and we shall permit the lamented Bishop to describe 
it: 

In 1802, the wonderful work of grace which commenced in Kentucky, 
extended to this region of country. In the spring, or early in the sum- 
mer of this year, a "protracted meeting" was appointed at' Bethe.sda, at 
which time the first " Camp Meeting" was held at this Church. The 
neighboring ministers were invited and masses of men assembled in 
expectation of a revival. They came from the two Carolinas ; some as 
far as thirty and forty miles, to attend this solemn occasion. Revivals 
of great power had already appeared in some of the surrounding con- 
gregations ; but a special work of grace appeared now in Bethesda. It 
passed through that vast assembly like some mighty whirlwind. "The 
people were moved as the trees of the wood are moved by the wind." 
Subjects were taken from almost every aye, class, character and condi- 
tion. Hundreds retired from that assembly who had felt the mighty 
power of this work, and very many returned to their homes "rejoicing 
in hope of the glory of God " 

Thus commenced that remarkable work in the congregation, known 
as the " old revival," and which continued with great power between 
three and four years. Such masses now crowded the house of God, that 
in pleasant weather want of room compelled them to retire to the grove. 
They assembled early on Sabbath morning at the place of worship, not 
for worldly conversation or amusement, but to transact business for the 
eternal world. Immediately on their arrival, not waiting on the pres- 
ence of the pastor, the people commenced prayer, praise, religious 
conference and conversation with the anxious enquirer. In such exer- 
cises, in connection with public worship, was the day measurably spent, 
and at evening the people retired to their homes with an overwhelming 
sense of eternal things possessing the soul. Meetings for prayer during 
the days or nights of the week were appointed in different parts of the 
congregation and attended by crowds, for they now considered secular 
pursuits as secondary to the interests of eternity. Such was the all- 
prevailing solemnity resting on the public mind that fashionable amuse- 
ments, sports and pastimes which had been so common, disappeared, 
as darkness does at the approach of dawn, and the chill of winter with 
the return of spring. The business of life was not neglected ; but such 
was the absorbing interest then felt in the things of the soul that 
wherever men assembled, were it even to repair or construct the roads, 
to raise the house, clear the fields, or remove the rubbish, and even to 



104 BJJTI-IESDA CHURCH. [1800-1810. 

"husk the corn," (at other times demoralizing) the work of grace then 
progressing, and the salvation of the soul, were the general topics of 
conversation. And even when they assembled at the house on such 
occasions, to take their meals, it was not uncommon to spend a time 
in social prayer and praise, and religious conference, before resuming 
their labor. 

•' ThosP were happy golden dayp, 
Sweetly spent in prayer and praise." 

What number of persons Vjecame hopeful subjects of grace during this 
revival, can be learned in eternity alone. Many from a distance, it is 
believed, were savingly impressed while attending protracted meetings 
at Bethesda, who returned to their homes, and whose subsequent his- 
tory was of course unknown to this Church. Many hopeful subjects of 
this gracious work united themselves to other branches of the Church, 
and large additions were made to this Church. It is known to some of 
you, I am informed, that at the commencement of this gracious worK 
the number of persons in actual communion in this Church, did not 
amount to eighty, and at the close of the revival it largely exceeded 
three hundred ! And even after the Church supposed the revival to 
be at an end, its gleanings for years continued to come into the Church. 
From all I can learn, I am induced to believe that Bethesda alone 
received more than three hundred members on profession of their faith 
as the fruits of this one revival. 

There were some things connected with this work which were very 
peculiar in their nature, in relation to which good and judicious men 
sincerely differed. Of these I am not at this time called to express an 
opinion. Some who came into the Church afterwards dishonored their 
profession ; but the large mass, as j'ou yourselves are aware, gave evi- 
dence of genuine piety. There are still some subjects of that revival 
living among us, whom we love and revere ; but the greater part are 
" fallen asleei?." So that whatever may be said of thealleged irregulari- 
ties and excesses of those times, certain it is, that this Church and com- 
munity have reaped lasting benefit from that work of grace. Unbelief 
and skepticism were confounded, and in many in.stances compelled to 
acknowledge that it was the " finger of God." The caviler was silenced ; 
the hardened sinner and even the bold blasphemer were melted and 
subdued, and changed. Many who once had been leaders in sin, now 
resembled the man in the Gospel, who, from a wild demoniac, was seen 
" clothed in his right mind and sitting at thefeet of Jesus." The Church 
made much advancement. For ih addition to its large accession of 
numbers, the people of God were refreshed and invigorated, and took a 
higher position in the community, and religion acquired an ascendency 
over the public mind, which it had not previously held here and which 
to some extent has continued to this day. 

To this the writer of this historical sljetch can add that he 
has a h'st of names, David Sadler, Ro. Steele, Ro. Love and 
Frank Ervin, of per.sons who at the commencement of this 
religious interest signed a pledge to one another that they 
would not yield to the influences now developing so exten- 
sively among the people, but, as the result proved, all of 
these were during the meeting, made genuine converts, thus 



1800-1810.] EBENEZER BEERSHEBA. 105 

evincing the power of efficacious grace and God's " making 
the wrath of man to praise him." 

Of the ministers who have arisen from this congregation 
we mentioned the names (Vol. I., pp. 6ii,.6i4)and gave 
something of the history of the two McElhenny's, James and 
John, the ministry of one of whom began in the close of the 
last century, of the other in this. Rev. John McElhenny, 
D. D., who was licensed by Lexington Presbytery, in 1808, 
died in 1871, since our first volume was published, and 
was buried among the lamentations of good men, and yet 
were their sorrows mingled with alternate joy, that one who 
had labored so faithfully and so long, and whom the age in 
which we live has cause to remember, has gone up higher to 
receive his reward. Bethesda Church reported 1 50 members 
in 1805, and 1.^9 in 1 8 10. 

Ebenezer is enumerated among the vacant churches at the 
beginning of this century, unable to support a pastor, and so 
also in the Assembly'.^ minutes in 1808. It was not over ten 
miles in a direct line from Bethesda, and was within reach of 
Rev. Mr. Walker. Mr. Harris says : " For twenty- five years, 
in connection with Bethesdii, he also ministered at Ebenezer 
Church with the same degree of acceptance and success as 
here in his pastorate." As Ebenezer does not apply to Pres- 
bytery for supplies, it depended probably upon him. Its 
statistics, as given in different years, enumerate 35, 59, 54,42 
and 43 communicants. Infant baptisms, 7 and 11, 

Beersheba, in York, was under the charge of Rev. George 
G. McWhorter, in connection with Bethel, until September, 
1801, when, with the consent of the churches, he resigned 
his charge and removed to Salem, on Black River. The 
ruling elders at this time werq John Peters, John Chambeis, 
John Venable, and Robert Kennedy. Beersheba Church 
reported 130 members in communion in 1 810. In 1802 
both churches petitioned for supplies. They both ask 
and obtain leave to employ the Rev.. Humphrey Hunter, 
of Concord Presbytery, who supplied the pulpit for one or 
more years. Beersheba asks leave in September, 1805, to 
call Rev. Jas. S. Adams, then a member of the Charleston 
Association. The leave is granted, provided Mr. Adams ob- 
tain a dismission from the Association and join the Presby- 
tery. In September, 1806, they obtain leave to continue Mr. 
Adams as their stated supply. Leave is again asked and 



106 UNITY^SHILOH — BETHEL. [1800-1810. 

obtained to the same effect in September, 1807. He seems 
to have continued as their supply for several years, dividing 
his time between this church and Olney, across the line in 
North Carolina- Mr. Adams obtained his dismission from 
the Congregational Association in 1809. 

Unity Chukch, in the Old Indian Reservation, was a part 
of the charge of the Rev. John Brown in connection with 
Waxhaw. It became vacant by his removal in 1803. It was 
supplied by Humphrey Hunter, of North Carolina, in 1805 ; 
by Mr. Foster and Geo. Reid in 1807, and by Mr. Walker in 
1808. The second regular sessions of the First Presbytery of 
South Carolina were held at this church from the 29th of 
September to the 1st of October, 1800, and the sixteenth 
regular sessions from September 28th to the 30th in 1807. 

Shiloh (formerly Calvary), on King's Creek, west of Bethel, 
on the North Carolina line, sought supplies at the beginning 
of this century. W. C. Davis preached to it by Presbyterial 
appointment in 1807 and 1808, but it was chiefly dependent 
on the services of Rev. Jas. S. Adams, who ministered to it 
for some years, from time to time. 

Bethel Church (York) was under the pastoral care of 
Rev. Geo. G. McWiiorter, in connection with Beersheba, until 
the 29th of September, 1801. By permission of the Pres- 
bytery it was supplied by the Rev. Humphrey Hunter, from 
North Carolina, for one or two years. Mr. Walker, Mr. 
Neely, Mr. Geo. Reid, are appointed as supplies for it in 
1807 and 1808. During this vacancy the present church 
building was erected — the third since the organization of the 
church. Other ministers sprung from this church in addition 
to those mentioned. (Vol. i, pp. 605, 607.) Only one ot 
whom should be mentioned here, viz : Thos. H. Price, whom 
we have found as minister on James Island, originated in this 
congregation. 

As we pass over the Catawba into Lancaster District, we 
meet fi.rst with that ancient church often called Old Waxhaw. 
In the beginning of this century the Rev. John Brown was 
pastor of this church and of Unity, giving to this last one- 
fourih part of his time. During his ministry, in May, 1802, 
occurred a memorable revival of religion, the tradition of which 
still lingers in the memories of many, and is called "the old 
revival." The following letters, written by men whose names 
cannot be mentioned without respect, and who were wit- 



1800-1810.] '■ OLD WAXHAW." 107 

nesses of these extraordinary scenes, will convey some faint 
idea of their character. 

Dr. Samuel E. McCorcle was a man of extraordinary theo- 
logical attainments, and had made acquisitions in science and 
literature above the majority of his cotemporaries. He par- 
ticipated in these meetings, which were now held in various 
congregations, in imitation of those in Kentucky. He 
believed in revivals as extraordinary outpourings of the Holy 
Spirit, but was strongly prejudiced against considering " the 
exercises " as a part of the Spirit's work, and was inclined to 
doubt, because of these, whether the work which had now 
commenced was of God or not. He held out a long time, 
the disorders he witnessed giving new strength to his doubts.. 
But at a meeting he was attending at Bell's Mills, in North 
Carolina, in January, i8o2, his own son was among those 
who were struck down, and he was sent for to come and pray 
for him. This turned his thoughts in a new direction, and 
the various extraordinary cases he witnessed at that meeting 
at length removed the difficulties under which he labored. 
He attended the meetings at Third Creek and the Cross-Roads, 
in Iredell and at New Providence, N. C, of which he gives 
some account, preached the opening sermon at the canip- 
nieeting at Waxhaw, but relies for a description of its progress 
upon the following 

TESTIMONY OF REV. JNO. m'gREADV. 

May 28, 1802. 

" I have just returned from a general meeting (so called 
because different congregations and different denominations 
were invited to join in it) at Waxhaw's, in South Carolina, 
which commenced on Friday, 21st instant, and closed on the 
ensuing Tuesday. 

"About twenty ministers of different denominations attended, 
one hundred and twenty wagons, twenty caits, and eight 
carriages, and by a rough computation, about three thousand 
five hundred persons, of whom more than one hundred were 
exercised on the occasion, few of whom received the sensible 
comfort of religion. I am happy that I attended, because I 
have returned with answers to two or three objections which 
were made here against the least degree of divine agency in 
this work. Those objections originated from facts that had 
taken place at two common sacramental occasions which I 



108 "the old revival." [I8OO-I8IO. 

had just before attended — one in the vicinity, the other at 
home. At tlie first of these, the oppo.sers were numerous, 
wretched, restless and daring. They cursed, and scoffed, and 
threatened, and fortified themselves with ardent spirits to pre- 
vent the stroke or animate for opposition. And yet not one 
of them was struck down. At the other sacrament a number 
of females were afflicted, but not one man. These circum- 
stances could not escape observation, united with another, 
viz : that it is at the close of all our meetings, when the body 
is debilitated, and the mind impressed with a long series of 
dreadful sights and sounds, that by far the greater number 
fall. 

" At Waxhaw's I saw these objections vanish away. 
About twenty persons fell the first day; the far greater num- 
ber throughout the whole occasion were men, and few op- 
posers escaped ; not less than twelve of the most notorious 
tell. The second person that I saw struck was a man who 
had boasted that he would not fall. However, struck he was, 
fled, fell, was found and brought to a tent, where I saw iiim, 
and heard him cry for mercy. Curiosity had compelled 
another to attend, and the fear of falling had induced him to 
drink freely, so that it was doubtful when he was struck 
down, what was the true cause. Time determined. I saw 
him twelve hours after, and he was tryitig in ardent language 
to express his repentance, love, joy, gratitude, resolution and 
hope. I saw another, soon after he had fallen. His com- 
panion was gazing on. A respectable by-stander told me 
that they were racing horses into the encampment that morn- 
ing, that they were swearing and talking profanely, that the 
fallen had boasted that nothing but his bottle should ever 
bring him down, and that lie would not, for the value of the 
whole camp be degraded by falling for anything else. 
Another was struck down, and by one of the ministers (who 
told me) he was urged to pray. This he peremptorily refused. 
He was urged again, and then declared that he would rather 
be damned than pray. Such a comment on the enmity and 
pride of the human heart I never heard before. After lying 
all night on the ground, he crept away the next morning, 
and I heard no more of him. 

" A remarkable occurrence took place on my return, not 
far from the encampment. A young man was exercised in a 
thick wood ; he was found, and then called tor his relatives 



1800-1810.] DK. FURMAlSr'S LETTER. 109 

and neighbors, to whom he gave a very ardent exhortation. 
His exercise.s were joyful, as they respected himself, but 
became painful when his thoughts turned on his thoughtless 
or opposing relatives and neighbors. But the most singular 
circumstance was his own solemn declaration that he had ex- 
perienced this painful work in that very wood long before he 
had ever seen it in others ; and, therefore, he cried out with 
unusual animation, ' O, my friends, this work is the work of 
God, and not sympathy, as some of you suppose.' " 



DR. FURMAN'S LETTER. 

The following letter from Rev. Dr. Furman, of Cliarleston, 
to Dr. Rippon, of London, is a description of the same meet- 
ing by a distinguished and well-known minister of the 
Baptist Church, who was present at and a participant in its 
religious exercises : 

Charleston, August ii, 1802. 
" Rev. and Dear Sir : 

" Having promised you some information respecting the 
extraordinary meeting at the Waxhaws, to which I purposed 
going at the time I wrote, in May, and having accordingly 
attended it, I now sit down to perform my promise. 

It was appointed by the Presbyterian clergy in that part of 
the country, but clergymen of other denominations were 
invited to it, and it was proposed to be conducted on the same 
principles and plan with those held in Kentucky. The place 
of meeting is about one hundred and seventy miles from 
Charleston, in the mid.st of a large settlement of Presbyte- 
rians, but not far distant from some congregations of Baptists 
and Methodists. This Presbyterian congregation is one of 
the first which were formed in the upper part of this State, 
has for its pastor a Mr, Brown, who is a respectable character 
and is furnished with a commodious place of worship. But 
as the place of worship would not be in any wise equal to the 
numbers expected, a place was chosen in the foiest for an 
encampment. The numbers which assembled from various 
parts of the country formed a very large congregation, the 
amount of which has been variously estimated; to me there 
appeared to be three thousand or perhaps four thousand per- 



110 DR. FURMAn's letter. [1800-1810. 

sons, but some supposed there were seven thousand or eight 
thousand. My information respecting the number of minis- 
ters who attended, was probably not correct, but from what I 
observed and collected from others, there were eleven Presby- 
terians, four Baptists and three Methodists. The encamp- 
ment was laid out in an oblong form, extending from the top 
of a liill down the soutli side of it, toward a stream of water 
which ran at the bottom in an eastern direction, including a 
vacant space of about three hundred yards in length and one 
hundred and fifty in breadth. Lines of tents were erected on 
every side of tiiis space, and between them, and behind, were 
the waggons and riding carriages placed, the space itself being 
reserved for the assembhng of the congreijation, or congre- 
gations rather, to attend public worship. Two stands were 
fixed on for this purpose ; at the one a stage was erected 
under some lofty trees, wiiich afforded an ample shade; at the 
other, which was not so well provided for with shade, a 
waggon was placed for the rostrum. 

" The public service began on Friday afternoon, the 21st of 
May, with a sermon by the Rev. Dr. McCorcle, of the Pres- 
byterian Church, after which the congregation was dismissed, 
but at the same time the hearers were informed that they 
would be visited at tlieir tents and exhorted by the ministers, 
during the course of the evening. To this information an 
exhortation was, added, that they would improve the time in 
religious conversation, earnest prayer and singing the praise 
of God. This mode of improving the time both by the min- 
isters and a large proportion of the hearers was strictly 
adhered to ; not only were exhortations given, but many 
sermons were also preached along the lines in the evening, 
and the exercises continued by the ministers in general till 
midnight, and by the Metliodist ministers among their adhe- 
rents nearly or quite all the night. 

On Saturday morning the ministers assembled after an 
early breakfist and appointed a comnittee to arrange the 
services for that day and the two following. The committee 
consisted wholly of Presbyterian Ministers. They soon 
performed the work of their appointment and assigned the 
several ministers present their respective p.irts of service. By 
this arrangement the public ser^^ices were appointed at each 
stand for that day; three for the Sibbath, together with the 
administration of the communion, at a place a little distant 



1800-1810.] DR. FUEMAN'S LETTER. Ill 

from the encampment, and two at each stand again for Mon- 
day. The intervals and evenings in particular to be improved 
in the same manner as on the former day. Necessary busi- 
ness callin;:j me away oii Sunday evening, I did not see the 
conclusion of the meeting. This, however, I can say, it was 
conducted with much solemnity while I was at it, and the 
engagedness of the people appeared to he great. Many 
seemed to be seriously concerned for the salvation of their 
souls, and the preaciiing and exhortation of the ministers in 
general were well calculated to inspire right sentiments and 
make right impressions. 

In the intervals of public worship the voice of praise was 
heard among the tents in every direction, and frequently that 
of prayer by private Christians. The communion service was 
performed with much apparent devotion while I attended, 
which was at the serving of the first table. The Presbyterians 
and the Methodists sat down together, but the Baptists, on 
the principle which has generally governed them on this sub- 
ject, abstained. 

Several persons suffered, at this meeting, those bodily 
affections which have been before experienced in Kentucky, 
North Carolina, and at other places where the extraordinary 
revivals in religion within this year or two have taken place. 
Some ot them fell instantaneously, as though struck with 
lightning, and continiied insensible for a length of time; 
others were more mildly affected, and soon recovered their 
bodily strength, with a proper command of their mental 
powers. Deep conviction for sin, and apprehension of the 
wrath of God was professed by the chief of them at first, and 
several of them afterwards appeared to have a joyful sense of 
pardoning mercy through a Reedemer. Others continued 
under a sense of condemnation after those extraordinary 
bodily affections ceased, and some from the first appeared to 
be more affected with the greatness and goodness of God, 
and with the I'ove of Christ than with apprehensions of Divine 
wrath. In a few cases there were indications, as I conceived, 
of enthusiasm and even affectation, but in others a strong 
evidence of supernatural power and gracious influence. Sev- 
eral received the impression in their tenbs, others in a still 
more retired situation, quite withdrawn from company, some 
who had been to that moment in opposition to what was thus 
going on under the character of the work of God, and others 



112 DR. FUEMAn's letter. [1800-1810. 

who had been till then careless. The number of persons thus 
affected while I was present was not great in proportion to 
the multitude attending. I have, indeed, been informed 
several more were affected the evening after I came away and 
the next day, but in ail, they could not be equal to the pro- 
portional numbers which were thus affected at some other 
meetings, especially in Kentucky. Several, indeed a very 
considerable number, had gone seventy or eighty miles from 
the lower part of this State to attend this meeting. Of these, a 
pretty large proportion came under the above described im- 
pressions, and since their return to their homes an extra- 
ordinary revival has taken place in the congregation to which 
they belong. It has spread also across the upper parts of this 
State, in a western direction. There are some favorable ap- 
pearances in several of the Baptist churches, but my accounts 
of them are not particular enough to be transmitted. Taking 
it for granted that you have seen the publication entitled 
" Surprising Accounts," by Woodward, of Philadelphia, con- 
taining the accounts of revivals in Kentucky, Tennessee and 
North Carolina, I therefore say nothing of them ; but only 
that the work in North Carolina increases greatly; opposition 
however is made by many, and I am informed that the con- 
gregation of which I have been writing so much (that at the 
Waxhaws) is likely to be divided on account of it, and that 
Mr. Brown has been shut out of the place of worship since 
the meeting was held there, by some, I suppose, a majority, 
of his elders and adherents. A particular reason of the 
offense taken by them, as I have understood, was the practice 
of communing with the Methodists. Having mentioned this 
denomination frequently, I thmk it proper to say that it is that 
class of Methodists who are followers of Mr. Wesley, which 
is intended ; few of the followers of Mr. Whitfield are to be 
found in the United States, not at least as congregations. 
These general meetings have a great tendency to excite the 
attention and engage it to religion. Were there no other 
argument in their favor, this alone would carry great weight 
with a reflecting mind, but there are many more which may 
be urged. At the same time it must be conceded that there 
are some incidental evils which attend them and give pain to 
one who feels a just regard for religion. Men of an enthusi- 
astic disposition have a favorable opportunity at them of diffu- 
sing their spirit, and they do not fail to improve the opportu- 



1800-1810.] BODir,Y AGITATIONS. 113 

nity for this purpose, and the too free intercourse between 
the sexes in such an encampment is unfavorable. However, 
I hope the direct good obtained from these meetings will 
much more than counterbalance the incidental evil. 

" I am reverend and dear sir, your friend and servant in 
the Gospel, 

RICHARD FURMAN."* 

The revivals of this period were attended with bodily agi- 
tations and nervous excitement far more perhaps than at any 
other. But in the Caroiinas the bodily exercises never pro- 
ceeded to such extravagant and even frightful extreme as in 
the West, and especially in Kentucicy. There was exhibited 
as Dr. Davidson in his excellent history of the Presbyterian 
Church in Kentucky, has described them, the falling exercise, 
the jerUings, the rolling, the running, the dancing, the 
barking exercise, to which he adds visions and trances. In 
the falling exercise some fell suddenly as if struck by an 
invisible power, while others were seized with a universal 
tremor before they fell. Many uttered loud shrieks in their 
prostrate state, or cries of "glory !" Some were more or less 
convulsed after they fell, drumming with their heels, or with 
their bodies bouncing on the floor, and sometiniesthere was 
a prancing over the benches, possibly from an attempt to 
resist the impulse before they actually fell. They would 
remain in this state from fifteen minutes to two or three 
hours. And the numbers so affected would be counted by 
hundreds, and was computed in one instance by thousands. 
This falling under deep religious impression had occurred 
before, as under VVhitefield. (See vol. i of this work, p. 239, 
the case of Mi". Bull.} So in the days of Edwards and the 
Tennents. Tlie jerks first occurred at a sacrament in East 
Tennessee, and were quickly propagated. In the least violent 
cases it was a jerking of the forearm from the elbow down- 
wards — quick, sudden, apparently uncontrolable. It some- 
times extended to other members, the head wo.uld be thrown 
vif)lently backward and forward, or from side to side, or from 
right to left, with extreme velocity so that scarcely a feature 
could be discovered. In the roiling exercise the head and 
heels would be drawn together, and thi person would roll 

*Benedit;t's History of the Baptists, vol. II., p. 167, Boston Edition, of 
1813. • 



114 BODILY AGITATIONS. [1800-1810. 

like a wheel, or turn over and over sideways like a log. In 
the running exercise the person would run with amazing 
swiftness, leaping over obstacles with wondrous agility, pran- 
cing over benches fo some time and perhaps falling at last 
in a swoon. Again some would leap and jump without any 
measured step, or dance with a gentle and not ungraceful 
motion to a hvely tune. To all human appearance these 
acts were involuntary and there are many examples adduced 
to show that they were not under the control of the will, as 
even ungodly men were struck down and yet were not con- 
verted, or when persons resolved that they would resist 
their impulses, but were unable. Instances are on record 
were persons were so seized when they were entirely alone, 
when they were at their own homes, and stayed away from 
those places of public concourse that they might avoid those 
singular affections and the exposure they would occasion. 

There was also in some of those meetings great confusion. 
The multitude was so great that different preachers addressed 
them from different stands, and then in those seasons of 
excitement they would break into groups, the voice of the 
preacher disregarded, each knot of people conducting their 
worship, each as seemed ro them good. On some occasions 
the female part of the worshippers laid aside that delicacy, 
reserve and self-respect that belonged to them and in the 
warmth of affection on either side intercourse between the 
sexes was without that decorum which the usages of society 
and nature itself imposes. These things were magnified by 
opposers and rules of conduct were at length framed by the 
church-leaders and their assistants for the abatement of these 
evils. 

If our space would allow us we might bring forward indi- 
vidual cases to substantiate what we have mentioned thus 
generally. But we must refer the curious reader to the 
compilation Er. Davidson has made from various sources. 
There is enough that is strange without reverting to the tes- 
timony of the« eccentric Lorenzo Dow, who says, " I have 
passed a meeting-house where I observed the undergrowth 
had been cut for a camp meeting, and from fifty to a hundred 
saplings had been left breast high, on purpose for the people, 
who were jerked to hold on by. I observed where they had 
held on, they had kicked up the earth as a horse stamping 
flies. It iiTay well be suspected that Lorenzo Dow was 



1800-1810.] THE EXER(;iSES. 115 

imposed ypon, and that the saphngs were left as hitching 
posts for horses. 

The question is left us as to whether these phenomena 
were natural or supernatural, and if the latter, whether they 
were from a divine source, or the work of " him who lieth in 
wait to deceive." 

After a review of all that, Dr. George Baxter, of Virginia, 
who, when entering the ministry, spent a month in Kentucky 
in attendance upon these meetings, says of them, (the London 
Christian Observer says) : " It is a well-known fact, that, in 
general, these strange emotions are not so involuntary as they 
appear to be ; fur it has been usually found to be very easy 
for the preachers to repress them whenever they are inclined 
to do so." " Let us request any one to weigh well this ques- 
tion, whether he can ascribe to God, the God of order and 
wisdom, such wild and disorderly effects as have been de- 
scribed ? May they not even be the devices of that enemy, 
who is emphatically called in scripture 'the deceiver' of the 
world, who would thus delude men into a false estimate of 
their spiritual state, and also bring into disrepute the com- 
mon, but far more valuable, effects produced by the zealous 
and faithful preaching of the gospel?" (Vol. i, p. 672.) 
"By their fruits ye shall know them." Dr. Baxter testifies, that 
"tiie characters of Kentucky travelers were entirely changed; 
that such men became as remarkable for sobriety as they iiad 
been for dissoluteness. I found Kentucky, to appearance, 
•the most moral place I had ever seen. A religious awe 
seemed to pervade the country; and some deistical charac- 
ters had confessed that, from whatever cause the revival 
mioht proceed, it made the people better." The great num- 
ber of sound conversions, the fruits of which were abiding, 
is a testimony that the real agency was not from beneath. 

Were these strange bodily affections, then, the special and 
direct effects of the Spirit of God ? This question must be 
answered in the negative. " God is not the author of con- 
fusion, but of peace, as in all the churches of the saints," 
Even in the day of miracle the Corinthian Church is guarded 
against sucii scenes of confusion. Even then " the spirits of 
the prophets were subject to the prophets," and the direction 
was " Let all things be done decently and in order." 

We are to look, therefore, to the influence of natural causes, 
working through that mysterious connection of the body with 



116 EFFECTS OF STRONG EMOTION. [1800-1810. 

the mind. Any powerful impression made upon tlie mind 
acts through it upon the body. Fear often paralyzes all our 
corporal energies, and an imagined calamity often produces 
as great- agitation a.s one that has really occurred. Religious 
emotions, the sense of guilt, the dread of its punishment, the 
love of God, the power of faith, the vision of a world to come, 
may act powerfully upon the corporal frame. Edwards speaks 
of a young lady of remarkable personal beauty, of refined 
tastes, of wonderful sweetness, calmness and universal benevo- 
lence of mind, whose views of spiritual objects were often the 
most delightful and overpowering, nature often sinking under 
the weight of divine discoveries ; the strength of the body 
being takfen away, so as to deprive her of all ability to stand 
or speak ; sometimes the hands clenched and the flesh cold, 
but the senses still remaining." This young lady, Sarah 
Pierrepont, became his own wife, and the knowledge of her 
experience under the impressions of true religion, made him 
more tolerant than he might otherwise have been to these 
bodily affections in seasons of revival. If there is now added 
to this the power of sympathy, and the tendency to imitation, 
the whole of these phenomena is accounted for from natural 
causes. Epilepsy is itself " catching." The children in a 
poor-house at Harlem were seized with fits from seeing one 
of their number attacked ; nor could any stop be put to this 
epidemic malady until Dr. Boerhave, with great sagacity, 
forbade the administering of medicine, and sought to produce 
an impression upon the mind. He introduced into the hall 
where the children were assembled, several portable furnaces, 
ordered that certain crooked irons should be heated and ap- 
plied to the arm of the first individual that was taken. The 
convulsions at once ceased. There was a family of six chil- 
dren in Chelmsford, Mass., one of whom was afflicted with 
St. Vitus' dance; the rest imitated his gestures for sport, 
until they participated in his disease. The father prepared a 
block and axe, and threatened to decapitate the first who ex- 
hibited these affections except the original sufferer, and the rest 
were affected no more. So the Romans, when in the excite- 
ment of the Comitia, their public meetings for elections, one 
was seized with epilepsy, adjourned the Comitia, lest others 
should be siezed, as experience showed they would be, by the 
same disorder, the Morbus Comitialis. So, in these meetings, 
these e[)idemic convlutions were propogated by sympathy. 



1800-1810.] OPINION OF DR. ALEXANDER- 117 

The conclusion to which Dr. Alexander, of Princeton, in 
his letter to the Watclunan and Observer, was brought, is thus 
expressed : 

Princeton, N. J., September 5,^1846. 

Mr. Editor : Tiie letter of the Rev. Dr. Baxter, giving 
an account of the great revival in Kentucky, in the year 1800 
and 1801, recently published by you, was written before the 
results could be accurately known. Dr. Baxter himself 
changed his views respecting some appearances, of which he 
expresses a favorable opinion, in this letter. And many facts 
which occurred at the close of the revival were of such a 
nature that judicious men were fully persuaded that there was 
much that was wrong in the manner of conducting the work, 
and that an erratic and enthusiastic spirit prevailed to a 
lamentable extent. It is not doubted, however, that the 
Spirit of God was really poured out, -and that many sincere 
converts were made, especially in the coinmencement of the 
revival, but too much indulgence was given to a heated 
imagination, and too much stress was laid on the bodily affec- 
tions, which accompanied the work, as though these were 
supernatural phenomena, intended to arouse the attention of 
a careless world. Even Dr. Baxter, in the narrative which 
he gives in this letter, seems to favor this o[)inion, and it is 
well l<fiown that many pious people in Virginia entertained 
similar sentiments. 

Thus, what was really a bodily infirmity, was considered to 
be a supernatural means of awakening and convincing infidels 
and other irreligious persons. And the more these bodily 
affections were encouraged, the more they increased, until at 
length they assumed the appearance of a formidable nervous 
disease, which was manifestly contagious; as might be proved 
by many well attested facts. 

Some of the disastrous results of this religious excitement 
were : 

1st. A spirit of error, which led many, among whom were 
some Presbyterian ministers, who had before maintained a 
good character, far astray. 

2d. A spirit of schism, a considerable number of the sub- 
jects and friends of the revival separated from the Presby- 
terian Church, and formed a new body, which preached and 
published a very loose and erroneous system of theo.logy ; 



118 OPINION OF Dlt. ALEXANDEE. [1800-1810. 

and though a part of these schismatics, when the excitement 
had subsided, returned again to the bosom of the Church, 
others continued to depart further from the orthodox sybtem, 
in which they had been educated, and which they had long 
professed and preached. Among these was the Rev. Mr. 
Stone, who became the leader of an Arian sect, which con- 
tinues unto this day. 

3d. A spirit of wild enthusiasm was enkindled, under the 
influence of which, at least three pastors of Presbyterian 
churches in Kentucky, and some in Ohio, went off and joined 
the Shakers. Husbands and wives who had lived happily 
together were separated, and their children given up to be 
educated in this most enthusiastic society. I forbear to men- 
tion names for the sake of the friends of these deluded men 
and women. And the truth is- — and it siiould not be con- 
cealed — that the general result of this great excitement was 
an almost total desolation of the Presbyterian Cliurches in 
Kentucky and part of Tennessee. For the religious body 
commonly denominated " Cumberlands," arose out of this 
revival. The awakening commenced in the south part of 
Kentucky, and extended into the bordering counties of Ten- 
nessee. The Cumberland Presbytery, .situated in that region, 
in utter disregard of the rules ot the Presbyterian Church, 
which they had solemnly adopted at their ordination, went on 
to license a number of men, and to ordain some who h*ad no 
pretensions to a liberal education ; and they no longer re- 
quired candidates for the ministry to subscribe the Presby- 
terian Confession, but openly rejected some of the cardinal 
doctrines of Calvinism. The Synod ^of Kentucky sent a 
large " Commission " to deal with the Presbytery, who in- 
sisted on examining .the persons who had been licensed and 
ordained contrary to order; and when the Cumberland Pres- 
bytery refused to submit their newly licensed candidates to 
the examination of the Commission, they were suspended by 
this body. Thence arose a new body of Presbyterians, pro- 
fessing, for the most part, Arminian doctrines. Still, how- 
ever, adhering (though inconsistently) to tiie doctrine of the 
Saint's Perseverance, and to the Presbyterian Principles of 
Church Government, 

A few years since, when nciu measures were coming much 
into vogue. Dr. Baxter's letter was published, I think, in the 
New York Evangelist, to support those measures. Dr. Bax- 



]8u0-1810.] . THE POWER OF SYMPATHY. 119 

ter, on being informed of it, promised the writer that he 
would publish an explanation ; which, however, he did not 
live to perform. A. A. 

"Among human beings," says a medical writer, "there exists 
such a power of sympathetic consent that a multitude may 
be apparently possessed by the same spirit ; the organism of 
each instaneously taking on the same action simply from the 
general attention being directed to the same objects. If we 
would learn the full extent of sympathy, we must study the 
records of the Dancing Mania, or see the Barkers, the Shak- 
ers, the Jumpers, the Dervi.ses, and other Convulsionaires at 
their devotions. There are many facts which tend to con- 
vince us that a large company may be put into such relation 
to each other, under similar circumstances, as that the very 
same idea shall present itself to ail at the same moment." 
The use of the body in relation to the mind." By George 
Moore, M.D,, Member of the Royal College of Physicians, 
etc., etc., p. 66 

Let us separate then this revival itself, as a re- 
ligious work upon the soul, from these co»poreal phe- 
nomena, to which the religious element does not attach. As 
a revival it was a great and glorious work, but marred sadly, 
in more parts of the country than one, by its unnecessary 
accompaniments. The General Assembly in its pastoral let- 
ter of 1804 noticed these in language of disapprobation.* 

In May, 1802, during the Great Revival, Mr. Brown intro- 
duced Dr. Watts Psalms ahd Hymns. This was deemed a 
sacrilege by that portion of the congregation #whose ears 
were accustomed only to Rouse's Version. 1 Nor did they 
approve ofthe proceedings in tlie revival. Dr. Brown, leav- 
ing the next year, and the Associate and Associate Reform- 
ed ministers finding willing ears, a rent was occasioned in the 
congregation which never has been healed. The elders that 
drew off were Robert Montgoipery, Robert Dunlap, John 
Harris ; and the elders tliat remained were Alexander Carnes, 
Moses Stephenson, and Nathan Barr. The dissentients 
claimed the Black Jack church, and had supplies until Mr. 
Kitchen was called as their pastor. There are two large 

*Davidson's Hist, of Pres. Vh. Ky., Chap. V. vii. Princeton Kev. Vol. 
VI. Dr. Baxter's Fetters, Watchman and Observer, Sept. 5, 1846. 
Tracy's Great Awalcening, Chap. XIII. 



120 WAXHAW CHUIW'H. . [1800-1810. 

and flourishing churches now in that quarter, viz: Tirza and 
Shiloh, under the pastoral charge of the Rev. D. P. Robin- 
son. 

In the beginning of this century, the Presbytery of South 
Carolina was divided into two Presbyteries, the First Presby- 
tery and the Second Presbytery of South Carohna, John 
Brown being at that time the pastor of VVaxhaw and Unity 
churches. In 1803 he was released from the pastoral care of 
the Waxhaw congregation, by the First Presbytery, at his 
own request. His subsequent history is well known. He 
had charge of a High School at VVadesboro', N. C, for 
several years, and a flourishinij; academy at Salisbury. He 
became Professor of Logic and Moral Philosophy in South 
Carolina College in 1809; President of the University of 
Georgia in 181 1, in which year the degree of Doctor of 
Divinity was conferred on him by the College of New Jersey. 
He died at Gainesville, Ga., in his 8ath year, December rith, 
1842; a man of great simplicity, modesty, and purity ; affec- 
tionate, discriminating in his conceptions, and wonderfully 
fluent as a speaker; indifferent to the world, and generous 
heyontl his means, which were never ample; a good man, 
and full of the Holy Ghost. 

After the removal of Mr. Brown, this church remained 
without a pastor for a period often years. A few years after 
his departure, the house of worship was burned down by 
accident, and the congregation erected " a stand " opposite 
the spot where the house of Mr. John Foster now is, the 
water being better there than at the site of the old church, 
and the seri»ices were held there for ninny years. Among 
their occasional supplies, the names of Dr. James Hall and 
Dr. Barr are recollected. At this spot they commenced the 
building of a new church. The old members were not satis- 
fied, however, to leave the graves of their fiithers ; and it was 
finally agreed to go back to their original site. On the 23d 
of December, 1807, therefore, the congregation purchased an 
additional piece of land from Robt. Thompson, and taking 
down the frame that had been erected, built the present church 
edifice where it now stands. During this period of vacancy, 
they received occasional supplies by appointment of the First 
Presbytery of South Carolina, among which were the names 
of John B. Davies Wm. G. Rosborough, Robt. B. Walker, 
and George Reid, J. B. Davies' name occurring most fre- 



1800-181(t.l BETHANY — GRANBY. 121 

quently. During this period, too, Mr. F. Porter, the father 
of four ministers of that name who have been successively 
educated at the Columbia Seminary, taught the grammar 
school in the bounds of the congregation, and as a licensed 
preacher, was able materially to assist them in maintaining 
divine worship.- The elders of the church about this time 
were Robert Montgomery, John Cousar, William Dunlap, 
John Scott, Nathan Barr, George Dunlap, Robert Davis, and 
Dr. Samuel Dunlap. [j. H. Saye.] 

Of the Bethany in Lancaster District, received March 20th, 
1798, and of FiSHDAM, mentioned as another " vacancy," we 
read no more in the Presbyterial Minutes of these ten years, 
though reported to the Assembly, as are Witherspoon and 
Calvary in 1802. But Littlp: Bethel Church in Lancaster 
applied September 28th, 1801, to be taken under Presbyterial 
care and to receive supplies, and a petition was presented 
by William Wherry in behalf of a people in the neighbor- 
hood of Benjamin Dunlap, in the Indian Land, praying for 
supplies from the Rev. Mr. Neely, which was granted them. 
[Minutes of First Presbytery met at Ebenezer October 3d, 
1808.] 

Of John's Island and Wadmalaw, and its call for the 
pastoral services of Rev. James McElhenny, of his ordination 
and his dismission from that church we have already spoken. 

[Vol. L p. 573 ; vol. H, p. —.J 

Granby — This was a preaching station of Rev. Daniel E. 
Dunlap for a season. [Vo'. I, p. 595, 596.] It is stated in this 
passage that a call was presented by the people of Granby to 
the Presbytery of South Carolina in October, 1799, just 
before the dissolution of that body, for the pastoral services 
of Giorge Reid, then a licentiate. It seems that they had 
not yet been fully organized as a church, and as Granby was 
in a state of decadence, its prospects less flattering on account 
of the establishment of the seat of government at Columbia, 
and the gradual removal thitherof the population, the people 
had paid no attention to the advice of Presbytery touching 
the steps they ought to have taken to secure the object of 
their call, which had been accepted by Mr. Reid some 
eighteen months before. He was, therefore, released by the 
Second Presbytery from his implied obligation and was dis- 
missed at liis own request as a licentiate in good standing, to 
join the First Presbytery. 



122 MOUNT BETHEL ACADEMY. [1800-181 

Mount Bethel Academy, in Newberry District, was one 
of the earlier classical schools in the upper part of the State. 
It was founded by the Methodists, by the influence mainly of 
Rev. Mr. Dougherty; Elisha Hammond, the father of Gov- 
ernor Hammond, and Josiah P. Smith, being its principal 
teachers. "It gave to the country," says -Judge O'Neal. 
(Annals of Newbarry, p. 62) such men as Judge Crenshaw, 
his brothers, Dr. Crenshaw- and Walter Crenshaw, Chancellor 
Harper, John Caldwell, Esq., Dr. George W. Glen, John R. 
G.jidmg, Governor Richard J. Manning, John G. Brown, Dr. 
Thomas Smith, of Society Hill, N, R. Eaves, of Chester, and 
Thomas W. Glover, of Orangeburg. It furnished the first 
students and graduates of the South Carolina College," 
(See also Ramsay, vol. II., p. 205, Duffie's Edition.) This 
school was in the neighborhood of Indian Creek. and Gilder's 
Creek, affluents of the Enoree, where there had alvva\-s been 
a considerable Presbyterian population since the first settle- 
ment. It was, perhaps, partly to accommodate those people 
or to win their influence that Josiah P. Smith from Bethel 
Academy applied to tlie Second Presbytery on the 8th of 
August, 1806, for supplies for that place. The application 
was granted ; and we find that Rev. John B. Kennedy, Hugh 
Dickson and James Gilliland, were appointed to preach there, 
but whether this arrangement was at all permanent we are not 
able to say. The presumption is that it was not. 

The Church of Indi.an Creek was still the scene of Robt. 
McClintock's labors. The church does not appear on the 
minutes of the Second Presbytery. Nor was Mr. McClintock 
a member of that body. If connected with any Presbytery it 
was with the Old Presbyterv of Charleston. We have already 
said that his baptismal register contains the names of 2,080 per- 
sons baptised by him. One hundred and fifty-nine of these were 
of persons baptized between the 1st of Jan. 1 800, and June 5, 
1803. The name of the parents are given and a large share of 
these were persons living in this portion of Newberry district. 
He died after a life of active service, soon alter this date. The 
last baptism but two which he administered, were those of 
John and Robert, his own children, baptized on the 23rd of 
April, 1803. (See Vol. I, p. 617.) We are not able to trace 
this church further in this decade, nor to indicate on whom it 
depended. Morrison and McCosh frequently exch*anged pul- 
pits with Mr. CUntock during his lifetime ; one, at least, of 



1800-1810.1 INIJJAN- CREEK — (U1ASSY SrUINCi. 123 

whom survived him, and the names of several others, as 
Warnocli, Scott, Thomson, Meneely, Martin and Lindsay, we 
have met with, whose locations and employments we have 
never ascertained. It is just as probable as otherwise that 
this flock here and elsewhere were absorbed by other congre- 
gations. 

Gkassy Spring, in the neighborliood, where Maybinton 
now is, was under the charge of the Rev. William William- 
son until 1802, who had preached to it one-fourth of his time, 
but now- withdrew from it as its pastor. From this time, fre- 
quent supplies were afforded it by Rev. Messrs. Wm. Wil- 
liamson, Montgomery, and Rev. John B. Kennedy, and now 
especially the latter, until August 8, 1806, when IDaniel Gray* 
was ordained and became its pastor, Mr. Davis by request of 
Presbytery preaching the ordination sermon from 2 Tim. iv. 
6, in place of Mr. Dickson, who was indisposed, the charge to 
the pastor and exhortation to the people being delivered by 
the Rev. Moses Waddel. This ordination took place at Union 
Church during the 14th regular sessions of the Second Pres- 
byter}' of South Carolina, in pursuance of a united call pre- 
sented to Presbytery, Sept. 28, 1805, from the Churches of 
Fairforest for one-half, of Union for one-fourth, and of Grassy 
Spring for one fourth of the ministerial laborers of Daniel 
Gray, and the pastoral relation thus constitutecj, continued 
through the remainder of this decade. 

Little River. — A portion of this congregation resided in 
Newberry District and a part in Laurens. The Rev. John B. 
Kennedy was then pastor, divitiing his labors between this 
Church and that of Duncan's Creek. The elders from the 
time of Mr. Kennedy's settlement were Col. John Siinpson, 
James Caldwell, Samuel Henderson and James Burnsides. 
Later, but still during his ministry, Washington Williams, 
Maj. John Griffin, Maj. John Black, Dr. A. T. Golding, John 
Burnside and Samuel Caldwell held this office. 

Duncan's Ceeek in the eastern corner of Laurens, was unit- 
ed with Little River in the.same pastorate, sharing equally with 
it the ministerial labors of Mr. Kennedy. This congregation 
and those in Newberry were of the same Presbyterian stock. 
Of several of those in Newberry, Judge O'Neal in his An- 

* "He was probably educated by Dr. Book, of East Tennessee." Let- 
ter of his nephew, B. L. Gray, to Rev. J. H. Say©. Feb. 28, 1850. 



124 DtlXCAN's CREEK, [1800-1810. 

nals of Newberry District speaks. The father of the Hon. 
KeV Boyce, the distinguished millionaire of our own day, he 
characterizes as "an industrious, thriving Presbyterian Irish- 
man.'' "Col. David Glenn and his wife was among the last 
of the emigrants that were permitted to leave Ireland before the 
American Revolution. They landed in Savannah, Ga., and 
thence came to South Carolina and settled on Enoree, at a 
place once known as Glenn's Mills, now Brasejman's." He 
first served in the mounted troops as a private, and was with 
Sumter at Wemyss' defeat at Trighdam, and Tarleton's at- 
Blrtckstock's in 1780. He was adjutant and commissary un- 
der Col's. Giles and Lindsay. Col. Glenn accompanied 
Morgan at the battle of the Cowpens, and was 
at the seige of Ninety Six, and the battle of Eutaw. His life 
was sought by the "Bloody Cunningham," and his party, who 
surrounded his house and put to death Mr. Chesky, who was 
asleep in the upper part of the house, while he escaped by a 
violent effort out of their hands, undressed as he was. They 
came upon him at his .mill, but a friend of whom they inquir- 
ed the way, divested them by a roundabout road, threw a bag 
of corn on his own horse to conceal his purpose, rode quickly to 
the mill and gave the Colonel timely warning, who plunged 
into tJie Cane Brake on the Enoree and escaped. He was 
Representati^ve of Newberry in the first Legislature of South 
Carolina after the Revolution.iry war, and was the father of 
Dr. George VV. Glenn, elder of the .'\veleigh Church. There 
were John, William, and James Caldwell and their sisters 
Mrs. Richie, Mrs. Patrick Calhoun, (the mother of John C. 
Calhoun,) Mrs. Moore. Mrs. GiUham, Mrs. East, and Mrs. 
Dr. Martin. This family were .sharers in the hardships of the 
Revolutionary struggle. John Caldwell was a member of 
the first provincial Congress of South Carolina which met at 
Charleston, Jan. 1 1, 1775. He was appointed a captain and 
raised a company in which William Cunningham, (afterward 
the Bloody Bill,) but then a highly influential young man, and 
other respectable young men of Saluda, Little River, and 
Mudlick Creek, were members. They were concerned in the 
capture of Fort Charlotte on the Savannah, and were ordered 
to Charleston in the Spring of '75. Whatever v»as the cause 
of grievance, of which there are several different'versions. 
Cunningham returned after the fall of Charleston at the head 
of a band of bloody scouts, to wreak his vengeance upon his 



1800-1810.] MRS. GILLAM. 125 

former neighbors. In November, 1781, at Easley's sliop 
he or his p.irty killed Oliver Towles and two others. Mrs. 
Gillam (Elizabeth Caldwell,) alone visited the shop soon after 
they left and fpund the three lifeless bodies, one of them regu- 
larly laid out, as in mockery on the vice bench. Shasaw the 
party before they reached the house of Maj. John Caldwell, Cun- 
ni.Tgham's former commander. The party halted at the gate 
and hailed, Caldwell walked out, and, according tq one ac- 
count, Cunningham drew a pistol and shot him ; according 
to another, two of his men tvho were in the advance perform- 
ed the deed, and when Cunningham arrived he affected to de- 
plore the bloody act. Yet in the next instant, his house, by 
his orders, was in flames, and his widow left with no other 
covering but the heavens, seated by the side of her murder- 
ed husband. Mrs. Gillam w.as the first of 'the family at the 
smoking ruins, her brother on his lace in the yard. In the 
year '81 or '82, (probably the latter,) a lad, James Creswell, 
afterward Col. Creswell, remarkable for hisactive hostility to the 
Tories, was at Mrs. Caldwell's, (Mrs. Gillam's mother.) A 
negro gave the alarm. In an instant the old lad)' directed 
her daughter Betsey, (Mrs. Gillam) to hide herself, and Cres- 
well to dress himself in clothes of her daughter which .she 
furnished. As the Tories approached her house, she ordered 
her own horse and that of her daughter Betsey to be saddled, 
as she was compelled to visit Mrs. Neely. Sambo had the 
horses at the door. The old lady called Betsey, "Come 
along," said she, "I am in a hurry." Out walked Creswell in 
Betsey's toggery, her bonnet slouched over his face covered 
his features; he and the old lady mounted in the presence of 
the Tories, and away they went to visit Mrs. Neely, while the 
Tories set about searching for Jenmiy Creswell. They found 
the true Betsey, became aware that Creswell had escaped, 
and soothed themselves by sweeping pretty much all of Mrs. 
CaTdwell's household goods. One of them declared that he 
thought Betsey took mighty long steps, as she went to her 
horse. "Gen. James Gilham" now, in 1 871, and elder in the 
Rock Church, Abbeville, is the son of this Mrs. Gillam, and 
of her he has most justly remarked, that "she and all the 
other members of the Caldwa-ll family were Presbyterians, and 
hence she was strict in the instruction of her children." She 
was baptized in infancy by the Rev. Patrick Henry, uncle of 
Virgmia's celebrated orator. She was long a member of Lit- 



126 JOHN BOYCB. [1800-1810. 

tie River Church, near Belfast, Laurens, but when Aveleigh 
Church near Newberry was organized, she became a meni- 
ber of it. 

John Boyce, the father of Ker Boyce, was of the Scotch- 
Irish stoi:k. Alexander, his brother, was a captain, and fell 
at the siege of Savannah, at the head of his company. John 
Boyce was in the battles of Blackstock's, King'.s Mountain, 
Cowpens and Eutaw. On his return to his family, after one 
of these Battles, he had scarcely saluted his wife and children 
when he was startled by the sound of approaching horses. 
He sprang to the cabio door and saw a party of Tories, 
'headed by William Cunningham and a man of less note, 
McCombs, immediatel).' before him. Four of the horses were 
already abreast of his door. He threw his hat in the face of 
the horses, which made theni open right and left. He 
sprang through the opening and ran for the woods about 
seventy-five yards before hiin. Cunningham was alongside, 
and, striking a furious blow, it took effect on his raised hand 
as he avoided the charge, nearly sundering three of his 
fingers. Before the blow could be repeated he was in the 
thick brush of a wood imperietrable to the cavalry. He 
watched the retreat, hurried to his house, had his wounded 
hand bound up, was in the saddle on the way to his com- 
mander, Casey, and before night Casey, with a party of fifteen, 
was in pursuit, and on the Enoree, near the mouth of Dun- 
can's Creek, captured eleven or twelve of the party, among 
whom was McCombs. These were conveyed to a place 
where the Charleston road crosses the old Ninety-Six road, 
(now VVhitmire's) and there " a short shrift," a strong rope 
and a stooping hick'ory applied speedy justice to them all. 
A common grave at the root of the tree is their resting 
place for all time. On another occasion Mr. Boyce was 
captured and tied in his own barn, while a bed cord was 
sought for to hang him ; his negro man (long afterward 
known as old Sindy) being hid in the straw, and knowing 
the necessity of speedy relief while his captors were absent 
on their fell purpose, came to his rescue and untying him, 
both made good their escape. John Boyce lived long 
after the war. He died in April, 1806. He was a Presby- 
terian and an elder in McClintock's church, Gilder's Creek. 
(Then Indian Creek, to which Gilder's Creek has succeeded.) 
In the graveyard there rest his remains. He was a mer- 



1800-1810.] EOCKY SPRING. 127 

chant and a dLstiller. He made and sold whiskey, and, strange 
to say, not one of his many sons ever drank to excess. This 
no doubt is to be attributed to tlie "Let us worship God," 
heard night and morning at his family board. Captain James 
Caldwell, brother of John and William was in the battle ot 
Covvpens under General Pickens. In this engagement he 
was severely wounded and mutilated in his hands and head. 
He was a man deservedly popular, fie died in 1813. He 
united himself to the Presbyterian Cliurch of Little River, of 
which he was a devout and exemplary membertill his death. 
The preceding accounts are from the late Judge O'Neal's 
Annals of Newberry District. '1 hey relate to the Revolu- 
tionary period of our history, which we have long since 
passed, but some of the actors in those scenes were still living 
in this decade, and they show the kind of stuff of which the 
men and women found at that day in this group of Presby- 
terian churches, were made, some of whose virtues we may 
hope have been inherited by their descendants. 

Rocky Spring — One of the churches of Rev. Robert 
McClintock, a short distance east of Laurens C. H. We are 
not able to trace its history by any sources of information 
before us through this decade. Robert M. Clintock began 
to preach there in 1787. In vol. I., p. 528, tradition says that 
the first who preached the gospel thei'e was Rev. John 
McCosh, who preached at a stand in the woods near the site 
of the present church. This, it is conjectured, was about 
1780. The first church edifice was of unhewd logs, with a 
dirt floor. The next was of plank, sawed one edge thin and 
the other thick with a whip saw, the frame being of hewed 
logs. Whether Mr. McCosh or Mr: McClintock formerly 
organized the church is not certainly known. (Z. L. Holmes 
in ''Our Monthly," Sept., 1872.) After the death of Mr. 
McClintock, in 1803, the church was served by the Rev. J, D. 
Kennedy through this decade. 

Liberty Spring, in the southern part of Laurens- District. 
Mr. Kennedy continued to preach to this congregation as 
often as was in his power. From 1803 to 1807 he devoted 
to them one-third part of his ministerial labors. After this 
they obtained a fourth part of the services of the Rev. Benja- 
min R. Montgomery, whose residence was at a more conve- 
nient distance. In addition to this, certain Presbyterian sup- 
plies were appointed,. as of Mr. Kennedy iji 1800 and 18OJ, 



128 LIBERTY SPRING. [1800-1810. 

Mr. Templeton in 1803, Mr. Dick.son and Mr. Montgomery in 
1807, of Mes.sr.s. Kennedy, Waddei, and Gilliland in 1808. 
"Mr. Kennedy," says Dr. Robt. Campbell, "wa.s an excellent, 
sound doctrinal Preacher, a man of great piety, and indefatig- 
able in all his ministerial duties. Tbere is mu;h due to his 
memory for the good he was instrumental in doing at Liberty 
Spring Ciiurch. There were but few of the old members be- 
longing to the church when lie commenced preaching, and 
in the cour.se of two or three years he had a very flourishirig 
church. Much harmony, unity, and good feelmg existed all 
the time he preached there. In ihe first year or two, espe- 
cially, the accessions to the church were numerou.s. About 
this time there appeared to be a divine work mailifesting its 
power in a very miraculous manner in the upper Districts of 
South Carolina. Under the preaching of the gospel many 
persons would apparently lose voluntary power and tall, pros- 
trate, as if struck with apoplexy and would remain in a state 
of prostration from an hour to one or two hours. When 
they begun to speak thoy expressed deep conviction of their 
state as sinners and asked God to have mercy on them. 
Some, v\hen they would rise to their feet, admonished and 
exhorted those around them to repent and seek the Lord. I 
have never had any doubt m_\self, in relation to the work 
being of divine origin. If it was not the work of God why 
would the sincere cry to the Lord to Jiave mercy on him ? 
Moreover, in many cases, I had a right to 'judge the tree by 
its fruits.'" Such is the testin)ony of Dr. Robert Campbell, a 
man of wisdom, intelligence, and piety, now no more, from 
whose manuscript we quote. The elders ordained by Mr. 
Kennedy were Johnathan Johnson, Esq., Major John Middle- 
ton, Captain John Robinson, James Neikels, Joseph HoUings- 
worth, and Samuel Freeman, wrongly printed Truman in our 
Vol. I. p. 621. We re|jeat the names, desiring thus to cor- 
rect this error. Mr. Kennedy continued preaching at Liberty 
Spring till near the close of this decade, and was succeded by 
Rev. Benjamin Montgomery, D.D , who preached one-fourth 
of his time the year after P/Ir. Kennedy left. He lived some 
time before this in Abbeville, and taught a Male Academy at 
Cambridge. He was, says Dr. Campbell, a man of fine talents 
and eloquent. His eloquence was characterized by both 
gravity and warmth. After he left Liberty Spring he was 
called to preach at Camden, thence lo Columbia as Professor 



1800-1810.] UNION AND GRASSY SPRING. 129 

in the South Carolina College and pastor in the Columbia 
Church. He died in the prime of life in one of the British 
Isles whether he had gone in the pursuit of health. MS. of 
Dr. Campbell. [MS. Hist, of Second Presbytery, by Rev. Dr. 
Waddel. Rev. J. B. Kennedy, Hugh Dickson, Committee. 
Minutes of Second Presbytery.] 

Union Presbyterian Church — A part of Dr. Joseph Alex- 
ander's ministerial labors were devoted to this people until 
1802, when the Rev. William Williamson took the pastoral 
charge. A great revival occurred here in this year, which 
was productive of blessed effects in many instances. In 1805 
Mr. Williamson removed to the State of Ohio, having first 
taken hi.s dismission from Presbytery to join the Presbytery 
of Washington in the State of Kentucky. Mr. Williamson 
owned a number of slaves which he wished to emancipate, 
and it was the same disaffection with slavery which induced 
him, Robt. G. Wilson, and James Gilliland, Sr., to remove to 
the free states of the West about the same time. 

On September 28, 1805, Daniel Gray was called to this 
church in connection with Fairforest and Grassy Spring; he 
was ordained as has before been mentioned, and continued 
in connection with these churches through tliis period. Pres- 
byterial supplies were ordered for it also. Messrs. William- 
son and Kennedy in 1800 and 1801 ; Messrs. Williams and 
Montgomery in 1 803, and Messrs. Williamson and Kennedy 
in 1804. Besides the elders of this church, Wm. Kennedy 
and Joseph Mcjunkin, ordained before the present century, 
and John Savage, Joseph Hughes and Christopher BVandon, 
mentioned Vol. I. p.p. 530-532 ; two others, Thomas Kenne- 
dy and James Gage were ordained, between 1800 and 181 5. 
(J. H. S.) 

Fairforest. — We have before seen Vol. I. p. 551, 552, 
that Rev. Wm. Williamson was pastor of this church until his 
removal with a portion ofliis congregation in Ohio to 1804-5. 
The Rev. Samuel B. Wilson, a native of North Carolina, after- 
wirds Dr. Wilson of the .Union Thelogical Seminary, but at 
that time licentiate, supplied the church for six months in the 
year 1805. This congregation was the first within the bounds 
of its Presbytery where the great revival of I 802 made its ap- 
pearance. Many were awakened anrl the happy results were 
observable in the holy walk of many truly converted persons 
for many years. "It is still for a memorial," says the MS. 
9 



130 FAIKFOEEST NAZARETH, [1800-1810. 

History of the Second Presbytery written in 1809. Thomas 
Williamson, M.D., and Daniel Gray also preached for this 
people as licentiates under the care of Presbytery in Septem- 
ber, 1805. Thomas Williamson was the brother of Rev. 
Wm. Williamson. He abandoned the practice of medicine 
for the ministry, and preached with great zeal, but died before 
being ordained. Daniel Gray was brought up in Abbeville 
District, and was a pupil of Dr. Moses Waddel, he was or- 
dainad pastor of this Church in Connection with Union (for- 
merly Brown's Creek,) and Grassy Spring (now Cane Creek) 
in August, 1805. He was spoken of as an able and zealous 
preacher as well as sound Divine. He taught a classical 
school at the church for sometime. Rev. Ihomas Archi- 
bald, Wm Means, A. VV. Thompson, David McDowell, and 
Wm. K. Clowney were among his pupils. 

Nazareth Church, Spartanburg District, was at the be- 
ginning of this century ministered to by the Rev. James 
Templeton as stated supply. His connection with the 
church in this capacity ceased before April 7th, 1802, when 
the church petitioned Presbytery for supplies. In Sep- 
tember, 1802 in connection with the church of Fairview, they 
called James Gilliland, Jr., (who was licensed on the 8th of 
April in that year, to be their pastor. He was ordained on 
the 7th of April, 1803, at Fairview church, at the regular 
meeting of Pjesbytery, the Rev. John B. Kennedy presiding, 
and Rev. James Templeton preaching the sermon. This Mr. 
Gilliland is said to have been the son of parents unable to 
afford him an education. Their minister, who was also em- 
ployed in teaching, observing the bright parts of the lad, said 
to his parents, "Give me your son James, and I will help him 
with his education." (The minister is supposed to have been 
Mr. Templeton.) James went to live with the preacher and 
had a variety of work to perform. But he always carried his 
book with him, and occasionally looked into it even while 
ploughing. His progress was rapid. He married a Miss 
Nesbit. His father-in-law furnished the funds which enabled 
him to obtain an education at College. He taught a classical 
school in the Nazareth congregation, while he was preparing 
for the ministry and before he was licensed, which was at- 
tended by Dr. John McElhenney from 1798 to 1801, Dr. 
Samuel B. Wilson of the Union Seminary, Virginia, being his 
school-mate at that time. Mr. Gilliland contmued the pastor 



1800-1810.] CAMP MEETING. 131 

of Nazareth and Fairview Cliurclie.s through the remainder of 
this decade. To excellent .scholarship, James Gilliland, Jr.,* 
added the attractions of an animated speaker, and of a man of 
engaging and popular manners. The church grew and flour- 
ished under his pastorate. In this society too the revival of 
religion of which we have spoken made its first most remark- 
able appearance early in July, 1802. The members of the 
Second Presbytery of South Carolina generally attended a 
camp meeting previously appointed, and administered the 
Lord's Supper. During the solemnity which several thou- 
sands attended, many persons were stricken down and exer- 
cised in a manner to account for which the wisest -lersons 
present were puzzled. From this the work was diffused and 
there were few if any societies in the bounds of the Presby- 
tery in which its effects did not appear in a greater or less de- 
gree within a short time afterwards. [MS. Hi.st. of Pres., Min- 
utes of Do. Letters of J. H. Saye and Dr. Joim McElhenney, 
MS. of Rev. ,Robt. H. Reid.] The following letter more fully 
describes the occasion to which the preceding alludes, [p. 
404 of Footed Sketches of N. C] 

A TEUE ACCOUNT OF A GREAT MEETING HELD IN THE DISTRICT 
OF SPARTANBURG, SOUTH CAROLINA. 

Abbeville, {S. C.) July yth, 1802. 

"My Friend : I have just returned from Nazareth, where I 
have seen and heard things which no tongue can tell, no pen 
can paint, no language can describe, or of which no man can 
have a just conception, until he has seen, heard and felt. I 
am willing that you should have a perfect detail of all the 
circumstances attending this meeting; and of all occurrences 
which there took place. But you must accept the acknowl- 
edgments of my inadequacy to draw a just representation; 
yet, as far as I may be able, I will now give you an account 
of some things : 

*The author greatly regrets the error which occurs in his first volume 
page 506, in .an extract from the Central Presbyterian, which confounds 
James Gilliland, Jr., with James Gilliland, Sr., who became a member 
of South Carolina Presbytery in 1796, and was pastor at Bradaway 
Church, went to Ohio in 1805, and never taught in Nazareth congrega- 
tion. It was James Gilliland, Jr., who was not licensed until 1802, and 
did not leave the State until 1810 or 1820. The two Gillilands it is be- 
lieved were not related to each other, or if so, very remotely. The one 
was called Naaarelh Gilliland, and the other Bradaway Gilliland from 
their respective places of labour. 



132 RELIGIOUS SERVICES. []8n0-]8]0. 

''The meeting was appointed some months since by the 
Presbytery, and commenced on Friday, the 2nd inst. The 
grove wherein the camp was pitched was near the water of 
Tyger River; and being in a vale which lay between two hills 
gently inclinmg towards each other, was very suitably adapt- 
ed to the purpose. The first day was taken up in encamp- 
ment until two o'clock, when divine service commenced with 
a sermon by the Rev. John B. Kennedy. He was succeeded 
by the Rev. William Williamson, in an .address explanatory 
of the nature and consequences of such meetings. The as- 
sembly was then dismissed. After some time, service com- 
menced again with a sermon by the Rev. James Gilliland, 
who was followed by the Rev. Robert Wilson, in a 
very serious and solemn exhortation. Afterwards the eve- 
ning was spent in singing and prayer alternately. About sun- 
down the people were dismissed to their respective tents. By 
this time the countenances of all began to be shaded by the 
clouds of solemnity, and to assume a very serious aspect. 
At ten o'clock two young men were lying speechless, motion- 
less, and sometimes to all appearance, efxcept in the mere act 
of breathing, dead. Before day, five others were down; these . 
I did not see. The whole night was employed in reading 
and commenting upon the word of God; and also in singing, 
praying and exiiorcing; scarcely had the light of the morn- 
ing sun dawned on the people, ere they were engaged in 
what may be called family worship. The adjacent tents col- 
lecting in groups, here and there, al'l round the whole line. 
The place of worship was early repaired to by a numerous 
throng. Divine service commenced at eight by one of the 
Methodist breihren, whom I do not recollect. He was fol- 
lowed by the Rev. Mr. Shackleford, of the Baptist profession. 
Singing, praying and exhorting by the Presbyterian clergy- 
men continued until two o'clock, when an intermission of 
some minutes was granted, that the people might refresh them- 
selves with water, &c. By this time, the audience became so 
numerous, that it was impossible for all to crowd near enough 
to hear one speaker; although the ground rising above the 
stage theatrically, afforded aid to the voice. Hence, the 
assembly divided, and afterwards preaching was performed at 
two stages. An astonishing and solemn attention in the 
hearers, and an animating and energetic zeal in the speakers, 
were now everywhere prevailing. Service commenced half 



1800-1810.] EEHGIOUS SERVICES. 133 

after two by the Rev. John Simpson at one stage, and at the 
other, by the Rev. James M'Elhenney, who were succeeded 
by the Rev. Francis Cummings. Afterthese sermons, fervent 
praying, &c., were continued until, and through the night, in 
which time many were stricken, and numbers brought to the 
ground. 

" The next morning (Sabbath morning,) a still higher, if 
possible, more en^jaged and interesting S[)irit pervaded the 
whole grove ; singing and praying echoed from every quarter 
until eight o'clock, when divine service commenced again at 
both stages, before two great and crowded assemblies. The 
action sermons were delivered by the Rev Robert Wilson, at 
one stage, and the Rev. William Cummings Davis at the 
other. I did not hear Mr. Wilson. But Mr. Davis's was one 
of the most popular orthodox gospel sermons that I ever 
heard. No sketch, exhibited in words, would be adequate to 
portray the appearance of the audience under this discourse. 
Imagine to yourself thousands under a sense of the greatest 
possible danger, anxious to be informed in all that related to 
their dearest interests, in the presence of a counsellor, who, 
laboring with all his efforts, should be endeavoring to point 
out the only way to security; and you will have some faint 
conception of this spectacle. 

" Then ensued the administration of the Lord's Supper. 
To the communion sat down about four hundred persons. It 
was a matter of infinite satisfaction, to see on this occasion 
the members of the Methodist and Presbyterian Churches 
united ; all owning and acknowledging the same God, the 
same Saviour, the same Sanctifier, and the same Heaven. 
We are sorry to add that the Baptists refused to join ; whether 
their objecfions were reasonably justifiable, I shall not pre- 
sume to say. 

" The evening exercises, although greatly interrupted by 
the intemperance of the weather, progressed as usual, until 
about dark ; when there commenced one of the most sublime, 
awfully interesting and glorious scenes which could possibly 
be exhibited on this side of eternity. The penetrating sighs, 
and excruciating struggles of those under exercise ; the grate- 
ful exultations of those brought to a sense of their guilty 
condition, and to a knowledge of the way to salvation, 
mingled with the impressions which are naturally excited by 
the charms of music and the solemnity of prayer on such 



134 THEIE EFFECTS. [1800-1810. 

occasions; and to all this added the nature of the scenery, the 
darkness of night and the countenances of the spectators, 
speaking in the terms more expressive than language, the 
sympathy, the hope and the fear of their hearts, were suffi- 
cient to bow the stubborn neck of infidelity, silence the 
tongue of profanity, and melt the heart of cold neglect, though 
hard as adamant. This scene continued through the night. 
Monday morning dawned big with the fate of its importance. 
The morning exercises were conducted as usual. About half- 
past seven the assembly met the ministers at the stage, and 
service commenced by the Rev. Mr. Waddel, after which 
ensued singing, exhorting and a concert of prayer. At length 
the business closed with an address, energetic and appropriate, 
by the Rev. Francis Cummins. In the course of this day, 
many were stricken, numbers of whom fell- 

" 1 cannot but say that the parting was one of the most 
moving and affecting scenes which presented itself through- 
out the whole. Families, who had never seen each other 
until they met on the ground, would pour forth the tears of 
sympathy, like streams of waters ; many friendships were 
formed, and many attachments contracted, which, although 
the persons may never meet again, shall never be dissolved. 
Not one-quarter of an hour before I mounted my horse to 
come away, I saw one of the most beautiful sights whichever 
mortal beheld. It would not only have afforded pleasure to 
the plainest observer, but the profoundest philosopher would 
have found it food for his imagination. The case to which I 
allude was the exercise of Miss Dean, one of the three sisters 
who fell near the close of the work. Her reflections presented 
mostly objects of pleasure to her view. But sometimes, for 
the space of a minute, she would lose them ; the consequence 
of which was painful distress. By the very features of her 
face I could see when her afflictive sensations approached, as 
plain as ever I saw the sun's light obscured by the over-pass- 
ing of clouds. In her happy moments she awakened in my 
recollection Milton's lively picture of Eve when in a state of 
innocence. 

" Another extraordinary case occurred at the very moment 
of departure. Two men disputing, one for, the other against 
the wor):, referred their contest to a clergyman of respecta- 
bility, who happened to be passing that way. He i .miedi- 
ately took hold of the hand of the unbeliever and thus 



1800-1810.] CASES. 135 

addressed him : ' If you were in your heart's desire to wait 
on the means of grace, God would show you the truth. You 
may expect mercy to visit you ; but remember, my hand for 
it, it will cost you something; a stroke would not now come 
at a successless hour.' Scarcely had the words dropped from 
his lips, when the man was on the ground, pleading for an 
interest in the kingdom of heaven, and begging pardon of 
God for his dishonoring him and the cause of religion, through 
unbelief I understood the man to be a pious mm, and his 
hesitations of a religious and conscientious kind. The other 
men who had been in the crowd where many were lying 
under the operations of the work, attempted to run off. One, 
leaving his hat in his haste, ran about twenty or thirty paces 
and fell on his face. His shrieks declared the terrors and 
anguish under which he labored. The other ran a different 
course about fifty yards, and fell. 

" The number of those who were stricken could not be 
ascertained, but I believe it to be much greater than any one 
would conceive. On Sabbath night, about twelve or one 
o'clock, I stood alone on a spot whence I could hear and see 
all over the camp, and found that the work was not confined 
to one, two or three places, but overspread the whole field, 
and in some large' crowds the ground appeared almost 
covered. In the course of one single prayer, of duration 
about ten minutes, twelve persons fell to the ground, the 
majority of whom declared, in terms audible and explicit, that 
they never prayed before. 

" There attended on this occasion thirteen Presbyterian 
preachers, viz. : Messrs. Simpson, Cummins, Davis, Cunning- 
ham, Wilson, Waddel, Williamson, Brown, Kennedy, Gille- 
land, Sn, M'Elhenny, Dixon and Gilleland, Jr., and an un- 
known number of Methodists and Baptists. 

" The multitude on this occasion far exceeded anything 
which had come under my observation. There were various 
conjectures of the number present, some allowed three, some 
four, some five, some six, some seven, and some eight 
thousand. I had not been in the habit of seeing such multi- 
tudes together, and therefore do not look upon myself ca- 
pable of reckoning anyways accurately on the subject. But 
I do candidly believe five thousand would not be a vague 
conjecture. The District of Spartanburg, where the meeting 
was held, contains no less than twelve thousand souls. Men 



136 ArrBNDANCE, [1800-1810. 

of information who reside therein, said, to one who might be 
travelling, the country would appear almost depopulated, and 
hesitated not in the least to say two-thirds of the. inhabitants 
were present. Now supposing only one-third to have at- 
tended from that district itself, there would have been four 
thousand. Besides, there were multitudes from the districts 
of Union, York, Laurens and Greenville. Numbers from 
Pendleton. Abbeville, Chester and Newberry, and some from 
Green, Jackson, Elbert and Franklin counties, of the State of 
Georgia. Of carriages, the number was about two hundred, 
including wagons and all other carriages. 

" In a thinking mind, an approach to the spot engendered 
awful and yet pleasing reflections. The idea which necessa- 
rily struck the mind were, thousands in motion to a point, 
where to meet, tell, hear, see and feel the mighty power of 
God. Believe me, sir, no composition can exaggerate the 
spirit of one of these occasions, although facts may be mis- 
represented. For a lively rniniature, I refer you to an extract 
of a letter contained in a book lately published and entitled, 
'■Surprising Accounts' -whttra this- expression is used, 'The 
slain of the Lord were scattered over'the fields.' 

" I cannot omit mentioning an idea expressed by Mr. Wil- 
liamson. After taking a view of the general prevalency of 
dissipation and slothful neglect in religious affairs, he con- 
cluded, saying, " These works appear like the last efforts of 
the Deity to preserve his church, and promote the cause of 
religion on this earth.' To see the brilliancy and sublimity of 
this idea, we need only recur to the state of society for a few 
years back, especially in the Southern States of United 
America, when and where Satan with all his influence ap- 
peared to be let loose and was going about like a roaring lion 
seeking whom he might devour. This extraordinary work 
carries in itself, demonstratively, the truth of the Christian 
religion. Men who fall, and many there are who have paid 
no attention to the holy scripture, yea, even infidels of the 
deepest dye, cry out " their sinful state by nature,' ' their 
alienation from God,' 'and man's incapacity to satisfy the 
justice of the law under which he stands condemned,' ' and of 
course the absolute necessity of a Redeemer.' When receiv- 
ing comfort from this last consideration, I heard none crying 
for Mahomed, Brainma, Grand Lama or Hamed ; none but 
Christ was their healing balm, in Him alone was all reliance 
fixed, on Him alone was all dependence placed. 



1800-1810.] EFFECT^ NORTH PACOLET. 137 

"It would be exceedingly difficult to, draw an intelligible 
representation of the effects of this wo'rk upon the human 
body. Some are more easily and gently wrought than oth- 
ers ; some appear wholly wrapped in solitude; while others 
cannot refrain from pouring out their whole souls in exhorta- 
tion to those standing round ; different stages, from mild 
swoons to convulsive spasms, may be seen ; the nerves are 
not unfrequently severely cramped ; the subjects generally 
exhibit appearances as though their verv hearts would burst 
out of their mouths ; the lungs are violently agitated, and all 
accompanied with an exhalation ; they universally declare 
that they feel no bodily pain at the moment of exercise, 
although some complain of a sore breast and the effects of a 
cramping, after the work is over; the pulse of all whom I ob- 
served beat quick and regular, tiie extremities of the body are 
sometimes perceptibly cold. In short, no art or desire would 
imitate tlie exercise. No mimic would be able to do justice 
to the exhibition. This demonstrates the error of the foolish 
supposition of its being feigned. I will conclude, my dear 
sir, acknowledging that alt I have here written is incompe- 
tent to give you any complete idea of the work. Therefore 
to you and all who wish to be informed, I say, come, hear, 
see and feel. 

I am yours, respectfully, 

"EBENEZER H. CUMMINS." 

These statements are ver)'' remarkable, yet we abide in the 
opinions expressed on former pages. 

Fa IRVIEW Church, Greenville District. The connection 
of this church with Rev. James Templeton, the halt of whose 
labors they had enjoyed since 1794, ceased in 1800. They 
received supplies as a vacant church from John Simpson, 
James Gilliland, Sen., and Wm. Williamson, until 1802, when 
they united with the Nazareth Church m a call to Rev, James 
Gilliland, Jr., with whose labors ihey were favored through 
the remainder of this decade. About the year 1 809 Alexan- 
der Peden, William Peden and Anthony Savage were chosen 
as elders. 

North Pacolet was supplied as a vacant church through 
this decade. In iSoo James Templeton, in 1802 James Tem- 
pleton and James Gilliland, Sen. ; in 1803, Gilliland; in 1804, 
Templeton and James Gilliland, Jr. ; in 1805, Templeton; in 



138 NEWTON — CTXFFEY .TOWN. [1800-1810. 

1806, Templeton and Gilliland ; in 1807, Templeton and 
Daniel Gray ; in 1808, Gray; in 1809, Gilliland and Gray. 
Under Mr. Templeton in 1800, W. Logan and M. Logan, Jr., 
R. McDowell and his wife and J. McDowell and his wife 
became members of the church. Under the labors of J. Gil- 
liland in 1806, W. Jackson and Mrs. Jackson became mem- 
bers. Thus the succession of a church, apparently never 
large, was kept up and transmitted. 

MiLFORD is often associated with North Pacolet in these 
supplies. In 1800' James Templeton; in 1802, Templeton 
and Gilliland, Sen. ; in 1803, Gilliland and Benjamin Mont- 
gomery; in 1804, Gilliland, Jr., and Templeton; in 1806, 
Gilliland; in 1807, Templeton was appointed as supply. 
In Sept. 1801, Milford contributed to the Missionary Fund 
through their Elder. 

Newton, "at the head of Tyger River" was supplied in this 
decade by Mr. Gilliland, Sen. ; in 1805, by Mr. Templeton ; 
in 1806, by the same, if the Presbyterial appointments were 
fulfilled, as in this Presbytery they generally were. 

CuFFEY Town, in Edgefield District, on CuffeyTown Creek 
for which see Vol. I, p. 642, had frequent supplies duringthis 
decade. "Cuffey Town Church petitioned for supplies" 
(Minutes of Second Presbytery, p. 104.) In 1800 and 1801, 
Dr. Cummins; in 1802, Hugh Dickson and Robert G. Wil- 
son, (afterwards D. D.) ; in 1803, Wilson and Dickson, and 
in 1807 Williamson were appointed on this service. 

The German Chukch, on Hard Labor Creek begins to be 
named among those for which supplies are appointed. "The 
German Church on Hard Labor petitioned for supplies" Sept. 
28, 1804, Minutes, p. 74. Rev. Messrs. Dickson, Wilson and 
Waddel were appointed for this purpose in 1 804,' Messrs. 
Waddel, Dickson and Montgomery in 1805, Messrs. Waddel 
Dickson and, Gray in 1806, Messrs. Waddel and Montgomery 
in 1807, and Dr. Waddel the most frequently of them all. 
The German Church is naOied and Cuffey Town is not in the 
report of the Second Presbytery to the General Assembly in 
1809. Did the one organization supersede the other. 

Smyrna Church, Abbeville. There was a destitute neigh- 
borhood near Whitehall- which had associated together for 
the purpose of public worship. They had sent up to Presby- 
tery a request to be taken under their care and to be known 
by the name of Smyrna Congregation. They were received 



1800-1810.] SMYRNA — GREENVIIXE CHURCH. 139 

see Vol. I, p. 633. Uniting with Greenville Church they 
petitioned Presbytery Sept. 22, 1800, each for one lialf of the 
services of Hugh Dickson, wiio had been licensed at the 
Spring Sessions, as their stated supply. The petition was 
referred to the Committee on Supphes. They appointed him 
to serve these churches each three Sabbaths, Hopewell and 
Carmel each, one, and the rest of his time to preach at his 
own discretion. At the Spring Sessions May 9th, 1801, they 
presented a regular call for him as their pastor, which he 
accepted, and was ordained as pastor of ffiese congregations 
at an Intermediate Presbytery, which was held at the house 
of John Hairston, in the middle ground between the two con- 
gregations, on the nth of November, 1801, the Rev. Francis 
Cummins preaching the sermon, and the Rev. Robert Wilson 
presiding and putting the questions prescribed in the Disci- 
pline, making the consecrating prayer and delivering the 
charge to the pastor and an exhortation to the people, and 
Mr. Dickson entered upon the discharge of the duties of his 
office. At the time of the settlement in the congregation 
there was no regular session. The people elected Andrew 
and Alexander White, David Logan, John Hairston, and 
Samuel Weems to the office of ruling elders, into which office 
they were inducted by ordination. These men, by deaths and 
removals, soon disappeared from among the people. The 
efforts made to obtain others, and the singular fatality attend- 
ing them, probably belong to a later period. 

Gneenville Church (formerly Saluda), Abbeville. This 
church was left vacant by the dissolution of the union between 
it and the Long Cane Church in 1797. We mentioned that 
the congregation was supplied once in the month for one year 
afterwards by Rev. Robert Wilson. But this period having 
elapsed it was left vacant, and in this situation, with a few 
occasional supplies, it continued until the spring of 1800, when 
it was visited by Mr. Hugh Dickson, a licentiate, under the 
care of the Second Presbytery of South Carolina. He preach- 
ed to them occasionally through the summer, and at the fall 
sessions he received an invitation to spend half of his time 
among them as a stated supply till the next meeting of the 
Presbytery. This was through the hands of Presbytery, 
under whose direction he was. It took the course we have 
indicated, but for substance it w^s accepted on his part, and 
he commenced his labors. There were at that time but two 



140 ROCKY CREEK. [ISGO-ISIO. 

officiating elders, James Watts and John Bell, and about forty 
communicants. Many had removed to the new settlements 
in Pendleton, and a degree of coldness prevailed among the 
people generally. The old house of worship was very much 
racked, and a new one was to be built, and the session en- 
gaged. Both these objects were attended to. The house 
was built, and John Weatherall, George Brownlee, and Ed- 
ward Sliarpe were elected to the office of ruling elders, and 
were ordained. The great religious excitement, which pre- 
vailed in. many par* of the country in 1802, produced little 
effect on the congregation There were a few additions to 
the church. [MS. Letter of Rev. Dickson to Rev. J. C. Wil- 
liams, March 9th, 1^*53.] In the Minutes of Presbytery there 
is on record: "A memorial from the Trustees of Greenville 
congregation stating that a specific contract was made be- 
tween them and Mr. Dickson, their pastor, seven years since 
stipulating a certain sum of money in consideration of his 
labors amcmg them, the performance of which had become 
almost impracticable to them; and praying, not for a disso- 
lution of their relation'as pastor and people, but for an exon- 
eration from the obligation on their part as to the specific 
sum. To which, with Mr. Dickson's consent, the prayer of 
the memorial was granted." (Minutes of the meeting at 
Hopewell Church, April 5th, 1808, p. 120.) We remember 
that the alleged inability of this congregation to pay the half 
of Dr Robert G. Wilson's salary was the reason of the dis- 
.soliition of the pastoral relation with him. But in this case 
" things went on smoothly," and the minister did not " count 
the loss of enrthly goods." The church at this time, accord- 
ing to a briet history sent up to the General Assembly, con- 
sisted of aboLit fifty communing members. 

Rocky Ckeek, now Rock Church, continued to rely on 
Piesbyterial supplies. Among these we name Robert Wilson, 
in 1800, 1801, 1803; J. B. Kennedy and Hugh Dickson, in 
1803 ; Moses Waddel and Hugh Dickson, 1804, in which 
year, on the third Sabbath in July, Messrs. Waddel, Kennedy, 
Dickson, and Montgomery were appointed to administer the 
communion; Hugh Dickson, Thos. Williamson and Daniel' 
Gray, in 1805 ; Hugh Dickson, in 1806; J. B. Kennedy and 
Jas. Gilliland, Jr., in 1808; J. R.Kennedy, Hugh Dickson 
and Benjamin Montgomery, in 1809. John Sample and 
George Heard were appointed ruling elders in 1804. The 



1800-1810.] HOPEWELL, ABBEVILLE. 141 

existence of this church seems to have been continued under 
these inadequate means. The congregation is in the south- 
east part of Abbeville District. Below it and near the Edge- 
field line lies old Cambridge, or Ninety-Six, of Revolutionary 
renown, said to have eight stores, five of which were quite 
extensive, if we may credit tradition. The seat of justice for 
tlie judicial district of Ninety- Six, and the site of an institution 
of learning, which would one day, it was believed, grow into a 
university, where Creswell, Springer, and others preached, Is 
not named in the records of Presbytery during this decade. 
In 1803 the Cambridge Association was incorporated by tlie 
Legislature. The college and lands belonging thereunto, the 
court house and jail, and the public lots in the village, were 
vested in this Association, to be sold and disposed of for these 
objects, the college property b.'ing held exclusively for ths 
uses of the institution the Association was to establish. The 
Cambridge Baptist Ciuirch was chartered at the same time. 
The old college building was of wood. The Association 
erected an academy building of brick. The Presbyterian 
interest revived again in this locality at a subsequent period. 

Hopewell Church, Abbeville (Lower Long Cane), re- 
ceived supplies as a vacant church in 1800. Rev. Messrs. 
Simpson, Dickson and Gilleland, Sr., preached to them by 
order of Presbytery that year. In 1801 Rev. Dr. Waddell 
left Columbia County, in Georgia, and opened a school in 
Vienna, Abbeville District, South Carolina, where he also 
labored in preaching the gospel. This place was laid out as 
a ti.wn on the Savannah River in expectation of its becoming 
a place of commerce. Three other places were laid out at 
the same time. Vienna, opposite the mouth of Broad River, 
in Georgia, at its confluence with the S.ivaniiah ; S luth Hamp- 
ton on the hill above Vienna, two others on the Georgia side, 
Petersburg in the fork, and Lisbon on the south sid:; of Broad 
River, of high sounding names, all rivals for the trade of the 
two rivers, and all destined to an ephemeral existence. 
Hopewell Church, on the 24th of Se.itemlDer, 1801, petitioned 
Presbytery for liberty to call Mr. (afterwirds Dr.) WadJell, a 
minister of Hopewell Presbyteiy in Georgia, as their pistor, 
another neighboring congregation unitmg with them in this 
call, and desiring to be known on the records by the name of 
MoRiAH. This church was the one called Liberty, Vol. 1, 
p. 631, and was still so called, notwithstanding this effort to 



142 HOPEWELL, ABBEVILLE. [1800-1810. 

change its name. The prayer was granted, and on the 7th of 
April, i8o3, Mr. Waddel was received as a member, and was 
accompanied by Mr. William Huiton, a delegate from the 
session of Hopewell Church. In 1804 Mr. Waddel removed 
from Vienna to Willingloii, a country seat which he had estab- 
lished. Mr. Waddel requested leave of Presbytery September 
28th to resign his pastoral charge of Vienna. To this Pres- 
bytery replied that as Vienn.i is not now, nor has been at any 
former period known as a church under the care of Presby- 
tery, and never presented any call to Mr. Waddel through 
that body, he cannot be consid.-red bound otherwise than by 
private contract, which may hi dissolved at the pleasure of 
the parties. Willintjton was about six miles below Vienna, 
and a little more than six from Hopewell Church, the. chief 
scene of his pastoral labors. The degree of Doctor of Di- 
vinity was conferred upon him by the College of Sjuth Caro- 
lina in 1807. As an illustration of Dr. Waddel's character, 
and a revelation of his per.sonal history beyond those bounds 
which limit our own knowledge, we again quote from the 
contribution of Mrs. M. E. D., from the point at which we 
left it on p. 654 of our first volume : " When'Dr. Waddel was 
disconnected with South Carolina Presbytery his interest in 
it did not cease — he followed in the footsteps of Mr. Springer 
at Liberty, and while a resident of Georgia often preached at 
Hopewell in this Slate, whether a« a missionary or as a supply 
I cannot determine. 

"In these excursions, after crnssinc:; the Savannah, he usually 
remained a ni<rht with Capt. P. Ro^er, or with Pierre Gibert, Esq., 
French settlers on oppusite sides of Little River, and by the assistance of 
these friendly familiei he was ferried across in a small canoe, while his 
horse either fordeil or swam accordinj^ to tlie condition of the river. 
And here we may notice an indication of tliat punctual habit which 
tlius early acquired, followeil hiiu tlirougli life, and which aided by his 
remarliatjle perseverance triumphed over every trifling obstacle, and 
suffered neither wind nor weather to detain him behind the time, or 
in any way to disappoint a consrrejiation. For several years previous to 
his entire reuioval l>r. Cummin^s had resigned the care of Hopewell, 
but continued at Rocky River, and the proximity of these churches 
pi-epared tlie way for an intimacy between the mini.sters which lasted 
for years, many letters having passed on both sides after the removal of 
Dr. C. to nreensboroujrh. 

" In pursueinfi this ccjurse several years had elapsed in the life of the 
young widower, when, being appointed Commissioner to the Assembly 
at Philadelphia he passed the place of his nativity, and met again the 
object of his earliest love, Vliss Elizabeth Pleasance, his first cousin. A 
juvenile attachment had subsisted between them ; but the engagement 



1800-1810.] DR. WADDEL. 1'13 

was broken off by the parents, who refused to let their daufrhter 
encounter what was then Bonsiderc<l the wilds of Georgia. The devo- 
tion (jf the lady, however, triumphed over this difficulty; and a few 
days or weeks before his marriapte with j\Iiss Calhoun, he reeeivLMl inti- 
mation that his former friend was willing to meet the inconveniences 
of frontier life.^ God was pleased by the death of the first wife to 
develop the amiable qualities of this excellent woman, who by patience, 
perseverance and meekness was so well fitted to her station, and her 
constancy rewarded by the privilege of ministering for more than 
thirty years to the comfort of an eminent servant of Christ. 
^ Immediately after this marriage Mr- W addel settled in South Caro- 
lina, resuming his classic vocatitm in a decent Academy built by a 
Board of Trustees in the vihage of Vienna. 

" In the meantime the rich and beautiful situations on the ir^avannah 
River, for some mil6s below, had been taken up by several worthy 
descendants of the Scotch-Irish colony, and some few had been drawn 
from a distance by the already famous character of the school at 
Vienna. Among the latter was the widow of a Mr Bull, a relative of 
Govr. Bull of Charleston, with her two youthful and talented sons 
She was a dignified and superior lady, and lived an ornament to the 
church, but the younger other sons, the late beloved Elder of Willing- 
ton was a man of whom the world was not worthy. They all lie side 
by side in the church yard, and the mother's stone once so lonely is now 
crowded with companions. ' 

"These, in connection with the warm-hearted French, were the 
patrons of .Mr Waddel.audas he was now a regular supply at Hopewell, 
and was preaching at Liberty, ten or twelve miles below, 'it appeared to 
them both convenient and desiiable that he should make a more per- 
manent settlement among them. On the high healthy ridge which 
succeeds to the lowlands, and about five miles from his former position, 
a tract of land was obtained for him, which had been included in the 
grant of a French settler — and in 1804 he set up on his own responsi- 
bility in the little secluded valley destined to become so well known, 
and to which he gave the name of Wilington. 

For educational purposes he had at first but a log house, ventilated 
by a wide open passage ; and as the place seemed so strait, and the 
number of pupils continually increased, sonn a great number of little 
wooden tents or domicils surrounded the log cabin, peeping out here 
and tliere from among the Chinquapin bushes — some with little pipes 
ofw(joden chimneys plastered with mud — others mure pretentiously 
built of brick looking decrepid and ricketty ; yet supjilying all that the 
erratic wishes of a student might require. Here, in this classic camp, 
the teacher, by his own vigilance, and by means of monitors main- 
tained the .strictest subordination. Some men seem born to rule, and 
such was Moses Waddel. Though rather below the medium height, as 
his frame matured, he became stout and athletic, and his large head 
and heavy eyebrows gave promise of that unconquerable will, which 
was never found swevering from the path of duty. 

" I'his is said to be a " fast age," but if by a precocious manhooil. and 
a false indulgence, the purposes of education are now defeated ; it is no 
less true, that in the primitive state of our society, the teacher must 
have met a much greater hardihood and boldness of nerve. Boys 
trained to out-of-door sports, and nurtured in warfare could not be 
easily frowned into submission, and the young Dictator in the intro- 
duction of his new system had many and severe contests, the memory 



144 DR. WADDEL. [1800-1810. 

of which affected his risible? for the remainder of his life He honestly- 
believed that the wise su^iyestiun of Solomon was the only safety-valve 
for the fol'ies of youth, and he acted upon that belief with boldness 
and decision No man could administer reproof with more point, and 
few better understood its application— should reproof fail, the rod was 
the dernier but sure resort. 

I suppose that a volume might be filled with anecdotes, illustrative 
of his belief in the superior efficacy of coercive measures. I will give 
only one: A young man who refused to meet the INIonitor's bill on 
Monday, played truaiit, and in order to return home borrowed a horse 
from some of the unsuspecting peasantry — for in these days the sound 
of the stage-horh had never frightened the peaceful echoes of Willing- 
ton. Before leaving, however, he ventured, booted and spurred, into 
the precincts of the camp. The mister, appearently with no hostile in- 
tention, but with a rod concealed under his arm, came out, and approach- 
hvf the stirrup-iron of the delinquent, by a skillful manoeuvre unhor.sed 
hira, and giving him a severe flagellation, ordered him to proceed on 
his journey — biit no ! the horse was dismis.sed, and the truant chone now 
to remain, and, said the old man in relating it, " I never had a better or 
more obeciient pupil than he was from that day." 

Though ilr. Waddel had much confidence in the birch, he had more 
hope in (lod, and his heart was overflowing with love to his pupils and 
with zeal for their spiritual improvement. They had always been con- 
veneil for morning and evening prayers, and had heard many lectures 
on s|iiritual as well as on moral themes ; he had given them all his 
vacant Sabbaths ; but not satisfied with this, he commenced in 1806 a 
regular course of preaching on Friday afternoons 

The people followed up these lectures, and to accommodate the 
audience they were mostly given out of doors. His engagements had 
now become so numerous that some must suflfer. The charge of Kocky 
Kiver was now added to Hopewell, Dr. Oummings having in 1803 or 4 
remcived to Georgia, and it was his custom to convene his family for 
worship by candle light on Sabbath morning, ride on horseback to 
these places — the one ten, the other fifteen miles, preach and return 
the same day 

"The fragment of the Huguenots at Liberty received but one Sab- 
bath, and sometimes that was necessarily a failure. Advantage was 
taken of this opening by some ministers of the Baptist denomination, 
who, without regard to ministerial etiquette took possession of the 
place for a time. This order had been gradually increasing in the 
neighborhood, while the elder French were being swept away by the 
ruthless hand of time, and while these were immersing at Liberty, the 
secimd generation of the French people found themselves carried away 
by those influences which were radiating round a new organization. 

" In .1809 the fruits of Jlr Waridel's assiduous labors began to be 
manifested in his school— a most interesting revival took place there, 
which extended to the people of t|ie surrounding country, and they 
began seriously to feel the inconvenience attending the want of a house 
of worship. Some of the more influential citizens — among the most 
prominent of whom was P. Gibert, Esq., made application to the 
Trustees at Vienna for the Academic' building at that place, which was 
most generously granted them ; and sliortly it arose beneath the already 
consecrated groves of Willingt >n. Besides four convenient recitation 
rooms it contained a small Chapel, and here in 1813 the church was 
regularly organized, William Noble, Pierre Gibert and Moses Dobbins 
constituting the session. 



1800-1810.1 DK. WADDEL. 145 

"At this time the church at Rocliiy Biver was resigned to Mr. Gamble 
and Mr. Waddel alternated between Willington and Hopewell. 

It is said that he refused to enter into the pastoral relation, which 
was attributable in part to the fact, that his vocation as a teacher inter- 
fered with the proper discharge of the duties of that sacred office, and 
partly, to the missionary spirit he had imbibed in early youth, which 
inclined him to labor as an Evangelist whene.ver it should be practica- 
ble. He was fond of going to the help of his ministerial brethren, and 
this habit became so confirmed that in his advanced age he was much 
from home. 

We have the best authority for stating that Mr. A'addel adopted 
early in life the declaration of St. Paul as his motto : " I am chargeble 
to no man, &c.," but however noble and self-sacrificing, this might have 
been in his own person, it was not calculated to produce the fruits of a 
righteous stewardship in others. The wants of the age, in the begin- 
ning of his ministry, and his independent mode of living, made it easy 
and perhaps proper for him to render gratuitous service ; but it is be- 
lieved by some that absolution from pecuniary obligation to the church 
for so many years, has induced a torpidity on this subject in these con- 
gregations which has ever since been manifesting its unsanctifying 
efforts ; unless early trained in liberal things it is very hard for men 
to realize that they who "preach the Gospel should live of the Gospel," 
and that those "who sow sparingly shall reap also sparingly," there are 
^ not wanting here, men, who are willing to believe that a secular calling 
is perfectly compatible with the Gospel ministry, and who quote Dr 
Waddel as a precedent for generous self-devotion. 

" It is true that in all benevolent enterprises brought before the 
church his own examp e of great liberality had some effect upon his 
contemporaries ; for there were many noble and large minded Chris- 
tians in that day, bi*t these consequences were developed in the._ future. 
By the exercise of great industry and economy, combined with the 
fewness of his wants in his simple and patriarchal mode of living, Mr. 
Waddel soon found himself acquiring a competent estate, so that he 
was enabled to become a cheerful giver ; but his disbursements were all 
made in the faith of one wh? lends to the Lord, and this sentimenthe 
saw no reason to change to the end of his days. Giving on one occasion 
the last twenty-five dollars from his pocket to a traveling agent, he 
returned that night from a marriage, and displaying the same amount 
of money to a friend, remarked witli a smile, "I knew the Lord wnuld 
return it ; but I did not know that he would send it to-day." (MSS of 
Mrs. M. E. D., see Vol. 1, p. 442.) 

Rocky River Church. When Rev. Francis Cummins re- 
signed the pastoral charge of Hopewell Church in 1796, he 
still retained that of Rocky River in' the north ivester'n part of 
Abbeville District. In the .spring of 1803 the pa.storal con- 
nection of Mr. Cummins with this church was dissolved, and 
he removed to the State of Georgia. In 1804 the Rev. John 
Simpson was directed to preach at this church as a supply. 
In 1805 at the solicitation of the people, Dr. Waddel con- 
sented to preach to them a part of his time and took upon 
himself the charge of the church, in which he continued. 
10 



146 EOCKY RIVEE. [1800-1810. 

Tn the early days of this church there was used what was 
called a shade or shelter in place of a house of worship. 
About the time of its regular organization a house was built 
of hewn logs, which was used till A. D. 1800, when a large 
frame building was put up. The early settlers in this con- 
gregation were foreigners, but the largest portion at this 
time and even earlier were from Virginia and Pennsylvania, 
to all of whom tradition gave the honor of havmg taken ah 
active part in the Revolutionary struggle. (MS. by John 
Spear.) 

The eldership had been increased since 1790 by the addi- 
tion of John Caldwell, and, at a late period, of Ezekiel Cal- 
houn, Wm. H. Caldwell and Robt. Crosby. Mr. Calhoun to 
fill the vacancy made by the death of Mr. Allen; Mr. Cald- 
well to fill that of his father, and Mr, Crosby that occasioned 
by the death of Mr. Baskin. This addition was made to the 
session about the year 1805. 

In the years 1800 and 1802 there were camp meetings held 
at this church and also in 1804, at which there was great 
excitement, and great numbers in attendance. " I attended 
two of these meetings ; I was then seventeen years old. 
There was no noise, yet many would fall down and appear 
for hours insensible. But so far as my knc^wledge extends I 
could perceive no reformation in after life. I only speak from 
my own observation. In two or three years the Presbytery 
generally gave up those camp meetings. I think it was well 

to do so." A. gilb:s, 

Monterey, S. C, October ^, ^Sjj. 

There was a difference of opinion then among good inen as 
to these extraordinary scenes. 

Long Cane Church, formerly Upper Long Cane, enjoyed 
the labors of Rev. Robert Wilson, D. D., until November, 
1804. This is the statement in vol. I., p. 628 of this history, 
in which* we anticipated "the progress of our narrative. On 
consulting the minutes of the Second Presbytery we find that 
Dr. Wilson's desire to resign his pastoral charge was made 
known October 2d, 1804, and the church cited to appearand 
shew cause, if they h^ve any, why the request should not be 
granted, but that the official release from his pastoral charge 
was on the third of April, 1805. The three ministers, Robert 
Wilson, William Williamson and James Gilliland, Sr., were 



1800-1810.] LONG CANE — BRADAWAY. 147 

on the same day dismissed to join the Presbytery of Wash- 
ington, in the State of Kentucky. The moving cause of the 
migration of two of these ministers, Messrs. Wilson and Gilli- 
land, was opposition to the institution of slavery. The 
Presbytery of Washmgton belonged to the Synod of Ken- 
tucky, but extended over the Southern portion of Ohio, 
where these three ministers took up their abode. After this, 
the congregation was frequently supplied by Presbyterial ap- 
pointment, Messrs. Dickson, Thomas Williamson, Waddil 
and Kennedy being appointed at sundry times, Rev. Dr. 
Montgomery and Thos. Williamson the most often. With 
each of these last named ministers they were about forming a 
pastoral relation which was prevented by the death of the 
latter and by the d.iath of the wife of the former, which 
turned his attention in a different direction. 

At a special meeting of Presbytery held at Poplar Tent, N. 
C, October 6th, 1809, William H. Barr, a licentiate under the 
care of Concord Presbytery, was received, and a call was laid 
before Presbytery from the Long Cane congregation for his 
services, which was by him accepted. At z-pro re nata meet- 
ing held at this church on the 27th of December, 1809. he 
passed his trials, and on the 28th was ordained pastor of this 
church, Dr. Waddel, presiding, and John B. Kennedy preach- 
ing the ordination sermon, from Col. i. : 28. Thus was 
inaugurated a ministry which was peculiarly happy, able, and 
attended with blessed results. Tlie number of church mem- 
bers in full communion at this time was about 120. (MS. 
of Robert Wardlaw, MS. Hist, of 2d Pres., by Dr. Waddel, 
Chairman. Minutes of Pres'y.) 

Bradaway Church, in Pendleton District, was under the 
pastoral care of James Gilliland, Sr., till April 4, 1804, when 
the pastoral relation between him and this people was dis- 
solved and he had leave to travel without the bounds of 
Presbytery. His dismission occurred, as we have indicated, 
and his subsequent history was given, vol. I., pp. 634, 635. 
" In July, 1802, the general revival in the Southern States, 
appeared here, where multitudes attended a communion sea- 
son and a most astonishing solemnity prevailed, the lasting 
effects of which, says the Committee on the History of the Pres- 
bytery of which Dr. Waddel was Chairman, " are still hap- 
pily experienced and visible in some." After Mr. Gilliland's 
departure the church was dependent on Presbyterial supplies 



148 ROBERTS AND GOOD HOPE. [1800-1810. 

among which occur more than once, the names of Simpson, 
Templeton, McElhenny, Giliiland, Jr., Montgomery, William- 
son, and Dickson. This church consisted in 1 809 of forty com- 
municants and was able to pay half the expenses of a 
minister. 

Roberts and Good Hope were united under the care of 
Rev. John Simpson, till his lamented death in October, 1807. 
After his death these churches secured for a short time the 
services of Rev. Samuel Davis, as a supply. It is not known 
how long or with what success he labored. He appeared, says 
Rev. David Humphries, to be a devout man, a Nathaniel in 
whom there is no guile. He removed to the mountain re-, 
gions of North Carolina and labored there for some years ; in 
1 821 he returned to this State and settled in Anderson Dis- 
trict on Broad Mouth Creek, and was there for a few years 
without a charge, after which he returned to his former settle- 
ment in North Carolina. He raised a pious family. Nothing 
further is known of his history. (MSS. of David Humphries.) 
The Rev. Andrew Brown was appointed by Pre.sbytery to 
preach at Roberts as a supply in 1808, and Dr. Waddel at 
Good Hope. Rev. Mr. McEihenny was remembered by Mr. 
Humphries to have also preached at Good Hope and Roberts 
as a supply, but, as dates are not given, this may have been 
in the next decade. 

As there are no records preserved giving an account of the 
organization of these churches, we can barely give the names 
of some whom tradition reports to have been among their 
first elders. The names of Messrs. Stephenson, Gilman, Hen- 
derson, Martin, Allen and Anderson, are mentioned. These 
are all remembered as very upright and worthy men, honor- 
ably filling the offices of elders in the church of Roberts. 

Of the first elders of Good Hope little comparatively is 

known. Esquire Lu.sk was one of the first that held the 

office. He was well acquainted with the doctrines and polity 
of the Presbyterian Church, a man of prayer and exemplary 
in all his conduct. He with several others from this church 
moved to-Pickens District and formed a portion of the Bethel 
Church. He is said to have died at Cedar Springs, Abbeville. 
Mr. McCreight was also early an elder here. He removed to 
Green County, Alabama, in 1820. Mr. Samuel Parker was 
another, a man of a spiritual mind and much concerned for 
the peace and prosperity of the church. Mr. Steele also was 



1800-1810.] HOPEWELL, (KEOWEE.) 149 

one of the first bench of eldsrs. Mr. Thomas Beaty was an 
eld.ir here at an early day. He came from North Carolina 
with a large family, which, for a time, formed a large portion 
of the church. Many of their descendants are still here. 
He removed to Bethel Church in Pickens District. (MSS. of 
Rev. David Humphries.) 

Hopewell (Keowee.) — This congregation was aependent 
still longer on the Presbytery for supplies. The minutes of 
Presbytery show that Rev. Mr. Simpson was appointed twice 
and Rev. Mr. Dickson once to preach to thein in i8oo. Mr. 
Gilliland, Sr., Mr, McElhenny and Mr. Montgomery in 1802, 
and Mr. Templeton an i Mr. Gilliland, Jr., in 1804. On the 
1 2th of September, 1803, a cill was presented from this 
church" or one-lialf the ministerial services of the Rev. James 
McElhenny, and from the same for one-fourth the ministerial 
services of Rev. James Gilliland, Sr. ; also a call from Car- 
mel, heretofore associated with Hopewell (Keowee), in the 
same pastoral charge. Mr. Gilliland accepts the call so far 
as it respects himself; Mr. McElhenny tikes it into consid- 
eration. A year passed, and Mr. McElhennv had not signi- 
fied his acceptance of these calls, but Hopewell again presents 
a call for half, and Carmel for half of the ministerial labors of 
Benjamin R. Montgomery. Presbytery is embarrassed, but 
places the calls in Mr. Montgomery's hands, " not knowing 
but it may be the design of the people to obtain the services 
of them both." The result was that Mr. Montgomery be- 
came their ordained pastor April 4th, 1805, Presbytery hold- 
ing its spring sessions at that Church. The ordination sermon 
was preached by Dr. Waddell. and the charge was delivered 
by Rev. John Simpson, the Moderator of Presbytery. Mr. 
Montgomery remained in this pastoral charge for two years, 
and was dismissed from it in September, 1807. The Rev. 
James McElhenny, who was now residing among them, and 
preached to them half his time, was their, pastor through the 
remainder of this decade. The church was often known in 
popular language as "The Stone Cliurch," the house of 
worship being built of that material in the year 1802. The 
great revival of 1802 was felt here, and some persons now 
living recollect the camp fires around the church, among the 
memories of their youth. 

Carmel Church, which stands a few miles eastward of 
Flopewell, was formed in connection with Hopewell, and had. 



] 50 CAEMEL. [1800-1810. 

in these early times, a parallel history. It was supplied in 
like manner at the beginning of the century, Messrs. Gilliland, 
Sr., Dickson, Cummins, McElhenny, Templeton, Brown and 
Montgomery being appointed to supply its pulpit. The Rev. 
Benjamin R. Montgomery was pastor of this church in con- 
nection with Hopewell, as Dr. Reese had been before, and 
James McElhenny afterward. 

One of the first elders of this church, v/hohas passed away 
since the author commenced gathering his materials for this 
history, was Thomas Hamilton. His father migrated from 
Scotland to Pennsylvania, where they lived for some time, 
at a place there called Little York. It was during this 
time that Thomas Hamilton was born. His father then 
removed to York District, South Carolina. Thomas was 
sixteen years of age when the war with Great Britain com- 
menced, and at this early age he entered the service of his 
country. For seven years he was more or less actively en- 
gaged in the struggle which tried men's souls. Finding his 
own horse, he served the greater part of this period in the 
cavalry, without any compensation, except twenty-eight 
dollars, which he received while acting for a short time as 
wagon-master. It is known that he served under General 
Sumter and Wade Hampton. He was in several battles, 
besides many .skirmishes, and often nairowly escaped with 
his life. He has often been heard to describe the circum- 
stances of the battle of the Cowpens, Blackstock, Six Mile 
House (near Charleston), and the three weeks' siege at Nine- 
ty-Six. He had connected himself with the church in York 
District. Soon after his settlement in this vicinity, he was 
elected an elder of Carmel Church, in which capacity he 
served the cause of his Master more than fifty years. The 
following obituary notice of this worthy elder is from the pen 
of his pastor, the Rev. John Leland Kennedy. 

DIED — On the 3d instant, at the residence of his son, Col. D. K. 
Hamilton, in Anderson District, S. C, Mr. THOMAS HAMILTON, 
aged 93 yeajs, 10 months. To record all that was excellent in the life 
and character of this venerable man — to portray that bright and im- 
pressive exemplification of the Christian character displayed during a 
long and useful life — yet more strikingly during his last years, and in- 
creasingly so till his expiring moments, would require rather the pages 
of a volume than such space as may be claimed in the public journal. 
He was one among the remnant of noble spirits that periled life in the 
cause of freedom. So soon as that priceless boon was secured, he 



1800-1810.] BETHLEHEM, OANE CREEK AND BETHEL. 151 

entered the service of the King of Saints— the only acknowledged 
sovereignty of such spirits. 

Though not blessed with any opportunity of a liberal education, his 
mind was trained in the scliool of Olirist ; "his memory was stored with 
a treasure of divine knowledge. The principles of trulh had been most 
carefully implanted and nurtured from infancy ; for, to all within the 
circle where he moved, it was known that he loved and practiced truth 
unwaveringly. This world's wealth and honor was trash in his estima- 
tion, when compared with the Christian's portion. That his treasures 
were laid up in heaven could be doubted by none, for his heart and 
conversation were there. 

Having been blessed with a pai'tner of kindred spirit, he raised a 
large family in comfort, but not in affluence— without earthly wealth, 
yet in the luxury of content. His humble abode was the delightful 
resort, the hospitable resting-place for all pilgrims. Nor were any, rich 
or poor, ever repulsed. Destitute of splendor at home, and equally un- 
ostentatious abroad, he, with his household, were cordially greeted and 
welcomed among the wealthy and distinguished. Cheerful piety 
beamed from his own eye, ami was infused into all around ; while 
daily praise warbled from every tongue, as that precious volume from 
Heaven, administered richly the food and- water of life, followed by 
that morning and evening incense, ascending from paternal lips, which 
was met by the gracious smile of a reconciled father, beaming through a 
beloved Saviour's face upon the eye of faith, hmren directed, by the life- 
giving Spirit. But we must limit, to facts more personal. This venera- 
ble patriarch had been a ruling elder in (Jarmel Church more than fifty 
years; and Presbyterial records, concurring with many living witnesses 
would allov\' that "he was ever a true and faithful servant of the Church. 

In proportion to meaiis, with the foremost in liberality— excelled by 
none, in consistent, (lonstant zeal, he lived a burning and shining light 
holding forth the Word of Life. Tiiough very infirm for years before 
his death, his love for the House of God — his delight there to be— his 
deep felt increasing interest in the prosperity of Ciirist's Kingdom bore 
him onward superior to his frailty and infirmity. Ever watchful for 
the good of the flock, cspecJaW;/ the youth, his benevolent soul thought 
and labored for all within his reach. 

Bkthlehem, Cane Creek and Bethel Churches. The 
Rev. Andrews Brown had been settled over the two first of 
these churches on the i8th of July, 1799. They had been 
gathered bv him while a licentiate. On the I2lh of Septem- 
ber, 1803 he obtriined a dismission from his pastoral relations 
to these churches, and leave to travel beyond the bounds of 
the Presbytery. His absence could not have long for we find 
him not long after present regularly at Presbyterial meetings 
and he continued preaching to these same churches as a stated 
supply. On the 2nd of April, 1805, he reports Bethel as a 
new church organized by him, which sends up its contribu-. 
tion for ecclesiastical purposes. 

Nazereth (Beaver Dam). On the 12th of September, 
18OJ, "a society in the fork between Tugaloo and Keowee, 



152 INDEPENDENT CHURCH, SAVANNAH. [1800-1810. 

known by the name of Nazareth on the Beaver Dam desires 
to be entered on our minutes and supplied with the gospel," 
(Minutes, p, 62.) Supplies are ordered, viz,: Messrs. Simpson, 
Gilliland, Jr., and McElhenny, in 1803 ; Gilliland, .Sen., Brown 
and Simpson, in 1804; Simpson and Brown, in 1805 and 
1806. 

Rabourn's Creek. On the 30th of September, i8og, "a 
petitition was handed into Presbytery from a neighborhood 
between Reedy River and Rabourn's Creek in Laurens Dis- 
trict desiring to be known on our Presbyterial book bearing the 
name of Rabourn's Creek Congregation, at the same time re- 
questing supplies" (p. 139 of Minutes of 2d Pres'y) Messrs. 
Dickson and Montgomery were appointed to visit them with 
the ministry of the gospel. 

The Independent Church of Savannah. — It seems that 
the early records of the Independent Church of Savannah 
were destroyed in the fire of 1796 or 1820, and that the exact 
year of the organization of the church is unknown. Piobably 
before 1756 at which time a grant was obtained for a site on 
which to erect a house of worship. Biit previous to this, as 
early as February, 1743, the inhabitants of Vernonsburg and 
the villages adjacent in the neighborhood of Savannah 
desiring a minister of the Calvinistic faith sought to obtain 
through the trustees of Georgia the services of Rev. John 
Joachim Zubly, a native of St Gall in Switzerland, of all which 
we have spoken in our first volume, pp. 266, 267. After preach- 
ing in different places he was settled at the Wappetaw Church 
on Wando Neck in the neighborhood of Charleston. There 
he received a call from the German and English churches of 
Savannah for his pastoral services. This call was prosecuted 
before the church, and the arguments for his removal pre- 
vailed. And as an evidence of the close union between it and 
the Independent Church in Charleston, known in our day as 
the Circular Church, his farewell sermon was preached in the 
City Church on the 28th of January, 1759, see Vol. I., p. 267. 
The Confession of Faith of this Independent Church in 
Sarannah was "the doctrine of the Church of Scotland 
agreeably to the Westminster Confession." They were 
incorporated as The Independent Presbyterian Church about 

1755- 

Mr. Zubly went we suppose immediately from the Wappe- 
taw Church to Savannah, preaching to that congregation in 



1800-1810.] INDEPENDENT CHURCH, SAVANNAH. 153 

English, to another in German, and to another in French. 
The degree of Doctor of Divinity was conferred on him by 
the College of New Jersey in 1770. He took an active part 
in the dispute between the mother country and her American 
colonies in favor of the latter, and so great was the confidence 
of the people of Georgia in his patriotism }:hat he was made a 
member of the Continental Congress in 1775-76, but he 
opposed the actual separation from the mother country, and 
when the question of actual independence was carried, he 
quit his post in Congres.s, returned to Georgia and took sides 
against the colonies, became unpopular, and ceased, it is sup- 
posed, to serve the Church in the work of the ministry. He 
was a man of decided ability, and until the change in his 
political course was high in the estimation of his people. He 
left two daughters whose descendants are most highly 
esteeined among the citizens of Georgia. He died in South 
Carolina on the 23d of July, 1781. After Dr. Zubly's retire- 
ment the Rev. Messrs. Philips and Johnson, sent by Lady 
Huntington to take charge of the Orplian Asylum served the 

church. Philips came in 1778 and left in 1790. 

Johnson came in 1790, 1791 and left in 1793. During his 
time the ordinances were administered, but Philips probably 
was only a licentiate. The Rev. Thomas H.. McCaule, the 
former principal of Mt. Zion College in Winnsboro, S. C, 
who had opened a classical school in Savannah, became their 
next supply. A call for his pastoral services was 
presented to the Presbytery of South Carolina, on the 
8th of April, 1794, but not being found in order was 
returned that it migjht be presented in a more regular form 
His death is recorded on the ministers of Piesbylery in 1796, 
till which time he continued to preach. He was followed by 
Rev. Walter Monteith from 1797 — 1799. The church edifice 
was destroyed by fire in 1796, when the congregation 
worshipped in the Baptist Church, which was then without a 
pastor. In 1800 the Rev. Robert Smith took charge of the 
church, but he fell into declining health and in about two years 
died. The next pastor was the Rev. Samuel Clarkson, D. D., 
who served them without a formal cah for three years. He 
was followed by the Rev. Henry Kollock, D. D., in the fall of 
1806, who served this people with great acceptance, till 1809, 
when his relation as pastor was dissolved with a view of his 
removal elsewhere. But this removal did not take place. He 



154 FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, AUGUSTA. [1800-1810. 

remained with his people greatly admired and beloved till his 
death. 

FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH — AUGUSTA, GA. 

The Presbyterian Church in the City of Augusta, Georgia, 
was first organized, by the Rev. Washington McKnight, in 
A.. D. 1804. 

Messrs. John Taylor, William Fee and George Watkins, 
were ordained elders, and the sacraments were regularly 
administered from that time. 

In the course of Providence, Mr. McKnight was removed 
by death in September, 1805 ; after having been the honored 
instrument of planting this church, and after having set before 
his little flock an example of humble and uniform piety, which 
caused his memory to remain long after his departure to his 
rest, precious in the hearts of a surviving people. 

After his decease, the church remained destitute of a pastor 
until July 3d, i8o5, when a call was presented to Mr. John R. 
Thompson, a licentiate from New York, and then rector of 
Richmond Academy, inviting him to the pastoral charge of 
the congregation. This invitation was accepted by Mr. 
Thompson, and he was ordained to the work of the gospel 
ministry by the Presbytery of Hopewell, May gth, 1807, and 
immediately entered upon his pastoral labors in the congrega- 
tion. 

At the same time the following persons were elected elders, 
and set apart by the pastor to that office : — Oswell Eve, 
Thomas Gumming and Augustus Moore. 

At the decease of Mr. McKnight the church consisted of 
thirteen members in full communion. Between this and the 
ordinntion of Mr. Thompson, fourteen additional members 
had been received into full communion, makmgiii all twen- 
ty seven members at the commencement of Rev. Mr. Thomp- 
son's ministry. 

The congregation at this time worshipped in the building 
belonging to the corporation of the Richmond Academy, and 
known as "St. Paul's Church," which stood upon the site now 
occupied by the church edifice, owned by the Episcopal con- 
gregation. in this city ; known also by the name of "St. Paul's." 
From the rents of pews in that building, funds were raised for 
the salary of the minister, and the other current expenses of 
the church. 



1800-1810,] FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, AUGUSTA. 155 

At the expiration of the year ending May, 1809, the Board 
of Trustees of Richmond Academy declined renting " St. 
Paul's Church" to the Session of the Presbyterian Church, 
for the special use of the congregation, on the plea that it 
ought not to be given up to the control of any one particular 
denomination, but should be free to all. By this act, the 
congregation which had for a longtime worshipped God, and 
maintained the ordinances of religion in this building with 
regularity and profit, were virtually excluded from their cus- 
tOLnary place of worship, and scattered abroad. Measures 
were immediately taken for the erection of a Presbyterian 
Church, and the following extract from the records of the 
session for that year (1809), shows the' spirit and zeal which 
dictated the enterprise. " Under this privation," referring to 
the refusal of the Board of Trustees above referred to, "the 
session feel animated, in common with the members of the 
congregation, in witnessing the active zeal which pervaded 
the community, and the friends of religion in particular, in 
the laudable work of preparing a new Presbyterian Church 
within which we anticipate with pleasure, in reliance upon 
the Providence of God, to see a reunion of the scattered flock, 
offering up iheir prayers and praises where there will be 
' none to make afraid.' " 

Measures had been taken two years previous to this, for 
obtaining subscribers to a new Presbyterian Church, and ap- 
plication had been made to the Legislature of Georgia for an 
act of incorporation for seven individuals therein named, to 
constitute, with their successors, the " Trustees of Christ 
Church in the City of Augusta."* This application was 
granted, and in December, 1808, the Legislature passed "an 
act authorizing and requiring the conveyance of a lot on the 
common of Augusta, to certain trustees and their successors, 
for the purpose of building a new church, and to incorporate 
the trustees of said church. This act is signed by Benjamin 
Whitaker, Speaker of the House of Representatives, and 
Henry Mitchell, President of the Senate, and approved i6th 
December, 1808, by Jared Irwin, Governor. The following 
are the persons named as trustees, and who constituted the 
first Board of Trustees of this church : — John Taylor, James 
1 . — ^ 

* The name of the church was changed by act of the Legislature, in 
1836, to "The First Presbyterian Churcli in Augusta." 



156 FIRST PEESBYTERIAN CHURCH, AUGUSTA. [1800-1810. 

Pearre, John Wilson (the elder), Thomas Gumming, John 
Campbell, John B. Barnes and Wiliianj White. 

After the act of incorporation was obtained, a meeting of 
the subscribers to the new church was held in Augusta, on 
Tuesday, May 29th, 1809, at which the trustees reported the 
proceedings of the Legi.slature in the act of incorporation, and 
that they had obtained the title deeds of the lot selected as 
the site of the intended edifice. Whereupon resolutions were 
passed, declaring that, in the opinion of the meeting, prepara- 
tions for building the church ought to be commenced without 
delay; and making provision for the issuing of stock to a 
sufficient amount to defray the expense of its erection, One 
of the resolutions adopted at this meeting, with its preamble, 
is as follows : — 

" And whereas, it is truly desirable, and, indeed, essential 
to the prosperity and well-being of every congregation of 
worshippers, that the public services and ordinances of reli- 
gion should be i^erformjd ' decently and in order,' and thus 
be exempted from those contentions and changes attending 
places of worship, which, under the nominal plan of being free 
and open to all, are, by experience, found to be really useful 
to none ; therefore, 

" Resolved, That to avoid all causes of discord or douSt on 
this point, so important to good order and harmony among 
the members of every congregation : We do hereby agree, 
make known, and proclaim, that the subscribers heroto do 
consider themselves as associated in a conffresation of The 
Presbyteri.an Church." 

At this meeting the following persons were elected a 
Building Committee, and the plan, size, and materials ot the 
intended church were submitted to them in connection with 
the Board of Trustees : John Murray, David Reid, Robert 
Cresswell, Oswell Eve, and Ferdinand Phinizy. 

The work of obtaining- subscriptions to the church stock 
was prosecuted with great energy, and in a very short time a 
sufficient amount was obtained to warrant the commencement 
of its erection. The plan of the building was furnished by 
Mr. Robert Mills, of Philadelphia, and. with a few slight 
modifications, was adopted by the Building Committee and 
Board of Trustees. The edifice a? erected is about one hun- 
dred by seventy feet in size, and will iseat a congregation of 
eleven hundred persons. 



1800-1810.] EEV. JOHN SPRINGER. 157 

The corner stone was laid July 4th, 1809, by John Murray, 
M. D., Chairman of the Building Committee, in the presence 
of the Board of Trustees and subscribers, the Intendant and 
members of the City Council, trustees of Richmond Academy, 
officers and soldiers of the county militia, and a large assem- 
bly of the citizens generally. (Brief hi.st. of the Pres. Ch. in 
Augusta, Ga., by Rev. E. P. Rogers. Charleston, S. C, 1851.) 

As early however as 1773 applications for supplies were 
sent up from St. Paul's parish in Georgia, to the Synod of 
New York and Philadelphia, and Mr. .Caleb Wallace, a candi- 
date, was directed to "preach there some time." (Minutes p. 
448.) So that although St. Paul's was received under the 
cire of Hopewell in 1806, there was a St Paiirs petitioning 
for supplies 23 years before the Presbytery of Hopewell ex- 
isted, (Minutes of Synod of New York and Philadelphia, p. 
448.) 

A name long remembered in Georgia was that of John 
Springer. He and J. W. Stephenson (afterwards D. T).'),par 
nobile fratrnm, were lioensed by the Presbytery of South 
Carolina on the i8th of October,. 1788, and John Springer 
was ordained at an intermediate se.ssion of that Presbytery 
held at Washington, Ga., on the 21st of July, 1790. 

Rev. John Springer was the first Presbyterian ministf^r, 
says the Rev. John S. Wilson, D. D., that was ordained south 
of the Savannah River. He was ordained by the Presbytery 
of South Carolina, in the town of Washington. ' No house of 
worship existed in the place at that time, and consequently the 
ordination service Was performed under the shade of a large 
tulip or poplar tree, standing on the grounds belonging to 
A. L. Alexander, Esq. He was installed Pastor of Smyrna 
congregation, whose house of worship stood ■^ome three miles 
southeast of Washington, on the Augusta road. Mr. Springer 
died in 1798. Some of his descendants still reside in,this 
State. 

The churches northeast of the water of Broad River in their course to 
the ocean continued under the jurisdiction of the First Presbytery of 
South Carolina until the year 1810. In the year preceding; a new 
Presbytery by the name of Harmony was erected by the Synod of the 
Carolinas, embracing the low country in South Carolina and Georgia. 
This arrangement confined the Territory of the First Presbytery of 
South Carolina to the Districts of Lancaster, York,Chester, Fairfield and 
part of Kershaw. But in the year 1810 the Presbytery was dissolved 
and its members and churches, except those located in Fairfield and 
Kershaw Districts, were added to the Presbytery of Concord. This is 



158 WM. C. DAVIS. [] 800-1810. 

relating in this decade what occurred in the beginning of the next. 
But that which led to the dissolution of this Presbytery was the contro- 
versy and vexatious proceedin,:is which were produced in dealing with 
the Rev. William C. Uavis, on account of the peculiarities deemed hereti- 
cal, introduced and advocated by him. This was a season of sore afflic- 
tion to the Church, and wounds were inflicted on this part oi our Zion 
which remained to quite a late period unhealed. Asihism was produced 
and a considerable number of some of our churches were withdrawn 
from our communion. Mr. Davis had been received as a member in 
1806. Priorto his reception he had commenced the propagation of his 
peculiarities; and on his admission he was located at Bullock's Creek 
and Salem, lately separa ed from Bullock's Creek By this location it 
became convenient forhim.to associate with the brethren of the Second 
Presbytery of South Carolina. With them he frequently interchanged 
ministerial labors. His departure from some of our Confessions of 
Faith was perceived, and animadverted on in their social interviews. 
Mr. Davis was extremely tenacious of what he seemed to regard as new 
discoveries, though most, if not all of them, had, in the progress of the 
Church, been broached, advocated, exploded, died away, and hail been 
forgotten. -And when he was opposed in argument, he, possess. ng uo 
inconsiderable ingenuity and shrewdness, warded off the force of their 
reasonings, and was carried step by step until his departure from the 
received doctrines of the Confession of faith was regarded so objection- 
able as to call for the action of the judicatories of the church. But as 
Mr. Davis had propagated his views mostly without the territorial 
limits of the First Presbytery of South Carolina, of which he was a mem- 
ber, and to which he was amenable, its members for tlie most part, 
were not so fully apprized of the character of the peculiarities he advo- 
cated, and the Presbytery felt somewhat at a loss what attention should 
be paid to them. However, a memorial under date of Sept. Ist, 1807, 
was prepared and sent up to the Synod of the Carolinas by the Second 
Presbytery of South Carolina, complaining of what they deemed inat- 
tention in his Presbytery to the erroneous doctrines which Mr. Davis 
inculcated in his public discourses. In consequence of this memorial 
the Synod judged it to be their duty to give special directitm to the 
First Presbytery of South Carolina to take the case of Jlr Davis under 
con.sideration, and to proceed in it as duty and the discipline of the 
Church demanded. At their sessions in March, 1808, the First Presby- 
tery of South Carolina passed an order requiring Mr. Davis, not then 
present, to appear at their next session, that a conference might be 
held with him in relation to the doctrines contained in the memorial 
sent up to the Synod, and forwarded to the Presbytery. Accordingly he 
appeared at the meeting of Presbytery in October 1808 At this meet- 
ing he made such explanations in regard to the doctrines charged 
against him, in the aforesaid, memorial, that the opinion prevailed that 
it was not expedient, at that time, to table a charge against Mr. Davis 
on a,;co:int of those doctrines. It w.is, however, proposed and agreed 
to to send up to Synxl the following q'le^tion: "Whether th.e holding 
any. and what doctrines, apparently repugnant to the letter of the con- 
fession, will justify a Presbytery in calling a member to public trial?" 
In giving the subject this direi'tion there was far from being that har- 
numy of opinion desirable in Ecclesiastical proceedings. This resulted 
in some measure from the sympathy that was feit by some of the mem- 
bers for the man, if not for the opinions he advocated. This state of 
feeling was manifested by a few of the members of the Presbytery 



1800-1810.] WM. C. DAVIS. 159 

during the whole course of the controversy, which created no incon- 
siderable degree of emharrassment both to the Presbytery, and to the 
Synod to which it was carried up. When the above query was laid be- 
fore the Synod, it failed as well it might, to give satisfa'ction Upon 
whicli the Synod passed an order requiring the First ajid Second Pres- 
byteries of South (.arolina to meet forthwith the Second to prepare 
and table charges against Mr. Davis ; and the First Presbytery to receive 
and adopt measures to dispose of the case as required by the discipline 
of the Church Agreeably to the direction given by Syncid thfe two 
Presbyteries convened. Charge^ were drawn up and' tabled before the 
First Presbytery, in behalf of the Second Presbytery, embracing the 
following items, viz. that Mr. Davis teaches. 

1. That what has been termed the passive obedience of Christ, is all 
that tlie law of God can or does require in order to the justification of 
the believer : and that his active obedience is not imputed. 

2. That saving faith precedes regeneration, and has nothing holy in 
its nature, as to its first act 

3. Tliat the Divine being is bound by his own law, or in other words 
by the moral law. 

4. That Adam was never bound to keep the moral law, as the federal 
head, or representative of his posterity; or in other w.jnls, tliat the 
moral law made no part of the condition of the Covenant of works. 

These and a few other points Mr. Davis industriously taught wherever 
he was called to preach the Gospel, both amongst the people of his 
charge, and in neighboring congregations. The Fir.-it Presbytery of 
South Carolina held a meeting, by order of Synod, at Bullock's Creek 
Church, which was a part of his pastoral charge, in the November fol- 
lowing At this meeting Mr. Davis appeared ; and when his case was 
under coiisideration, and the Pre.sbytery were about to proceed agree- 
ably to the instructions of the Synod, it was found on inquiry tliat there 
was no member of the Second Presbytery present, authorized to a -t as 
prosecutor in the case, Mr. Davis discovered that the record of the 
Synod in the case was not present, and in opposition to the communi- 
cation made by a member as to the nature of the record, he gave a con- 
tradictory statement of its purport, and refused to answer to the charges 
exhibited against him by the Second Presbytery of South Carolina, in 
conformity with the instructions of the Synod in the case In conse- 
quence of "this state (if things, the Presbytery was reduced to the dilem- 
ma, either to adjourn to another time, or to take up and act on the case 
in somewhat of a different form. This course being fixed on, with the 
consent of the accused, the Presbytery proceeded immediately to hear 
and consider the case. Mr. Davis admitted the relevancy of the charges 
tabled against him, with ('ertain modifications and ,explanations. His 
explanations, as extracted at the time of trial from his written defense, 
are as follows, viz : 

In regard to the first item, he explained by stating, '' By the active 
obedience of Christ ; I mean his perl'ect obedience to the precepts of the 
moral law, exclusive of tlie sufferings which he endured in obeying the 
penalty of the law, by way of atcjnement, whicfi last I mean by his pas- 
sive obedience. Therefore, although I believe and maintain that the 
active obedience of Christ is absolutely necessary to the salvation of a 
sinner, not only as an example, but also to render the atonement valid 



160 WM. C. DAVIS. [1800-1810. 

and acceptable in the si^ht of God, without which it would not be im- 
puted, nor efficacious if it could; yet this active obedience is not imputed 
to the believer for justilication ; but the passive obedience only" 

In regard to the •2d item he explained " Although I affirm the neces- 
sity of regeneration as a very principal part of our salvation, and 
although I argue not as to time excepting a mere mathematical differ- 
ence betwixt the cause and effect, and although I acknowledge that the 
exercise of the faith of a believer, after he is united to Christ, is subse- 
quent to regeneration, and consequently may be holy ; yet the first act 
of saving faith which unites to Christ,! affirm to be previous to regen- 
eration, and consequently in its nature, although it is an act of obedi- 
ence, yet it is not a holy conformity, or a holy obedience to the moral 
law, and consequently cannot be a holy act." 

In regard to the 3d item he explained, " In speaking of the Divine 
Being we are obliged to speak after the manner of men, for want of 
language capable to reach the sublime state of our Glorious God. And 
inasmuch as God himself uses such language to represent himself to His 
creatures, I hope no advantage wiil or can be taken of me when I use 
the words bound, obligated, necessary, etc., in this acknowledgment, and 
defence, as I do not intend to give the idea of any inferiority or depen- 
dance which would be in any degree derogatory to the infinite perfec- 
tion of the Deity Therefore I observe that the mural law, in its radical 
principles, is the only standard of moral perfection and glory, and is 
consequently the rule of moral action for all intelligent beinss ; and it 
is impossible for any rational being to possess moral excellence or glory 
but in conformity to this law. I don't mean the ten commandments or 
any class of precepts founded on the moral law, so modified as to suit 
the peculiar circumstances of any pjfrticular class of beings; but the 
radical principles of justice and equity which is the foundation of all 
moral laws. In this view of the matter, I affirm that God is bound by 
the moral law, so that his moral perfeciion and glory is in consequence 
of perfect conformity to this law, as suited to the state of the Ulvine 
Being, and it would be impossible, otherwise, for God to be morally ex- 
cellent or glorious." 

In regard to the 4th item he explained : " I acknowledge that Adam 
as well as all intelligent creatures, was and forever will be, bound by the 
moral law, as the imly infallible rule of moral action ; and that everj' 
transgression of it, did, does and will incur guilt. But I deny that the 
moral law was, or could be the condition of the Covenant of works, 
which Adam had to fulfil for himself and foj- his posterity. And 
although the moral law had an immediate consequential connection 
with the condition of the Covenant, either as to the keeping or break- 
ing said Covenant, yet it is not the guilt of transgressing the law that is 
imputed to Adam's posterity, but only the guilt of eating the forbidden 
fruit," 

To these explanations Mr. Davis added a protracted defence. Not- 
withstanding this the Presbytery entered upon record a judgment con- 
demning his views as errors contrary to the Confe.ssion of Faith and 
the word of God, yet they regarded the errors as not being of such a 
nature as to strike at the vitals of religion, and therefore as not inferring 
suspension or deposition, as held by Mr Davis. Yet they were deci- 
dedly of opinion that i\fr. Davis had acted with some degree of impru- 
dence in espousing and propagating these opinions without consulting 
with his brethren and the judicators of the Church. 



1800-1810.] WM. C. DAVIS. 161 

The resolutions adopted by them were as follows : 

"Resolved, ist. That the Rev. William C. Davis is guilty of 
propagating the doctrines which are specified in the several 
numbers of the charge exhibited against him by the Second 
Presbytery of South Carolina, agreeably to his own confes- 
sion and explanation. 

" 2d. That God alone is Lord of the conscience and hath 
left it free from the doctrines and commandments of men, 
which are in any thing contrary to His word or beside it in 
. matters of faith or worship," therefore Presbytery consider 
the rights of private judgment in all matters that respect reli- 
gion as universal and inalienable. 

"j^. That truth is essentially necessary in order to 
goodness, and the great touchstone of truth is its tendency 
to promote holiness, according to our Saviour's rule, " by 
their fruits shall ye know them," and that no opinion can be 
either more absurd or more pernicious^ than that which 
brings truth and falsehood upon a level, and represents it as 
of no consequence what a man's opinions are. On the con- 
trary. Presbytery are persuaded that there is an inseparable 
connection between faith and practice, truth and duty ; other- 
wise it would be of no consequence either to discover truth or 
to embrace it. 

" 4.lh. That while under the conviction of the above prin- 
ciple they think it necessary to make effectual provision that 
all who are teachers in the Church be sound in the faith ; they 
also believe that there are truths and forms with respect to 
which men of good characters and principles may and do 
differ.^ And in all these they think it the duty both of private 
Christians and societies to exercise mutual forbearance towards 
each other. 

" S^h- That under the conviction of these truths and 
agreeably to the constitution of the Church, Presbytery feel 
themselves at liberty to exercise the dictates of their own con- 
sciences in passing decisions respecting the opinions or senti- 
ments of any of their brethren, agreeably to the holy 
scriptures which are the cmly rule of faith and manners, and 
that no church judicatory ought to pretend to make laws to 
bind the consciences in virtue of their own authority, and 
that all these decisions should be founded on the revealed 
will of God. 
U 



162 WM. C. DAVIS. [1800-1810. 

" 6th. That agreeably to the constitution of this church, 
though heresy and solicism may be of such a nature as to 
infer deposition, yet errors are to be carefully considered 
whether they strike at. the vitals of religion or are likely to 
do much hurt. 

" Jth. That though the doctrines stated in the charge are, 
in the opinion of this Presbytery, contrary to the word of 
God and the Confession of Faith, yet as the constitution of 
this church has declared that there are errors of such a nature 
as do not strike at the vitals of religion, Presbytery do humbly 
conceive that said doctrines are of this nature, and therefore 
do not infer suspension or deposition as they are held by Mr. 
Davis, yet Presbytery are decidedly of opinion that Mr. 
Davis has acted with some degree of imprudence in espous- 
ing and propogating those opinions without consulting his 
brethren and the higher judicatories of the church, as the 
preaching such doctrines to the vulgar at large has a tendency 
to introduce division in theChuich and to excite a distrust in 
the minds of Christians with respect to a stability in the doc- 
trines of religion." 

Although this judgment was recorded, no censure was inflicted, no 
admonition was given nor any restraint imposed on him as to the pro- 
pagation of his doctrine. 

When the records of the Presbytery in this case were presented to 
Synod for review, a general dissatisfaction at the proceedings of the 
Presbytery prevailed, as not meeting the instructions and the expecta- 
tions of the Synod. Upon which the Presbytery was called upon to 
answer why they had not conformed to the instructions given at the 
preceeding session, which being complied with, the absence of the 
prosecuting body in person or by representatives, and the discrepance 
of statement which had occurred at the IS'ovember meeting was com- 
municated by the Presbytery, as the ground of their procedure in this 
case. Whereupon the prominent actors in this case at the former meet- 
ing of the Synod, and then present, gave a decided and unequivocal ex- 
pression of their convictions that the ground taken by the accused was 
unwarranted and without foundation. 

The Synod- was dissatisfied with the course pursued. It 
did not in their view conform with their directions of the last 
year, nor meet the exigencies of the case. They resolved to 
take the case under consideration from the report of their 
Committee on Review, and were proceeding to an investiga- 
tion and trial when Mr. Davis protested and appealed to the 
General Assembly. To this body the Synod themselves 
finally remitted the case and sent up also an overture respect- 



1800-1810.] WM. C. DAVIS. 163 

ing the book Mr. Davis had published, denominated " The 
Gospel Plan," in which his sentiments were expressed at 
large. The further action of the church courts in this vexa- 
' tious case, and the sequel of this attempted act of discipline 
for opinions deemed heretical by the church, belong to the 
history of the next decade. It .should be stated, however, 
that before the Synod proceeded to a trial of the case they 
ordered the First Presbytery to " withdraw and either issue 
the case in a manner more agreeable to the order of Synod in 
our last, or refer it to this Synod." The Presbytery accord- 
ingly met during the sittings of Synod, and resolved " that 
they cannot go into the measure recommended by Synod in 
said order, inasmuch as it would be, in their opinion, nullify- 
ing their former judgment, which they cannot do upon con- 
stitutional grounds." 

There were several irregularities in these proceedings, of 
which Mr. Davis, in his defence, subsequently written, com- 
plains. And the Rev. J. R, Davies in his historical sketch of 
those transactions from which we have largely drawn, says' 
that " for the want of experience some errors were fallen into 
which proved highly embarrassing and doubtless contributed 
to the failure 6f the process against Mr. Davis." 

These irregularities however have nothing to do with the 
question whether the newly adopted opinions of Mr. Davis 
were consonant with the Confession of Faith, which at his 
ordination he accepted, and contrary to which he might not, 
as a minister of the Presbyterian Church, teach. For this he 
and all other ministers of this church had adopted as embra- 
cing the system of doctrines contained in the Scriptures. 

The minutes adopted by the Synod of the Carolinas was as 
follows : 

" The Synod of the Carolinas after a lengthy and serious 
consideration of the relation in which the Rev. William C. 
Davis and the churches in our bounds at present stand, came 
to the following resolution : 

" That the members of this Synod are firmly attached to 
the system of doctrine and discipline of the Presbyterian 
Church of the United States of America ; that they highly 
disapprove of the doctrines complained of in the charges 
exhibited against the said Mr. Davis; that a Committee be 
r appointed, consisting of the Rev. Jamss McRee, Samuel C. 
Caldwell, John Robinson and John M. Wilson, to meet at 



164 HARMONY PRESBYTERY. [1800-]810. 

Poplar Tent on the second Wednesday of November next, to 
prepare a pastoral letter to be addressed to our churches, 
stating a brief history of the business, and testifying a decided 
disapprobation of the doctrines alluded to in the charges 
exhibited by the Second Presbytery of South Carolina against 
the Rev. William C. Davis, and that this letter contains a 
solemn caution to our churches against being seduced from 
the form of sound words, which hath been received and 
adopted as the standard of their faith and practice, next in 
autliority to the love of God." 

" On request, the Synod of the Carolinas did at their ses- 
sions at Poplar Tent, North Carolina, in October loth, 1809, 
constitute a Presbytery out of the territory of the First and 
Second Presbyteiies and the Presbytery ot Hopewell, to be 
known by the name of Harmony, whose boundary should 
begin on the sea coast, following the divisional line of North 
and South Carolina till it strikes Lynch's Creek, thence down 
said creek to Evan's Ferry, thence to Camden, thence to 
Augusta, thence in a direction nearly south (including St. 
Mary's), and which should consist of the following ministers, 
viz: Of the First Pre.sbytery of South Carolina — Rev. George 
G. McWhorter, Andrew Fhnn and John Cousar; and of the 
Presbyter of Hopewell, the Rev. John R. Thompson ; that 
they should hold their first meeting in Charleston on the first 
Wednesday in March, 1810, the Rev. Andrew Flinn, or in 
case of his Sbsence, the oldest minister present to open the 
meeting and preside until a Moderator be chosen. 

EXHIBIT OF THE TWO PRESBYTERIES. 

It will be remembered that the boundaries of the Pres- 
byteries had been changed at the close of the preceding 
century. In October 31st, 1799, the Presbytery of South 
Carolina then existing, petitioned the Synod of the Carolinas, 
that, as a matter of convenience, it might be divided, and the 
Broad River as it passes through the State of South Carolina 
should be the line of division, that the members on the north- 
east side of this line should be constituted a Presbytery. The 
First Presbytery of South Carolina was to meet at Bullock's 
Creek on the first Friday of February, 1800, the Rev. Joseph 
Alexander to preside, or the senior member in his absence. 
This accordingly was done. The First Presbytery of South 



1800-1810.] FIRST PRESBYTERY OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 165 

Carolina was organized at Bullock's Creek [alias Dan) on the 
7th of February, 1800. 

The Ministers and Churches, according to this division, 
were as follows : 

Ministers. Congregations. 

The Kev- Joseph Alexander. Bullock's Dan. 

EoBEET McCuLLOCH CathoUc and Purity. 

James W. Stephenson Indian Town and Williamsburgh. 

John Browx Waxhaw and Unity. 

Robert B Walker Bethesda. 

David E. Dunlap Columbia. 

Samuel W. Yongue Lebanon and Mt. Olivet. 

John Foster ; Salem. 

George G, McWhoetee Bethel and Beersheba. 

John B. Davies Fishing Creek and Richardson. 

Licentiates. Vacancies. 

Mr. William G. Rosborough Hopewell, P. D , and Hopewell. 

John Cousar Beaver Creek, Hanging Rock and 

Miller's. 
Candidates. 

Mr. Tho.mas Neely Shiloh, Fishdam, Concord, Horeb or 

Crooked Run, Bbenezer, Ainiwell 
on Cedar Creek, Mount Zioii, and 
Bethany. 

Ideally, the Second Presbyterv of South Carolina em- 
braced all that portion of the State which should lie to the 
southwe^ side of the Broad River on its way to the ocean. 
On the sea-coa.st, therefore, its line extended from the mouth 
of the Santee to the mouth of the Savannah River. Beyond 
the Savannnah was the Presbytery of Hopewell. In all the 
low-country, however, the Second Presbytery of South Caro- 
lina had no transactions with any church except that of John's 
Island and Wadmalaw. The ministers and churches were as 
follows : 

Ministers. Churches. 

John Simpson Good Hope and Roberts. 

James Templeton, S. S Nazareth. 

Francis Commins Rocky River. 

Robert Wilson .■ Long Cane. 

William Williamson Fairforest and S. S. Grass Spring. 

James Gilleland Beadaway. 

John B.Kennedy Duncan's Creek and Little River. 

Andrew Brown Bethlehem and Ebenezer, on Cane 

Creek. 

Licentiates. Vacancies. 

■ . Hopewell (Abbe%'ille.) 

James MoElhenny Hopewell (Pendleton.) 

George Rbid Carrael, Greenville, Rocky Creek. 



166 SECOND PRESBYTERY OF SOUTH CAROLINA. [1800-I&10, 

Candidatei. 

Hugh Dickson Beaver Dam, Cuffey Town. 

Thomas Neely Fairview, Newton, Liberty Spring, 

Smyrna, Granby, John's Island 

and Wadmalaw. 

At this first meeting at Fairforest Church, February 7th, 
1 800, they ordained James McFlhenny, Rev. Andrew Brown, 
preaching the sermon, and Rev. William Wilhamson, deliv- 
ering the charge. The clerk was directed to write a letter to 
the church at John's Island and Wadmalaw, giving them 
official information of the ordination and suggesting the ex- 
pediency of having him installed among them. He remained 
however in that charge, as we have seen, but about a year. 
James Gilliland, Jr., also was taken under the care of Pres- 
bytery as a candidate for the Gospel Ministry, at the same 
meeting, and Hugh Dickson was licen.sed (February 12, 
1806). At this second session at Fairview, September 23d, 

1800, Robert Robbins was received as a candidate for the 
ministry. At their third session at Little River, April gth, 

1801, Benj, Montgomery was taken under the care of Presby- 
tery as a candidate. During their fifth session at Greenville 
Church, Jas. Gilliland, Jr., was licensed April 8, 1802, and at 
the same meeting Thomas Williamson, M. D., was received 
as a candidate for the ministry. During their sixth, session 
at Bradaway, Daniel Gray was received as a candidate on the 
1 6th of September, 1802, and Robert Dobbins was licensed 
to preach. During their seventh session at Fairview, Benj. 
Montgomery was licensed on the 8th of April, 1803. During 
their ninth sessions at Fairview the licentiate, Mr. Dobbins, 
was dismissed April 4, 1804, to join the Washington Presby- 
tery of Kentucky. At their tenth sessions at Fairforest, 
Thomas Williamson, M. D., and Daniel Gray were licensed 
(October 2d, 1804', to preach the everlasting gospel At the 
same meeting John O'Neal was received under their care as 
a candidate, but his trials were never continued to him here, 
and he fell at length under censure. Thus in the first few 
years of this decade seven young men were introduced into 
the ministry under the supervision of this Presbytery. 



1800-1810.] THE CHABLESTON PRESBYTERY. 167 



CHAPTER in. 

1800—1810. 

Having now finished what we have found connected with 
the history of individual churches and concrregations, we 
proceed to those more general matters which are equally 
connected with the purf>oses before us. It is not only the 
hi.story of individual men in wliich we are interested, which 
is more strictly confined to the department of biography, nor 
that of individual churches, but it is the interaction of these 
churches among themselves, of Presbyteries upon Presby- 
teries, and the influence of the Synod and the General Assem- 
bly, which bind all together, and fill up that idea of Church 
unity which pervades the scriptures, and suggests to our 
minds the conception, not of a congeries of churches, but of 
one Church, cemented by the bonds of mutual charity, and 
outwardly and visibly one (under Christ our Head), that we 
have in view. And whether it be discipline, whether it be 
the great interests of religious and ministerial education, or 
the conduct of missions at home and abroad, mutual counsel 
and combined efforts, they can best be secured by that unity 
of action which flows from the central and controlling thought 
of the unity of the Church. 

There is often a centrifugal force in the attempted union of 
ecclesiastical bodies, which overcomes the centripetal power 
of Christian love. For some reason the overture made by 
the Old Presbytery of South Carolina to the Synod of New 
York and Philadelphia, in 1770, never went into effect, al- 
though the terms were fair and honorable on the part of the 
Assembly. We have briefly alluded to these matters in Vol. 
I, pp. 673, 675. But they deserve a further treatment. 

These overtures were renewed on the part of the Rev. Dr. 
Ruist in behalf of the Presbytery of Charleston, which had 
been reorganized after the war of the Revolution, and was 
incorporated by the Legislature in 1790, the only example of 
an incorporated Presbytery, at that time, in our history. A 
letter from the Presbytery of Charleston was received by the 
First Presbytery of South Carolina, at its first meeting, Feb- 
ruary 7th, 1800, addressed to the Presbytery of South Caro- 
lina, which had recently been divided. It was signed by the 



168 THE CHARLESTON PRESBYTEBY. [1800-1810. 

Moderator and Clerk, in behalf of the Presbytery, and found 
to relate to matters which lie more immediately before the 
Second Presbytery, and was therefore remitted to them, their 
territorial limits, as ordered by the Synod of the Carolinas, 
including Charleston and its vicinity. The letter proposed a 
conference with the Presbytery of South Carolina. Messrs. 
Brown & Williamson, of the Second Piesbytery, were ap- 
pointed to draught a letter to Dr. Buist on the subject, which 
was accordingly done, reported to Presbytery on the nth of 
February, and ordered to be forwarded On the i6th of May, 
1800, the matter was brought before the Assembly, sitting at 
Philadelphia: 

" Dr. Green laid before the Assembly a petition from a 
body styling themselves ' The Presbytery of Charleston, in 
South Carolina,' requesting to be received into connection 
with this body, accompanied with other papers; which being 
read, on motion (Minutes, p. 188, Engles' Ed., Phiiad.), 

" Resolved, That Drs. Rodgers, McWhorter and Green, and 
the Rev. Messrs. Cathcart, Wilson and Anderson, be a com- 
mittee to take the same into consideration, and i:eport to the 
Assembly as soon as may be convenient. 

" The committee to whom was referred by the General 
Assembly the tonsideration of an application from the Charles- 
ton Presbytery, in South Carolma, to be taken into connection 
with the Assembly, made their report, which, being corrected, 
was adopted, and is as follows, viz : 

"After examining the papers and propositions brought for- 
ward by the Charleston Presbytery, the Committee think it 
expedient that the General Assembly refer this business to 
the consideration of the Synod of the Carolinas, with whom 
this Presbytery must be connected, if they become a constitu- 
ent part of our body. That the said Synod be in- 
formed that the Presbytery ought, in the event of a connection 
with us, to be allowed to enjoy and manage without hindrance 
or control, all funds and moneys that are now in their posses- 
sion; and that the congregations under the care of the Presby- 
tery be permitted freely to use the system of psalmody which 
they have already adopted. That, on the other hand, the 
Synod must be careful to ascertain that all the ministers and 
congregations belonging to the Presbytery do fully adopt, not 
only the doctrine, but the form of government and discipline 



1800-1810.] THE CHARLESTON PRESBYTEKY. 169 

of our Church. That the Synod of the Carolinn.s, under the 
guidance of these general principles, .should be directed, if 
agreeable to them and to the Presbytery, to receive said Pres- 
bytery as a part of that Synod. But if the Synod or the Pres- 
bytery find difficulties in finally df;ciding on this subject, that 
they may refer such difficulties, and transmit all the informa- 
tion, they may collect relative to this business, to the next 
General Assembly : Ordered, That the Stated Clerk furnish 
the parties conceined with an attested copy of the above min- 
ute." (Minutes of Assy. p. 189.) 

These negotiations were resumed in 1804.. May 23d, "A 
letter from the Rev. Dr. Buist of the Presbyteries of Charles- 
ton, presented by the Committee of Bills and Overtures was 
read, and made the order of the day for Monday, the 21st. 
After some consideration it was referred to a committee con- 
sisting of Dr. Samuel Smith and Randolph Clark of the Pres- 
bytery of New Brunswick, and Rev. Dr. Hall of the Presby- 
tery of Concord, to which was afterwards added the Rev. 
Robert Wilson of the Second Presbytery of South Carolina. 
Their report was piesented, considered and adopted on the 
23rd of May, and is as follows: 

"A letter from the Rev. Dr. Buist was presented to the As- 
sembly by the Committee of Overtures, and read, requesting, 
in.behalf of the Presbytery of Charleston, in South Carolina, 
that they may be received into connection with the General 
Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, without connecting 
themselves with the Synod of the Carolinas. 

Inasmuch as this subject has been regularly before the As- 
sembly- in the year 1800, and certain resolutions adopted 
thereon, which appear not to have been complied with, and 
the application comes before the Assembly in an informal 
manner. 

Resolved, That the Assembly cannot now act upon the 
representation of Dr. Buist, but 

Resojved, Further, that Dr. Smith be appointed to write to 
Dr. Buist, informing him, and through him, the Presbytery of 
Charleston, that this Assembly are by no means indisposed 
to admit that Presbytery to ^ union with their body, upon a 
plan which may be hereafter agreed upon, provided, that the 
application for that purpose come before them in an orderly 
manner from the Presbytery of Charleston ; provided, further. 



170 THE CHARLESTON PRESBYTERY. [1800-1810. 

that it shall be made to appear to the Assembly that the dif- 
ficulties of their or other circumstances, render it inexpedient 
for that Presbytery to be connected immediately with the 
Synod of the Carolinas ; and provided that they give the 
requisite assurance to the Assembly, that the Presbytery and 
the churches under their care do fully adopt the standards of 
doctrine and discipline of the Presbyterian Church iu the 
United States of America. (Minutes, p. 296.) 

Against this action the Second Presbytery drew up their 
solemn remonstrance, as follows : 

" A remonstrance against the admission of the Charleston 
Presbytery into the General Assembly on the terms proposed 
at their last meeting was prepared by the Presbytery, which 
was as follows : 

" The Second- Presbytery of South Carolina, having heard 
that the General Assembly which met in May, 1804, deter- 
mined to admit, on certain terms, the Presbytery of Charles- 
ton (South . Carolina) into their body, and that the said 
Presbytery, within the bounds of the Synod of the Carolinas, 
and within the limits of our Presbytery, will not, when 
received, be in immediate connection of either, but with some 
distant Synod. Relying upon the correctness of the infoi- 
ination the Presbytery have thought it their duty to remon- 
strate against receiving the Presbytery of Charleston in the 
manner proposed. 

1. Because it interferes with the jurisdiction of the Synod 
of the Carolinas and particularly this Presbytery, by acknowl- 
edging as part of the Assembly a Presbytery within our bounds 
and not immediately connected with us. 

2. Because the reason alleged against an immediate con- 
nection with the Synod of the Carolinas, (viz., the danger of 
travelling to the back country in the fall season) is nugatory. 
The circuit judges travel from Charleston to the different 
parts of the State at the same season of the year in which the 
Synod meets without any injury to their health, and but one 
member of the Charleston Presbytery resides in' Charleiton, 
and with regard to the others th^y are not more remote than 
some of onr present members who usually attend Synod. 

3. Because we believe that in a distant Synod certain reports 
usually thought to be reproachful to the character of a Gospel 



3800-1810.] THE CHARLESTON PEESBYTERY. 171 

minister could not be investigated with the same conve- 
nience. 

4. Because if in this case foreigners be allowed to form 

themselves into a Presbytery in order to their reception by 

the Assembly, it will be opening a door by which all such 

may evade the salutary regulations which have been adopted. 

We are, with esteem, yours in the Lord." 

Which remonstrance was ordered to be transcribed and for- 
warded by Mr. Waddel to the next General A.ssembly. This 
letter was forwarded to the General Assembly, which took no 
action in the premises except to resolve "that this letter be 
kept on the files of the Minutes," p. 341. 

The Synod of the Carolinas took action on this subject at 
their Sessions at Bethesda Church, Oct. 3d, 1805. "Synod 
being' informed that certain persons within their bounds had 
petitioned the Assembly to receive them into connection by 
the name oi the Presfyieiy 0/ C/iar/eston, without being in con- 
nection with the Synod of the Carolinas, proceeded to draw 
up a remonstrapce to the Assembly against their being re- 
ceived in such circumstances as unconstitutional, and reflect- 
ing on the Synod." * 

The remonstrance of the Synod was communicated to the 
General Assembly by letter. A committee was appointed to 
report on the same, which report^ having been received and 
considered, was adopted and is as follows : 

"Your committee find that this letter contains a remon- 
strance against receiving into union with this Assembly a 
body of men styling themselves the Presbytery of Charles- 
ton; that this subject was regularly before, the Assembly in 
the year 1800; thac certain resolutions affecting the case were 
then adopted, to which that body of men have not conformed 
on their part, and that no application has been made by them 
to this Assembly. Your committee, therefore, submit the 
following resolution, viz. : 

Resolved, That this subject be dismissed." — Minutes, p. 363. 

The subject came before the Assembly again in 181 1, — 
Minutes, pp. 467, 475. 

Another subject was brought to the attention of the 'Eccle- 
siastical judicatories, that of Emancipation. The following 
oveiture had been introduced to the Svnod of the Carolinas 



172 EMANCIPATION. [1800-1810. 

in 1799, viz. : "That Synod appoint a committee to correspond 
with the highest judicatories, coriventions, associations and 
conferences of the Christian Church of other denominations 
within the bounds qf Synod, to use their influetice with the 
people under their respective jurisdictions when the subject 
shall be sufficiently matured in the several churches, that pe- 
titions might be brought forward to our several State legis- 
latures in fdvor of emancipation, in order to have it on the 
footing which it has obtained in some of the Northern States ; 
that is, that all children of slaves, born after the passing of such 
an act shall be free at such an age, which, being read and 
considered, was agreed to — whereupon the Rev. Messrs. 
David Caldwell, Francis Cummins, James Hall, Samuel 
Doake, Robert B. Walker, Gideon Blackburn, and Moses 
Waddell were appointed a committee for the purpose of car- 
rying the above overture into effect." 

Mr. Walker accordingly brought this matter before the 
notice of the First Presbytery of South Carolina at its first 
meeting in February, 1800, praying for their advice and direc- 
tion. 

Presbytery then proceeded to take th/^ above matter into 
consideration, and after the mo-;t serifius and mature deliber- 
ation on this important subject r^.fr-'/z^fa?, "that notwithstanding 
Presbytery earnestly pray for and wish to see the day when 
the rod of the tyrant and tiie oppressor shall everywhere be 
broken, yet it appears to us, that any attempt at the present 
to bring about a legislative reform in this case, in this State, 
would not only be attended with want of success, but would 
be attended with evil consequences to, the peace and happi- 
ness of our country, and probably be very injurious to those 
who are in a state of slavery. And as the overture of Synod 
only recommends the exercise of prudence in the case, it is 
therefore recommended to Mr. Walker not to proceed in this 
business until further advice be iiad from the'Synod. And it 
is hereby rf commended and enjoined on every member of 
this Presbytery to attend the next meeting of Synod to recon- 
sider this matter; and with this further in view, that if such 
measures are not adopted as may correspond with what ap- 
pears to us to be duty, that those who think proper may en- 
ter their protest." 

At the next meeting of the Synod of the Carolinas held at 
Sugar Creek, Oct. 2, 1800, the committee having made no 



1800-1810] MISSIONS. 173 

progress, a new committee consisting of Rev. David Caldwell 
James Hall and James W. Stephenson, was appointed to re- 
consider this whole matter and report. 

Their report was as follows : "That though it is our ardent 
wish that the object contemplated in the overture should be 
obtained. Yet, as it appears to us that matters are not yet 
matured for carrying it forward, especially in the Southern 
parts of our States, your committee are of opinion that tne 
overture should be now laid aside, and that it be enjoined 
upon every member of this Synod to use his influence to carry 
into effect the direction of the Synod of New York and Phil- 
adelphia, and those additionally made by the General Assem- 
bly, for the instruction of those who are in a state of slavery 
to prepare them the better for a state of freedom when such 
an object shall be contemplated by the legislatures of our 
SouthernStates. 

The subject of Missions engaged the attention of the Pres- 
byteries and the Synod of the Carolinas during this decade. 
There were two classes of missionaries sent forth bv the Gen- 
eral Assembly — pastors temporarily withdrawn from their 
charges and sent on tours of from one to six months, and 
missionaries who were expected to find a settlement among 
the people to whom they were sent. Of this last class were 
several of the earliest ministers in Carolina. The Assembly 
had remitted to the Synod of the Carolinas the matter of 
sending missionaries into the destitutions of this portion of 
the South, and to the remote Southwest. And the minutes 
of the Presbyteries show that continual efforts were being 
made to raise funds from the churches, for this object, by the 
ministers and licentiates acting as collectors. The General 
Assembly, in 1800 appointed the Rev. James Hall, of the 
Presbytery of Concord, a missionary to the " Natchez " for 
several months, to commence about the fir.et of October, in 
that year. The Synod of the Carolinas, meeting at Sugar 
Creek, expressed themselves as impressed with the im- 
portance of the mission, and that Mr. (afterwards Dr.) Hall 
" ought, if possible, to have company, determined to send 
with him two members, viz- the Rev. Messrs. James H. 
Bowman and William Montgomery, who are directed to spend 
eight months, if convenient, and they find it expedient, in 
that country and places adjacent — commencing their mis- 
sion about the 15th instant. And for the support of 



174 MISSIONS. [1800-1810. 

these missionaries, the Synod pledges itself to -give them 
thirty-three and one-third dollars per month from the time 
they engage in the work ; they rendering a regular account 
of all moneys received by them during their mission." 

Arrangements were made for the .»upply of Dr. Hall's and 
Mr. Bowman's churches in North Carolina, and Mr. Mont- 
gomery's, in Georgia, by detailed appointments made by 
Synod from the several Presbyteries. The modern facilities 
of travel were at that time unknown. The only mode then 
was on horseback. The route was, first to Nashville, Tenn., 
and thence lo Natchez, through the nations of the Shawnee, 
Cherokee, Chickasaw, and Choctaw Indians, over the road 
known as the " Natchez Trail " — the road from Nashville to 
Natchez, and the only road in the country. It was infested 
by a band of robbers under the celebrated Mason, the Robin 
Hood of that day, whose marvelous exploits, talents and, 
sometimes, high-toned chivalry are handed down in the tra- 
ditions of the country. To see a human body, covered with 
blood, by the road side, the pockets and saddle-bags rifled 
gave no surprise. Travelers set out heavily armed, and pre- 
pared to m'eet the most desperate contingencies. James Hall 
had been a soldier of the Revolution. WhenSouth Carolina 
was overrun by the forces of Cornwallis, he had assembled 
his flock, and called them to take up arms in defense of their 
neighbors. A company of cavalry was organized, and they 
demanded him for their leader. To th'is demand he yielded 
and led them in 1779 on an expedition into South Carolina, 
in the double office of Commander and Chaplain When at 
a subsequent period the American forces marched into the 
Cherokee country in Georgia, he accompanied them as Chap- 
lain. He had but one opportunity of preaching during the 
expedition, and his lips pronounced the first gospel sermon 
ever heard in that Indian Territory. In the skirmish at Cow- 
ansford, on the Catawba, when General Davidson fell, he was 
selected by General Green to succeed him as Brigadier-Gen- 
eral, and a commission was offered him, which he declined. 
He was now leader of a different, smaller, but nobler expe- 
dition, under the invisible banner and guardianship of the 
Prince of Peace. They were unarmed now, for the weapons 
of their warfare were not carnal. They led an extra horse as 
a pack-horse, the bearer of their provisions and camp fixtures. 
They swam or forded streams, and pitching their tent at night, 



.1800-1810.] MISSION TO MISSISSIPPI. 175 

tethering their horses, they cooked their evening meal, and 
" the wild woods rang with their hymns of lofty cheer." Near 
Pontotoc, in the State of Mississippi, they called and spent 
the night at the mission station which had been established 
three years before by Rev. Joseph Butler,* who resided there 
with an assistant, Mr. Ebenezer Rice. They had fallen in 
with men after leaving Nashville who were driving horses 
South for families who had gone down the river in boats, who 
were ill-provided, expecting to buy from the Indians what 
they might need. But the Indians had gone west of the Mis- 
sissippi on their fall hunt, and the missionaries to whom these 
men werefcoth company and protection furnished them until 
their stock gave out, except a little meal, of which they made 
" water gruel " and partook of with thankful hearts. At one 
time they captured a raccoon, which they roasted and ate 
without salt or other condiments. Pressing forward night 
and day as fast as their horses could carry them, for their 
circumstances were becoming desperate, on the morning of 
December 4th, 1800, about two o'clock, they drew near to a 
dwelling on Big Black River, the first intimation of which 
was the crowing of a rooster, which was music to their ears. 
They hastened to the house, aroused the inmates, pleading 
starvation as their apology. They were kindly received, and 
a meal was speedily prepared of corn bread, bacon and coffee. 
" A night," said Mr. Montgomery, forty years afterwards, 
" never to be forgotten by any of us." 

At Big Black they established a preaching station, 
another a few miles further south, at Grindstone Fort, 
another still further south, on Clark's Creek. The first town 
they reached was " Gibson's Port," now Port Gibson. They 
found Mrs. Gibson, the wife of the original settler, dead, and 
at the request of Mr. Gibson, her funeral sermon was preached 
by William Montgomery, the first sermon ever preached in 
the place. There were none professing religion there of any 
church, but they were treated with great kindness by an in- 
telligent and hospitable people. A few miles further south 
they found a few Presbyterian families anxious for religious 

*Rev. Joseph Butler was graduated at Yale in ; was settled in 

Windham County, Vt., as pastor of a Congregational Church for twenty 
years. In 1797, he established, under the Missionary Society of New 
York, a mission among the Chickasaws, near the modern town of Pon- 
totoc, in Mississippi. 



176 MISSION TO- MISSISSIPPI. [1800-1810. 

privileges, who united and built a loghouse for worship ; a 
congregation was collected, and the name of Bayou Pierce 
was given to it. Further south they were attracted to a 
small village, not now existing, called Union Town, where 
their road crossed Cole's Creek, by the name of The Mont- 
gomeries, who lived there, and who had migrated from Georgia 
to Kentucky, and thence to that locality. They were Pres- 
byterians, and by their aid they found seven families of Con- 
gregationalists who had migrated to that neighborhood with 
Rev.' Samuel Swazey from New Jersey, whose church had 
been broken up by the Spanish authorities ; the wife of Felix 
Hughes, an Irishman, who had been member of a'cliurch in 
North Carolina; John Bolls, a native of Ireland, who had 
been a ruling elder of Hopewell Church, in North Carolina, 
before the Revolution, was in the Convention which adopted 
the Mecklenburg Declaration, served in the army through 
the war, and was present in the closing scene at Yorktown. 
Three years afterwards, in 1804, these families were organ- 
ized into the first Presbyterian Church of the Southwest,* 
Alexander Montgomery, John Bolls, Alexander Callender, 
and John Griffen being the elders. _ On land belonging to 
Alexander Callendar they built a log meeting house, which 
was popularly called " Callender's Church." The house is 
no more, but the graveyard is sacredly preserved.! The next 
point was Was-hington, the capital of the territory, in whose 
vicinity were several Presbyterian families, and where they 
established a preaching station. 1 he next point was Natchez, 
where they found only one Presbyterian family, that of John 
Henderson, a mm identified w.th the subsequent history of 
the Presbyterian Church in that region, Of their reception 
at Natchez we will soon speak. 

Their next point was " the Jersey Settlement," southeast 
from Natchez. The members of the church of Rev. Samuel 
Swazey, J which the Spaniards had broken up, cheerfully co- 

*The organization was effected by Eev. Joseph Bullen, who had moved 
to this vicinity in i803. He remained its pastor till 1822. He died in 
1826 

t It contains the graves of Rev. Joseph Bullen, Mrs Hannah Bullen, 
the Colemans, Callenders, Curtis, Smith, &c. 

X He had emigrated from New Jersey, where he had been a Congre- 
gational minister for thirty or forty years, with his brother Eic-hard 
and their numerous families, and others. These he organized into a 
Congregational Church in about 1772. He was the first minister of 
the gospel in that territory which then belonged to Great Britain. In 



180C-1810.] NATCHEZ. 177 

operated with them and united with the few Presbyterian 
families in their vicinity, and here another preaching station 
was established. Still further south they established another 
at Pinckneyville, which at that time was in the Spanish terri- 
tory, of which circumstance they were not aware. , 

Of the nine preaching stations they thus established, five 
were subsequently organized into Presbyterian Churches, 
and were the germ of the first Presbytery in the Southwest, 
which, in 1816, in the next decade, extending from the Per- 
dido River westward over what is now the territory of several 
entire Synods 

The missionaries made their headquarters at Natchez, and 
supplied these nine stations in rotation. Theye were con- 
stantly employed in the work for which they were sent. 
When the time for their departure arrived, the citizens of 
Natchez held a public meeting to bid them farewell. On his 
return to North Carolina, Ur. James Hall published in a 
pamphlet form " A Summary View of the Country, from the 
Settlements on the Cumberland River to the Mississippi 
Territory," in which he gave his impressions of the peo- 
ple, of the manner in which the missionaries were received, 
and a farewell address to them, adopted at a public meeting 
of the chief citizens of Natchez. . This portion we here quote 
(pp. ^4 to 40) : 

" This is a circumstance, perhaps, peculiar to that country, 
that the most opulent citizens are the people of the best 
morals, together with the few possessors of religion in the 
lower class. This remark .will apply with particular force to 
the citizens of the town of Natchez. For more than four 
months which I resided in the territory, a great part of which 
I spent in that town, with one exception, I never heard a 
profane oath from, or saw the appearance of intoxication on, 
an inhabitant of the place, who was in the habit of a gentle- 
man ; but this was far from being the case among the lower 
class of mechanics, carters, &c. My colleagues and myself 
were received with much cordiality, and treated by all classes 
of the citizens with the utmost friendship and attention. We 

1779 it was transferred to Spain, which power established in it the 
Roman Catholic faith. Eev. Samuel Swayze died in 1784, and was 
buried at Natchez, in the old graveyard which was below Fort Rosalie. 
It was on a high bluff which has since been washed away by the Mis- 
sissiDpi, "the Father of Waters." 
12 



178 NATCHEZ. [1800-1810. 

all had repeated and pressing solicitation.s to return, in order to 
make a permanent settlement among them ; and the regret 
appeared to be common between them and us, that our obli- 
gations to our respective pastoral charges prevented us from 
giving that encouragement which to them, we were well 
assured, would have been highly agreeable. 

" Such, indeed, were my attachments to tliat people on 
account of their peculiar friendship to us, and the influence 
which our continuing among them promised, that, in parting 
with friends, I never experienced more tender sensations, or 
as they may be called, wringings of heart, than I felt in part- 
ing both with families and societies ; especially as it was 
under this impression, ' That they should see my face no 
more.' Let the following address serve as a specimen of the 
disposition of the people toward us. 

" It was presented to us on the day of our departure, and 
was signed by more than thirty of the principal citizens of 
the town and vicinity of Natchez, among whom were a con- 
siderable number' of the leading civil characters of the 
territory : 

' ! Messrs. Hall, Bmvman and Montgomery . 

" Rev. Gentlemen : The citizens of Natchez, viewing as 
arrived the moment of your departure, wish to discover a 
part of what they feel on this affecting occasion. 

" While, gentlemen, we desire to return, through you, our 
sincere thanks to the Presbyterian General Assembly for 
their great attention to our dearest interests, we cannot refrain 
from expressing our cordial approbation of your conduct 
while amongst us. 

Although we have not all been educated in the pale of that 
Church of which you are ministers, yet we all feel interested 
in the object of your mission, and disposed to maintain the 
doctrines you have delivered. For we have pleasingly wit- 
nessed that, so far from portraying those shades of religious 
opinions not practically discernahle, you have exhibited to us 
a moral picture to all equally interesting (and ought to be), 
equally engaging. Omitting points barely speculative, you 
have insisted on points radical znd essential, and evinced by 
your deportment a desire to produce a combination of in- 
fluence to support our common Christain faith. 

"Such dispositions and exertions we consider as proper 



1800-1810] NATCHEZ. 179 

and necessary to couateract the influence of infidelity, which 
had ahnost produced alarming symptoms of moral and social 
depravity ; and it is with pleasure we add that since your 
coming among us, we have observed some indications of a 
beginning change in opinions and habits. 

" It would, gentlemen, be too great a restraint upon our 
feelings, not to mention, also, the great pains taken by one of 
you to instruct us in things merely material,* and we trust 
we were morally affected by the explanations given to us of 
those sublime and beautiful laws which govern nature, as 
well as religiously disposed by your unfolding the far more 
interesting principles of grace in the moral system of things 
whose indistructable nature shall survive the general wreck 
of our present physical existence. 

" Influenced by considerations so affecting to our mental 
feelings, we offer you our thanks for the faithful execution of 
your well-timed mission among us ; and our minds follow 
you with sincere wishes for a safe return to your respective 
residences. 

" Receive, gentlemen, the unfeigned expression of our con- 
current sensations, and permit us to add an earnest solicita- 
tion for your return to our territory. Should this, however, 
be impracticable, you will please to exercise your influence 
in procuring and sending others, whose zeal and abilities 
may operate to accomplish the incipient reformation your 
labors have instrumentally effected. 

" We are. Reverend Gentlemen, with sentiments of grateful 
esteem, your much obliged, most obedient servants, 

"JOHN STEELE, &c." 

This seems much in favor of the propagation of the Gospel 
in that country, that the most oppulent citizens and influen- 
tial characters appear to be most forward for its encourage- 
ment. One of their most wealthy and' enlightened citizens 
expressed himself to me in these or similar words : 

" Besides promoting the great object of religion, I think 
that a learned and respectable ministry would have a happy 
influence to meliorate the state of civil society among us with 
respect to morals, and would be the best means for the pro- 
motion of literature." 



* This refers to a course of lectures on Natural Philosophy, held 
weekly by oue of us, in the town of Natchez. 



180 MISSION TO MISSISSIPPI. [1800-1810. 

Respecting the bulk of the citizens, it may be affirmed that, 
for hospitality to strangers, for politeness of manners, and 
sumptuous living among the oppuknt, they may vie with any 
part of the Union. 

They left the territory in April, 1801, after receiving this 
extraordinary address, set their faces toward the wilderness, 
and returned to Carolina over the same long and perilous 
route by which they had come. They found the territory of 
Mississippi exceedingly destitute of religious privileges and 
teachers. "Only one Episcopalian," says Dr. Hall, "one 
Methodist and two Baptist clergymen, besides a few exhorters, 
all illiterate except the former, are in the Territory." Dr. 
Hall gives a conjectural statement as to the population at that 
time, but the census, which was then being taken exhibits a 
population exclusive of Indians, of 8,850 of whom 3,489 were 
slaves. The pamphlet published by Dr. Hall is mostly occu- 
pied with a description of the country as to its history, settle- 
ment, revolutions, general appearance, soil and produce, cli- 
mate, manners, character and customs of the people, trade and 
commerce, curiosities, hurricanes, Indian tribes, and contri- 
buted no little to awaken a general interest in it which 
advanced its settlement. In a religious point of view, hardly 
any domestic missionary efforts of the present century have 
been covered with greater success or wakened a deeper inter- 
est in this department of Christian effort. 

Mr. (afterwards Dr.) Hall was at this time pastor of Beth- 
any and Concord churches in the Presbytery of Concord ; 
James H. Bowen, pastor of Eno and Little River in the Pres- 
bytery of Orange; William Montgomery, pastor of Greensboro 
and Little Britain churches in Georgia. He was born in 
Shippensberg, Pa., in 1768. In his early youth his father 
migrated to North Carolina. He was a graduate of Mount 
Zion College, Winnsboro ; was ordained by the Presbj'tery of 
South Carolina in 1795 ; he married the sister of Gen. Lane, 
who in 1862 was a candidate f6r the Vice Presidency of the 
United States on the ticket with John C. Brecken ridge for the 
President.* In 181 1 he returned to Mississippi with his family 

*He was one of the original members of thePresbytery of Hopewell ; 
in 17<.i7 was pastor of the Churches of Siloam and Little Britain, then of 
New Hope, from the pastorship of which he was suspended under the 
censures of Presbytery in May, 1802, and again restored at the petition 
of the Congregation in November of the same year. He was dismissed 
from the Presbytery of Hopewell, in 1814 — 1815. 



1800-1810.] REV. WILLIAM MONTGOMERY. 181 

and tliere labored faithfully till his death ; was at one time 
President of Jefferson College at Washington, the capital of 
the Territory, and afterwards pastor of Ebenezer and Union 
churches for thirty-seven years. He was an excellent class- 
ical scholar and kept up the study of the Latin cla.ssics to the 
end of life. His favorite was Horace, whom in old age he 
familiarly called "his friend Horace," many of whose odes he 
could repeat from memory. In his youth he had great per- 
sonal endowments, was a pattern of manly beauty, dignified 
in his bearing, yet candid, kind and frank, and singularly ani- 
mated in his delivery. The two churches" which have been 
mentioned were not his only charge but those which he served 
during the chief part of his ministry in the West. They were 
in the Scotch colony in Jefferson County ,'and under his labors 
grew to be the most influential as well as the largest country 
churches in the Synod. He was a profound Theologian, a 
thorough Calvinist and AJure divino Presbyterian. His prompti- 
tude and punctuality to his engagements were perfect even 
to a fault, but begat punctuality on the part of his people. 
Only twice, at the death of his wife and at the death of his 
son, did he fail to meet his appointments, and then he sent a 
tnissen^er to make known the cause. His salary was a small 
one, amounting from his two churches to some ^300. But 
by the assistance of a friend he became possessed of a valua- 
ble piece of land. From the one negro servant he brought from 
Georgia proceeded a numerous family; he was thus provided 
with a comoitence ifi old age, and left something to his heirs. 
He rode even in his old age through flood, storm and rain to 
his apjointmints. His last hour at length came. He rode 
to church thirteen miles through the rain and preached in 
dam-) clothes. PneumDuia was the result. Like the soldier 
on the mirch or on the eve of an engagement he braved the 
element, true to the banner of the Cross under which he en- 
listed. He died in 184.8 in great peace anJ was laid by the 
side of the wife who preceded him. 

"The voice at midnight came. 

He started aip to hear ; 
A mortal arrow pierjed his frame. 

He fell bat felt no fear. 

Tranquil amid alarms, 

It found him on the iield, 
A veteran slumbering on his arms, 

jBeneath his red cross shield. 



182 MISSIOSTAEIES TO THE NATCHEZ. [1800-1810, 

The pains of death are past ; 

Labour and sorrow cease ; 
And life's long labour closed at last. 

His soul is found in peace. 

Soldier of Christ, well done ; 

Praise be thy new employ ; 
And while eternal ages run, 

Eest in thy Saviour's joy." 

Venerable old man ! A favorite with the young to the end 
of life ; held in veneration in his own churches, by other de- 
nominations, and the people at large ; a genial companion, 
an honest man, a true minister of Christ. His son William, 
a candidate for the ministry, of great promise, died a member 
of the Senior Class in Oakland College. Another, Rev. 
Samuel Montgomery, is pastor (in i87i)of Union and Bar- 
salem Churches. Mr. Bowman, another of the three Mission- 
aries settled in Georgia, and afterwards in Tennessee, where he 
died. 

(Abridged chiefly from " Beginnings of Presbyterianism in 
the Southwest, published in the S. W.Presbyterian for 1871.) 

The Synod of (he Carolinas still nursed this Missionary 
field. In October, 1801, they re-appointed Rev. Wm, Mont- 
gomery, of the Presbytery of Hopewell, and Mr. John Mat- 
thews, a licentiate of Orange Presbytery, as Missionaries to 
the Mississippi Territory, from the 15th of November, to act 
as long as they shall judge convenient. Mr. Montgomery 
did not go at that time, but Mr. John Matthews performed 
his tour of service, read his report to the Synod in October, 
1802, and received its thanks for his diligence. They also 
appointed Hugh Shaw a Missionary to the Natchez, and as 
Mr. Matthews expressed a desire to return, a commission was 
ordered for him, and the Presbytery of Orange was ordered 
to ordain him, should he go. The Synod at the same time 
appointed a commission of Synod to attend regularly to their 
Missionary operations. In October, 1804, Rev. Daniel Brown 
and Malcolm McNeil were appointed Missionaries to the 
Natchez for six months or more, and in October, 1805, Rf^^- 
James Smylie, who had been appointed by the commission of 
Synod and had been ordained by Orange Presbytery, made a 
favorable report of his mission to the Mississippi Territory, 
and presented a letter addressed to Synod, asking for further 
aid. Mr. Smylie was born in North Carolina in about 1780, 



1800-1810,] EEV. JAMES 8MYLIE. 183 

received his classical and theological education under Rev. 
Dr. Caldwell, at Guilford, was licensed by the Orange Pres- 
bytery, by whom he was ordained in 1805. He settled at 
Washington, the Capital of the Territory, and took the charge 
of the congregation which the Missionaries who preceded 
him had collected. This he organized in 1807, into a regular 
church with twenty members and three elders. It received 
the name Salem. It was afterwards removed to Pine Ridge, 
four miles distant, and was known as the Pine Ridge Church. 
He removed in 181 1 to Amite County and was actively en- 
gaged in Missionary labors and organizing churches in Missis- 
sippi and contiguous parts of Louisiana. He was for many 
years pastor of Bethany and Friendship Churches and the 
teacher of a classical school, and many of the leading men of 
that region are indebted to him for their early education. In 
1814 he travelled on horseback through the Choctaw and 
Chickasaw nations to Tennessee to induce the Presbytery of 
West Tennessee to petition the Synod of Kentucky for the 
erection of a Presbytery in the Southwest. In 1815 that 
Synod erected the first Presbytery of Mississippi, which was 
organized March 16, 1 8 18, with the Perdido river for its 
eastern boundary, with a jurisdiction extending indefinitely 
westward. This was the commencement of a contested 
claim of jurisdiction between the Synod of South Carolina 
and Georgia and the Synod of Kentucky, afterwards expressed 
in a memorial from the former body to the General Assembly. 
Probably it was the greater proximity of the Presbytery of 
West Tennessee to Mr. Smylie's residence which led to this 
application. In 1836 the Chilicothe Presbytery addressed a 
violent abolition letter to the Presbytery of Mississippi, which 
Mr. Smylie answered. It was an enlargement of a sermon on 
the subject of slavery which he had preached extensively 
before, and which is said to have been of great use to the 
members of the Legislature and other public men in their 
researches on the same topic. In his old age he devoted 
himself exclusively to the religious instruction of the negroes. 
He anticipated Dr. Jones in preparing a catechism for them 
which received the sanction of the Synod of Mississippi. He 
was a close ob.server and thinker, had an acute and original 
mind, was an accurate Greek and Latin scholar, a good theo- 
logian, and like Mr. Montgomery a jure devino Presbyterian. 
He was twice married, left one child by each marriage, who 



184 OTHBK MISSIONS. [1800-1810. 

still survive him. He died in 1853, aged about 73 years. 
He kept an accurate diary which may be of historic value 
and is in the hands of his nephew, Rev. John A. Smylie, of 
Milford, Texas. (Southwestern Presbyterian, of February 
23d, 1871.) 

For so much of missionary labor performed during this 
decade, and followed by such lasting consequences, is the 
Southwest indebted, under God, to the old mother Synod 
of the Carclinas and to the churches of this State and her 
sisters, North Carolina and Georgia. Precious, and blessed 
in its fruits, is the communion of sailits, and pleasant were 
the bonds which, in those days, bound these affiliated churches 
together. The noble structure was rising, its living stones 
cemented together, the mystic body was growing, held in 
union by that which every joint supplieth. And still shall it 
grow into nobler and more majestic proportions, unless 
through our own sins it shall please Him who " holds the 
stars in his right hand," aud " walketh in the midst of the 
golden candlesticks," " to remove our candleistick out of his 
place." 

Nearer at home also were these missionary labours ex- 
tended. In 1801 Thomas Hall, a licentiate of Concord Pres- 
bytery, was appointed to itinerate through the Carolinas and 
Georgia, for the space of eight months. He read his report 
before Synod and received its thanks for his diligence. In 
October, 1803, the Commission of Synod reported that they 
had commissioned eight missionaries within the bounds of 
Synod, one of whom, Win. C. Davis, was to visit the Catawba 
Indians. Reports were heard from these missionaries, and it 
was " ordered that the Rev. Wm. C. Davis act as a stated 
missionary to the Catawba Indians until our next stated meet- 
ing of Synod ; that he superintend the school in that nation, 
now taught by Mr. Foster, and that he obtain the assistance 
of Rev. James Wallis as far as may be convenient. Ordered 
that the several Presbyteries under our care be directed to 
pay particular attention to the subscription business for the 
support of the missionaries, especially as we now have a 
promising prospect of teaching the Catawba Indians to read, 
and pay some attention to the gospel. In 1804 Murdock 
Murphy, a licentiate of Orange Presbytery, was appointed 
for the lower part of South Carolina. We have seen, p. 1 19, 
that he was settled as pastor of Black River Church (Win- 



1800-1810.] OTHER MISSIONS. 185 

yaw) in the following year. He was afterwards pastor of the 
Midway Church, Liberty Countj', Georgia, and thence emi- 
grated to Florida. From the minutes of the commission and 
the reports of the missionaries to the Synod of the Carolinas 
in 1805, it appeared that the school among the Catawbas had 
been conducted at considerable expense; the proverb about 
"the new broom" had been fulfilled; at first the Indians 
were much interested in the instructions and exhortations of 
the teacher, but after a while grew weary ; and that there had 
been but little preaching among them. The prospect was not 
flattering. The commission was reappointed, but in i8o6 
reported that tliey had done nothing. The synod itself ap- 
pointed three missionaries, Dr. James Hall, Wm. H. Barr, a 
licentiate of Orange, and Mr. Thos. J. Hall, to itinerate within 
their own bounds. 

Dr. Hall in his report to Synod in 1807 says : "Approach- 
ing the low country in South Carolina, the professors of reli- 
gion became less, and'the bigoted attachment to party doc- 
trines appeared to be stronger. These doctrines which they 
call their principles, are so frequently brought into the pulpit, 
that sometimes a private member of one of those denomina- 
tions, wlien he goes to hear a preacher of the other, expect- 
ing what will come forward, has his scriptural notes prepared 
and reads them against the doctrines delivered, on which 
issue IS joined, and the doctrines are debated in the presence 
of the congregation. From these and other circumstances, it 
appears that few attend on the preaching of the gospel except 
the bigoted adherents to their respective parties."* Mr. Wil- 
liam H. Barr also read his report. Both were commended as 
exhibiting "great industry and much labor." 

In 1808 the Commission of Synod reported that they had 
appointed Dr. Hall, Rev. E. B. Currie and Mr. Wm. H. Barr. 
Mr. Currie had not been commissioned. The others read 
long and interesting reports. The Rev. Dr. Hall had trav- 
elled 1 132 miles, preached 40 times, and received $64.68. He 
thought it would be more advisable to cherish our own va- 

*It was probably during this missionary tour that Dr. Hall preached 
his sermon from Prov. XIV, 31- • "Righteousness exalteth a nation; 
bnt sin is a reproach to any people," before the Court at Barnwell, and 
more fully before the Court of Laurens District, in South Carolina at 
their spring Session, A. D., 1807. Printed at Raleigh by William Boylaf 
1807, pp. 25, 12mo. 



186 OTHER MISSIONS. [1800-1810. 

cancies. than to establish new societies, and recommended 
vigorous exertions on the part of Synod to encourage the 
education of young men for the ministry. Mr. Barr con- 
curred with Dr. Hall that it would be better to change mis- 
sionary action from the itinerant to the supplying our vacan- 
cies with more regular preaching." 

In urging the cause of education, Dr. Hall says: "Other 
wise, our churches, if any should remain must be supplied 
with ignorant and illiterate preachers, or they must receive 
foreigners, which past experience has for the most part shown 
not to be very eligible ; as we may expect little except the 
dregs of European Churches. Should none of these be the 
case, our people must sink into ignorance and barbarism, and 
stand exposed to every wind of doctrine." Mr. Barr appears 
to have been a most industrious missionary. 

A commission of Synod was appointed, "to regulate the 
whole of the missionary business, to meet the first Wednes- 
day of November, at Unity Church, ftidian Lands, of which 
Dr. Hall was appointed moderator." 

In Oct., 1809, the Commission reported that they had ap- 
pointed Dr. Hall and Rev. Andrew Flinn to act as mission- 
aries to the vacancies within their bounds. Mr. Flinn did 
not fulfill the appointment. Dr. Hall spent four months and 
thirteen days in the mission, travelled 1545 miles, preached 
sixty-nine times, held three communions and several evening 
societies. "Previously to departure from home, he had ex- 
tracted four hundred and twenty questions from our Confes- 
sion of Faith and di.sseminated them through eight ofour va- 
cancies for the perusal of the people until he should return 
to finish his mission, at which time they were to be called 
upon for public examination." The success of this was very 
encouraging. 

Great irregularities in connection with the revivals and 
camp-meetings had sprung up in the congrega:tions of Long 
Creek and Knobb Creek in Orange Presbytery. The Pres- 
bytery had appointed in 1804 a large and able Committee to 
examine into these and deal in some suitable manner with 
them. Some who were laymen laid claims to special divine 
guidance, and moved as they said, by a divine impulse had 
administered the ordinances of the Supper and Baptism. 
For these and other irregularities many had been suspended 
from the privileges of the Church. He spent considerable 



1800-1810.] HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 187 

time in the Knobb Creek congregation and heard from some 
of the most intelligent and pious their heartfelt lamentations 
and horror at their past extravagances, and their gratitude to 
God that they were not given over to the most wild and de- 
lusive fanaticism. "When I fell into those extraordinary 
exercises," said one of them, "I found such pleasure in them 
that I would not think of parting with them ; yet when they 
went off, I found the power of religion so declining in my 
heart, that I was conscious that in that state I never need 
expect to enter the kingdom of Heaven ; and they have cost 
me many sleepless hours in prayer and wrestling with my own 
wretched heart, before I could give them up." "Let some, 
however," says Dr. Hall, "think unfavorably or even lightly, 
of those deep and heart-affecting exercises, both distressful 
and joyous, to which no doubt we have all been witness and 
many of which, if we judge by their fruits, we have reason to 
believe, were produced by the powerful operations of the 
Holy Spirit, by which from an overwhelming sense of 
divine things, these effects were produced upon tiie body." 

He was witness to the solemn and ample acknowledgment 
of his error by an elder who had been, with many others, sus- 
pended by the sentence of Presbytery from church privileges 
for his adherence to these extravagances, and who had held 
out long and obstinately, and now had humbly yielded, and 
with expressions of gratitude and thankfulness had been fully 
restored to the Communion of the Church. He again 
presses the subject of an educated ministry as of prime 
importance to the Church. Such were the earnest efforts 
of these Presbyteries and this Synod of the Carolinas 
in the horrie missionary work, which have accrued in more 
good than we know of to our generation, and whose benefits 
will extend themselves into the distant future. 

History of the Church. — Very commendable efforts were 
made, both in the First and Second Presbyteries, to provide 
materials for the history of the Church. On the 14th of 
November, 1800, Rev. John Brown and John B. Davies were 
appointed by the First Presbytery to make out as correct a 
history of the First Presbytery as possible, to be transmitted 
to the General Assembly, March 27, 1801 ; the failure of 
the committee to perform this duty is excused, but Mr. 
Davies is directed to prepare the reports that have been sent 
in, and Mr. Brown to assist him, under pain of censure if they 
fail. 



188 SCHOOLS. [1800-1810. 

On September 24th, i8oi, the Second Presbytery directed 
the stated clerk to lay before that body the necessary mate- 
rials for the history of that Presbytery. Again, April i, 
1806, the following minute is found: " In compliance with 
an order of the General Assembly, for the collection of ma- 
terial for forming a history of the Presbyterian Church in 
America, it was enjoined on every member to endeavor to 
collect the proper information in their respective churches, 
as to their origin, succession, pastors, present standing, &c., 
and render a statement of the same at the next stated session 
of Presbytery." 

Agreeably to this order, the members of Presbytery were 
called on at tlie next sessions, August 8, 1806. " The infor- 
mation laid before Presbytery was put into the hands of Mr. 
Kennedy, and he directed to form a general report on this 
subject, and lay the same before our next stated sessions for 
inspection, that, in the end, Presbytery may be enabled to 
forward to the General Assembly their quota of information 
forming a history of the Presbyterian Church in America." 

The subject was brought forward at each successive meet- 
ing. October 3d, 1808, the matter was taken out pf Mr. 
Kennedy's hands and placed in Dr. Waddel's, who, after some 
delays for want of materials, prepared the proposed history 
(of which we have frequently availed ourselves), and for- 
warded it to Dr. Green, at Philadelphia. The Syriod did 
not cease to urge the attention of its Presbyteries to this 
matter. 

Grammar Schools. — The Synod had directed its Presby- 
teries to " establish within their respective bounds one or 
more grammar schools, except where such grammar schools 
are already established, and that each member of the several 
Presbyteries make it their business to select and encourage 
youths of promising piety and talents, and. such as may be 
expected to turn their attention 'to the ministry of the gospel." 
It was therefore "ordered" by the First Presbytery " that 
each member pay particular attention to this business and 
endeavor to come to some conclusion in their own minds 
where it may be proper to encourage such institution or insti 
tutions." At their next meeting they come to the conclusion 
that " inasmuch as there are a number of such institutions 
already established and vigorous exertions made for their 
encouragements, it is conceived to.be inexpedient to pay any 



1810-1820.] REARRANGEMENT OF PRESBYTERIES. 189 

further attention to this business at present." Of the same 
import was the conclusion reached by the Second Presbytery. 

Indian Tribes. — The General Assembly had required the 
Presbyteries below to report respecting the Indian Tribes and 
frontier settlements. Messrs. James Gilliland, Andrew Brown 
and the elder, Gen. Andrew Pickens, were appointed by the 
Second Presbytery on this business. Than the last named 
gentleman there was none that had been more concerned with 
these people in peace and war, and none more feared as a foe 
or honored as a friend than he. The report was made at the 
next sessions and ordered to be sent on to the Assembly. 

We have already spoken of the mission of the First Pres- 
bytery to the Catawbas set on foot by the Synod's Commis- 
sion. 



BOOK SECOND. 

1810—1820. 

CHAPTER I. 

The arrangement as to Presbyteries hitherto existing 
began with this century, so far as Carolina is represented in 
them, and ended with its first decade. The vvhole seems to 
have been a matter of agreement and deliberation. The First 
Presbytery suggested to the Synod of the Carolinas its own 
dissolution and division. The upper division to include 
Rev. William C. Davis pastor of Bullock's Creek, the Rev. 
Robert B. Walker, pastor of Bethesda, Rev. John B. Davies, 
of Fishing Creek and Richardson, Rev. Thomas Neely, 
pastor of Purity and Edmonds, and the vacant congregations 
of Waxhaw, Unity, Hopewell, Ebenezer, Bethel, Beersheba, 
Shiloah, Yorkville and Salem to be united with the Presby- 
tery of Concord, and the rest with the proposed Presbytery of 
Harmony.' This is acceded to by the Synod of the Carolinas. 
At its meeting at Fairforest Church, October 6, 1810, they 
had declared the First Presbytery of South Carolina dissolved 
and that the Second Presbytery is hereafter to be knoWn 
and distinguished by the name of The Presbytery of South 
Carolina. They had previously at their session held at 
Poplar Tent, October 5, 1809. a(ioptedan overture for a new 
Presbytery, to be known as the Presbytery of Harmony ; its 
bounds to begin on the seacoast where the division line 



190 REORGANIZATION. [1810-1820. 

between North and South Carolina commences, thence till 
the line strikes Lynches Creek, thence to Evan's Ferry, 
thence to Camden, thence to Columbia, thence to Augusta in 
Georgia, thence in a direction nearly South (including St. 
Mary's) to the seacoast. The coast line of Harmony Pres- 
bytery, according to this division, was co-extensiye with that 
of South Carolina and Georgia, and the division between it 
and the Presbytery of Si^uth Carolina was probably then un- 
derstood to be the travelled road, which at that time crossed 
the Savannah river at' Campbell's Town, a short distance 
above Augusta. Where there are no natural lines the 
travelled road vi^ill suggest the ideal division, although it 
should change somewhat from time to time. 

The Presbytery of Harmony was constituted by order of 
the Synod of the Carolinas, at its meeting at Poplar Tent, on 
the 5th of October, 1809, " out of the territory of three others, 
to consist of the following members: Rev. George McWhor- 
ter, Andrew Flinn and John Cousar, of the First Presbytery 
of South Carolina; John R. Thompson, of Hopewell Pres- 
bytery; who were appointed to meet for the first time in the 
City of Charleston on the first Wednesday of March, 1810; 
the Rev. Andrew Flinn, or the senior member present, to 
preside and open the Presbytery." 

In pursuance of this order, the Rev. Andrew Flinn, D. D., 
the Rev. John R. Thompson, of Augusta ; the Rev. John 
Cousar, and the Rev.- George G. McWhorter, and Mr. Oswald 
Eve, an elder from St. Paul's Church, Augusta, met in the 
First Presbyterian Church in the City of Charleston. The 
Rev. Drs. William HoUingshead and Isaac Ktfith, and the 
Rev. Thomas Price, of the Congregational Association, and 
the Rev. jedediah Morse, D. D., of Charlestown, Mass., at 
one time pastor of the Church in Liberty County, Ga., were 
present by courtesy as corresponding members. At the 
request of Dr. Flinn, the meeting had been opened with a 
sermon by Dr. Morse, from Malachi i : 2, and the Presby- 
tery instituted with prayer by Dr. Flinn. Dr. Flinn had 
been chosen as Moderator, and the Rev. John Cousar as 
Clerk. The way being opened, the Second Presbyterian 
Church in the city applied by their representative, Mr. Benj. 
Boyd, to be taken under the care of Presbytery, were received, 
and Mr. Boyd, an elder in the Second Church, took his seat 
as a member. No other business of importance was done. 
The installation of Dr. Flinn was postponed until the house 



1810-1820.] CONGREGATIONAL OHUECH, CHARLESTON. 191 

of public worship, then building for the Second Church, 
should be opened, of which the Moderator should give due 
notice. After appointing a commissioner to the General 
Assembly, and attending to other neces.sary business, the 
Pre-sbytery then adjourned, to meet at St. Paul's Church, in 
Augusta, in September. 

But immediately after the reception of the Second Church, 
a letter was received from the Rev. Donald McLeod, Stated 
Clerk of the (Old) Presbytery of Charleston, complaining 
of the conduct of the Synod of the Carolinas in laying off and 
constituting the Presbytery within their bounds, which com- 
plaint was principally bottomed on the opinion that the Pres- 
bytery of Charleston had been admitted as a constituent part 
of the Genf^ral Assembly. It was resolved that the above 
memorial be referred to the Synod of the Carolinas. 



CHAPTER II. 

We resume our history of the individual churches, with 
those which were Congregational or Independent, and first. 

The Independent or Congregational Church, in the City 
of Charleston. This church was in a very flourishing condi- 
tion at the commencement of this decade. From the reports 
given in the minutes of the Congregational Association from 
time to time, by Dr. Holiingshead, it would seem that the 
membership in i8o6-was 246 whites, 286 blacks, total, 542, 
Subsequent reports would swell the number to 403 whites 
and 290 blacks, total 693 in 18 13. In that year Dr. Holiings- 
head reported 109 whites added. But as nothing is said of 
diminutions by deaths, dismissions and removals, these num- 
bers may be exaggerated. Dr. Keith died suddenly on the 
14th of December, 1813, in the 59th year of hisage. Rev. 
Benjamin Morgan Palmer, who had lately removed to Charles- 
ton haying resigned his charge at Beaufort, was chosen pas- 
tor in his stead as a colleatjue with Dr. Holiingshead, in the 
year 18 14. Dr. Holiingshead did not long survive his former 
colleague Dr. Keith. He died on the 26th of January, 1817. 

"The Eev. Dr. Isaac Stockton Keith was born in Buck's county, Penn- 
sylvania, January 20th, A. D., 1755, and was educated in the grammar 
school and college of Princeton, New Jersey, when the Eev Dr. Wither- 
spoon was President. His diligence and progress in his studies were 



192 DR. KEITH. [1810-1820. 

SO great that at every examination of thie school he was honored with 
a premium. In 1775 he was admitted to the degree of A. B. His pious 
parents, from early youth, dedicated li-im to ihe ministry, and his own 
inclination concurred with their fond anticipations. Soon after he lef*. 
the college he commenced the study of divinity, under the direction of 
the Rev. Dr. Robert Smith, of Pequea, in Pennsylvania, and in 1778 was 
licensed, by the Presbytery of Philadelphia to preach the Gospel Af- 
ter itinerating for short time, lie settled in Alexandria in Virginia, and 
continued there in the excercise of liis ministerial functions till the year 
1788, when he accepted an invitation from the Congregational Church 
in Charleston, to be co-pastor thereof, in connection with the Rev. 
Dr. HoUingshead. He there served the church with ability and 
lidelity for twenty-five years, a period exceeding tliat of an^ one of 
his eleven deceased predecessors. In 1791, he was constituted D.D. 
by the University of Pennsylvania. He was thrice married ; first to 
Miss Hannah Sproat, daughter of the Rev. Dr Sproat, of Phila- 
delphia, who died onthcSOth Sept., 1796; second Miss Catharine Legare, 
daughter of Mr. Thomas Legare, Esq., of Charleston; who died of a 
lingering disease on the 15th of May, 1803; third, to Miss Jane Hux- 
ham, a native of Exeter, in England, and daughter to Mr. William 
Huxham, who had resided many years in South Carolina. As a 
man, as a Christian, and as a preaclier of the Gospel, Dr. Keith was 
respected and beloved. On all the relations of life in which he was 
placed, he reflected honor — given to hospitality and aboundinginchar- 
ity, his heart and his house were open to the stranger, and his purse to 
tiie indigent; the spirit of the Gospel marked his intercourse with 
men ; it influenced the wliole of his deportment, and impressed a dis- 
tinctive character on all his transactions. "He rejoiced with those that 
did rejoice, and wept with those who wept." In pastoral visits to tiie 
sick and afflicted he was indefatigable ; to their impressible minds he 
presented divine truths with such sympathy, affection and discretion, 
as with the blessing of God often terminated in the happiest result. 
He was fond of assembling children around him, and of conversing with 
them in a pleasant cheerful manner, mingled witli instruction. Thouah 
not a parent, he had deeply imbibed thespirit of a judicious affectionate 
Christian parent. Many were the books which he gave in presents to 
adults, but more to children, under such circumstances of love and 
affection as could scarcely fail of ensuring an attentive perusal of their 
important contents. His heart overflowing with love to God and man 
disposed him to spend and he spent in promoting the glorj; of the one 
and the happiness of the other. In the work of the ministry he was 
diligent, laborious, and successful, and he was well fnrnished with gifts 
and graces for its faithful discharge. Sensible that souls were commit- 
ted to his care he shaped his instructions, admonitions and warnings 
according to this dread responsibility. Jesus Christ was the centre and 
tlie sum of his sermons. These were distinguished for their manly 
sense, evangelical piety, and searching truth. The divinity of Christ, 
and atonement through his blood, were with him essential doctrines. 
He deemed that sermon of little value which had not in it something 
of Christ. The doctrines of grace were his usual topics, and he stated 
and defended them with zeal and ability. The entire depravity of the 
human heart — the absolute necessity of divine influences to change the 
heart and to sanctify the souJ, were, with him, articles of primary im- 
portance, and urged on the consciences of his hearers as indispensably 
necessary to a correct view of the Gospel. In his preaching he was 
particularly attentive to the dispensations of Providence. Epidemic 



1810-1820.] DR. KEITH. 193 

diseases, destructive fires, earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes, and un- 
usual convulsions of the elements, were never suffered to escape his 
public notice. They were always the subjects of appropriate prayers 
and sermons, and made tributary to the instruction of his hearers. He 
was among the first in the United States in aiding, with pecuniary sup- 
port, the interest of evangelical missions and translations of the Holy 
Scriptures in the East Of the Charleston Bible Society he may in 
some respects be called the father. On Monday, the 13th of December, 
1813, he zealously and successfully advocated a motion, the object of 
which was to send the Scriptures, in their native language to the French 
inhabitants of Louisiana, and in the course of the n,ext thirty hours he 
was called to the bosom of his Father and his God, after he had served 
his generation fifty-eight years and eleven months. He died childless, 
with an Estate of about thirty thousand dollars at his disposal. Of this 
he bequeathed a considerable part for the most important and benficent 
usues Besides a large legacy left to the Church of which he was pastor 
to be hereafter particularized, Dr. Keith bequeathed about five thou- 
sanii dollars to the general assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the 
United States of !America. To each child nam.ed after himself or either 
ot his three wives (about twenty in number,) he bequeathed a copy of 
Woodward's edition of Dr. Scott's Commentary on the Bible. The 
Church directed a monument to be erected to his memory in the Circu- 
lar Church, with the following inscription : 

Sacred to the memory of 

The Eevd. Isaac S. Keith, D. D., 

for 25 years a beloved co-pastor of this Church, from 

which he was suddenly removed, by death, on the 

fourteenth of December, 1813, in the 

fifty-ninth year of his age. 

He was 

a learned, amiable, and successful minister 

of the Gospel of Jesus Christ : 

In prayer, copious and fervent ; 

in doctrine, clear and evangalical ; 

in exhortation, warm, affectionate, and persuasive 

In his pastoral intercourse, 

and in his private and public deportment, 

he adorned the doctrine 

of his Lord and Saviour. 

His charity to the poor, 

his hospitality to the stranger, 

his patronage to the meritorious, 

his munificence to the Church, 

his suavity of manners and unwearied activity 

in the cause of humanity and religion, 

conspired to render hi m 
dear to his people and society at large. 

His mourning congregation, 

in testimony of his merit and their affection, 

erect this monument. 

[This monument was on the eastern wall of the Church, to the right 
of the pulpit as one would approach it, while the Church was still 
standingj 
13 



194 DR. KKITH. [1810-1820. 

Dr. Keith published several sermons and addresses deliver- 
ed on special occasions during his life, which, with a few 
others and the sermon occasioned by his death, which was 
preached by the Rev. Andrew Flinn, D. D., a brief biograph- 
ical notice of him, and a selection from his correspondence 
were published in 1816, making an 8vo volume of 448 pages. 

" The personal appearance of Dr. Keith," says the Rev. 
Edward Palmer, who was one of the congregation to the day 
of the Dr's lamented death, "'was imposing. Large in stat- 
ure, dignified in manner, grave in aspect and speech, it was 
impossible not to feel that you were in the presence of a much 
more than ordinary man. But, notwithstanding his appear- 
ance and manner were such as to repel everything like frivolity, 
he was so courteous and affable as to invite the confidence of 
the most timid child. Indeed, the affectionate freedom with 
which the young of his numerous flock actually approached 
him, showed how easy of access he really was. His example 
was in beautiful keeping with his religious profession — it was 
an epistle of Christ known and read of all men." "As a man, 
as a Christian and as minister of the Lord Jesus," says Dr. 
Flinn, he was deservidly fevered, respected and belm>ed. Ven- 
erable and grave in his aspect, his presence forbade the rude 
approach of impertinence. To a stranger, his first appearance 
seemed rather distant and severe ; but he soon found that 
in the presence of dignity, it was dignity softened and em- 
bellished with every benign and generous affection. An 
affectionate husband, a humane master, an obliging neighbor, 
and a distinguished philanthrophist. His heart and his house 
were open to the stra,np-er and his purse to the indigent. As 
a disciple of Jesus Christ, this amiable man was humble, 
watchful AVid, devout. But it was from the walls of Zion that 
he shed the brightest glory o*" the gospel. Of his sermons, 
Jesus was the centre and the sum. They were distinguished 
for their manly sense, and simplicity of style, evangelical piety 
and searching truth."* 

" On the 22cl of August, 1814, the Eev Benjamin Morgan Palmer, A. 
M.,was elected co-pastor with Dr. Hollingshead, in the place of the Rev. 
Dr. Keith. He had served the Church the preceding seven months, in 
the capacity of a temporary supply, and for ten years anterior to that 
temporary appointment, had been settled in Beaufort, S. C, as pastor 

*The Charleston Bible Society is said to have been set on foot, at the 
stiggestion and by the eftorts of Dr. Keith. 



1810-1820.] DR. B. M. PALMER. 195 

of the Congregational Church in tliat plapc. He was the fourth of the 
sixteen children of Mr Job Palmer, who had been a worthy member 
of the Independent Ctiurch in Charleston, for the preceding forty-two 
years. He was also the grandson of the Rev Samuel Palmer, who for 
forty years immediately prior to the year 1775, in which he died, had 
been only minister, and for the greater part of the period the only 
physician of Falmouth in Barnstable county, Massachusetts, where he 
was much beloved and respected. The Revd. Mr. B. M. Palmer spent 
the summerof 1810, in the Northern States, for the benefit of his health, 
and part of it at Falmouth. This une.x;pected visit, from the distance of 
a thousand miles, of a clerical grandson of their former beloved pastor, 
was highly gratifying to the Oongretional Church of that place. They, 
particularly the gray-headed veterans in that county of longevity, 
received him with transports of joy. Their then minister, the Rev. 
Mr. Lincoln, after closing the religious services of the evening, invited 
his clerical brother Palmer, just arrived, and then attending as a hearer, 
to address the congregation. Mr. Palmer accepted this invitation, in- 
tending to speak only for a few minutes ; but, animated from the con- 
sideration of his being in the vicinity of the bones of his ancestors, and 
of his standing in the place of his grandfather, and speaking to a con- 
gregation among whom his father had been born, and his father's father 
laboured as a gospel minister for forty years, he was insensibly urged 
by his feelings to continue his extemporaneous address for nearly an 
hour, to the great satisfaction of his hearers, who rejoiced that their 
pastor, though he had ceased from his labours, for thirty-five years, still 
lived in the person of his grandson, devoted to the same profession, in 
the exercise of which his venerable ancestor had been so useful to them. 
Mr. Benjamin M Palmer was born in Philadelphia, in about two weeks 
after his parents had arrived there, in the character of exiles, driven 
from Charleston, in the year 1781, by the then British paramount power 
in South Carolina. On the termination of the revolutionary war the 
wh9le family returned to Charleston Mr. B. M. Palmer's classical 
education commenced in Charleston college, when it was under the 
superintendence of the Rt. Revd. Bishop Smith. In the year 1797, he 
was removed to Princeton college, when the Rev. Dr. Samuel S. Smith 
presided over the institution There, in 1800, he was admitted to the 
degree of A. B. This extensive course of education was not entered 
upon without serious and deliberate consultation. The buddings of 
Mr Palmer's genius inspired hopes that he might easily be made a 
scholar. His correct, orderly habits, and early religious impressions, 
pointed him out as a suitable person to be educated with a view to 
the ministry ; but there were difficulties in the way. The times were 
hard— money scarce —education dear— his father's family large In this 
crisis the Revd. Dr. Keith interposed with his usual ardour in doing 
good, and urged with all his energies of persuasion that the promising 
yonth should be put forward in a collegiate course of studies, and he 
seconded his arguments with more than advice. A generous friend- 
ship between the parties was thus commenced. It was excited on one 
side by gratitude, and fanned into flanie on the other by frequently 
repeated acts of disinterested benevolence. The attention of the Church 
on their late bereavement, by the the much lamented dfeath of Dr. 
Keith, was naturally turned towards Mr. Palmer, as being known to 
them, from his infancy, to be distinguished for corre3t conduct, respec- 
table for his' genius and literary attainments, for his fervent piety, and 
in his adult years for the distinguished excellence of his compositions 



196 DE. HOLLINGSHEAD. [1810-1820. 

for the pnlpit. With the exception of the Kev. Josiah Smith, he was 
the only Carolinian that had ever been offered as a pastor for their 
Church, though it had been constituted above one hundred and twenty 
years. In addition to these strong recommendations, he was known to 
have possessed the fullest confidence of their lately deceased beloved 
pastor, and also his highest esteem and applause as an able, faithful, 
and accomplished preacher. The circumstances of the case were par- 
ticular, and seemed to point out that the hand of God was in the matter. 
Mr. Palmer's congregation in Beaufort, was so small as to be unequal to 
his comfortable support. His friend. Dr. Keith, had long urged him to 
leave that place and come to Charleston, and open school there for his 
immediate support (which he did for a time) till Providence opened 
another door for the regular exercise of his ministerial functions ; in 
the meantime, having it in view to supply a vacant Presbyterian 
Church, on John's island, with preaching every Sabbath during the 
winter months. On the 15th of November, 1813, exactly twenty-nine 
days before his death. Dr. Keith wrote to Mr. Palmer, just recovering 
from distressing sickness, as follows : " Be assured, my friend, that I 
have felt much for you, not only on account of your bodily sufferings, 
but also of your difficult situation and discouraging prospects in Beau- 
fort. It seems as if a variety of circumstances were combining to indi- 
cate that your residence cannot be much longer continued in Beaufort, 
as without a considerate change, not perhaps to be soon expected in the 
present state of our country, the means of supporting your family are 
likely to fail you. But what shall you do? Or whither shall you go? 
I wish I could tell. Perhaps the finger of Providence will point out to you 
when and. how you are to be next employed; and perhaps a visit to Charles- 
ton, and you spending some time here, as soon as you can conviently 
come, may be the means of placing you on a ground a little higher than 
that on which you now stand, so that you may be able to see a little 
further and more clearly around you." 

Mr Palmer accordingly came to Charleston and after much serious 
consultation and anxious mental conflict, assented to the recommenda- 
tion of his friend — issued proposal-* for opening a school, and on the 
forenoon of the 14th of December, 1813, sent off to his Church in Beau- 
fort, a letter of resignation of its pastorship. In two hours alter this 
was done, Dr. Keith was struck with apoplexy, and in seven hours 
more breathed his last." 

History of the Circular Church, p. 7. 

William Hollingshead was born of respectable parents in 
Philadelphia, October 8, 1748. His father, William Hollings- 
head, who was considerably distinguished in civil life at the 
commencement of the Revolution, was the j'oungest son, who 
lived to manhood, of Daniel Hollingshead, who came from 
Lancashire, England, to Barbadoes, early in the eighteenth 
century, and was married to Miss Hazell, the daughter of a 
wealthy sugar planter on the Island, and some time after 
came to New Jersey and settled in the neighborhood of New 
Brunswick. The subject of this sketch was tiif eldest of 
fifteen children. He discovered a serious disposition from 
early childhood, and at the age of fifteen became a comniu- 



1810-1820.1 DR. HOLLINGSHEAD. 197 

nicant in the Church. He was graduated at the University 
of Pennsylvania in 1770. He wa.s licensed to preach by the 
Presytery of Philadelphia in 1772; and was ordained and 
installed pastor of the Presbyterian Church in Fairfield, N. J., 
the next year. Here he was greatly esteemed, and enjoyed a 
high degree of popularity throughout the whole region ; and 
he did not hesitate to say, in the latter part of his life, that he 
had never known any happier years than those which he 
spent in his connection with this congregation. 

In the year 1783, he accepted a call from the Independent 
Congregational Church in Charleston, South Carolina — a call 
from the same Church having been sent to him the preceding 
year, but not accepted on account of some informality. Here, 
also, he was received with great favor ; and soon acquired an 
extensive influence, both as a man and a minister. In 1788, 
the Rev. Isaac Keith, who had been previously settled over 
the Presbyterian Church in Alexandria, D. C , was associated 
with him in the pastoral office; though there were two places 
of worship belonging to the congregation in which the two 
pastors alternately officiated. 

In 1793, Mr. Hollingshead was honored with the degree of 
Doctor of Divinity from the College of New Jersey. 

Dr. Hoiliiigshead continued in the active discharge of his 
duties till March, 18 15, when he suddenly lost, in a great 
measure, his power of recollection, while engaged in the 
public service of the Sabbath. In connection with this, he 
suiifered great depres.sion of spirits ; and, early in the sum- 
mer, traveled into the Northern States, in the hope that his 
malady might yield to rest and relaxation. He returned 
home in December following without having experienced any 
essential relief; and from that time he continued in a low and 
declining state, until the 26th of January, 1817, when he 
closed his earthly career, aged sixty-eight years and three 
months. 

Dr. Hollingshead published a sermon on the new meeting 
house, 1787; a sermon on the advantages of public worship, 
1794; a sermon ciimmemoraiive of General Moultrie, 1805. 

He was married to a sister of the Rev. Daniel M'Calla, but 
they had no children. 

" In stature," says the Rev. William States Lee, who was 
reared under Dr. Hollingshead's pastoral care, '' he was not 
much above medium height ; but was remarkably dignified in 



198 DK. HOLLINGSHEAD. [1810-1820. 

his deportment. His features were very regular and attractive; 
his manners combined the apparently opposite qualities of 
great refinement and Christian simplicity. So great was his 
influence among the people of his charge during the first 
years of his ministry in Charleston, and so marked was their 
attachment to him, that he was tauntingly spoken of by many 
in other denominations as " the white meetingers' Saviour." 
He maintained a distinguished reputation for biblical knowl- 
edge, piety, and eloquence, to the close of life. His manner 
in the pulpit was earnest and impressive. He spoke like one 
who felt deeply his responsibility to God, who truly estimated 
the value of the soul, and whose ardent love to God and. man 
cause him to forget himself in his efforts to advance the inter- 
ests of Christ's Kingdom. 

In his intercourse with his fellow-men he was urbane and 
courteous. Never forgetting what was due to his office, and 
what was reasonably expected of him as a Christian and a 
Christian minister, his cheerfulness, and mildness, and un- 
affected -interest in the welfare of all, rendered his character 
peculiarly attractive, and his company exceedingly welcome 
to persons of all ages. His pastoral intercourse was charac- 
terized by tenderness and fidelity. Prepared at all times to 
advise, direct, commend, and even censure, if need be, in a 
manner peculiarly his own, he could check the presumptuous 
without repelling them, and encourage the timid or despond- 
ing without bringing to their view any false ground of de- 
pendence. Christ and Him crucified, the sinner's hope, the 
Christian's example and life, was the theme that seemed ever 
present to his mind, both in public and in private. 

The following inscription to his memory was to be found 
on a mural monument on the eastern wall of the Church (pre- 
vious to the conflagration of 1861), to the left of the pulpit as 
one should approach it : 

Sacred to the memory 

of the 

Rev. William HolIingshead, D. D. 

This venerable servant of God 

Was the Senior Pastor 

Of the Independent Church, in this City, 

Nearly one-third of a century. 

After a long and afflicting illness, 

Sustained with the most pious resignation. 

He was called to the joy of his Lord, 

On the 26th day of January, A. D. 1817, 

In the 68th year of his age. 



1810-1820.] TWO Places of" worship. 199 

He was blessed with a meek 

And gentle spirit, 

Which peculiarly qualified him 

To be a teacher of the benevolent doctrines 

Of his Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. 

He was fervent in prayer, 

Earnest and eloquent in his public discourses, 

And eminently persuasive and consoling, 

In his pastoral visits to the sick 

And the afflicted. 

His active beneficence, ardent piety. 

His humility, blended with mild dignity, 

And his faithful labors in the ministry. 

Greatly endeared him to his own people, 

And procured him the respect of others. 



His Congregation, deeply sensible of his great worth. 

And of their severe loss, 

Erect this monument to the memory 

Of their beloved Pastor. 

In the year 1814, a few moaths only having elapsed since 
the death of Dr. iCeith, the church called Mr. Palmer to 
become their pastor as colleague with Dr. Hollingshead. 
The next year he was honored with the title of D. D. by 
the College of South Carolina. During the decade of which 
we now .=peak there were published of his the following ser- 
mons : Gratitude and Penitence recommended from the 
united consideration of national judgments; a Sermon de- 
livered on a day appointed for humiliation, thanksgiving and 
prayer in Charleston, 1814; the Signs of the Times discussed 
and improved ; two Sermons delivered in the Independent 
Church, Charleston, 1816 ; a charge at the ordination of 
Rev. Jonas King and Re'v. Alfred Wright, the former when 
he was ordained as City Missionary in Charleston, among 
the seamen and others ; the latter as a Missionary to the 
Choctaw Indians in 18 19; a Sermon on the Anniversary of 
the Sabbath School Association in Charleston, 1819. 

It will be remembered that this church, though incorpo- 
rated as one body, consisted of two congregations, meeting 
in two distinct places of worship, the house popularly known 
as the Circular Church, in Meeting street, and that known as 
the Archd lie Street Church; that they were served by two 
associate or colleague pastors who officiated in the respec- 
tive churches alternately, morning and evening. Early in 
the spring of 18 15, the Rev. Anthony Foster, who had been 



200 EEV. MR. FORSTEE. [1810-1820. 

preaching for some short time in the Independent Church at 
Wappetaw, in the First Presbyterian Church, Charleston, and 
the Church on John's Island, was engaged as a temporary 
supply in the room of Dr. Hollingshead, whose age and infir- 
mities forbade the expectation that he would ever be able to 
resume his labors. In the autumn of this year he was at- 
tacked with hemorrhage of the lungs and did not resume his 
labors till sometime in the Spring of 1816. In«January of 
the next year, as we have seen. Dr. Hollingshead died. 

Mr. Foster was born in the County of Brunswick, in North 
Carolina, January i ith, 1785. His father dying when he was 
yet a child, his education was provided for by his guardian, 
who sent him and his brother to the University of North 
Carolina where they entered the preparatory school, he being 
at this time but twelve years of age. He resided at this insti- 
tution for five years and at the advice of friends commenced 
the study of law. But he was found to be poring over 
volumes of theology which chance threw in his way, rather 
than perusing Blackstone or Coke. His health failing, 
through this too sedentary life, under the advice of friends he 
accepted an Ensign's commission in the army, bearing date 
March, 1804. He was stationed on the Western frontier of 
Georgia, was promoted to a Lieutenancy and had the reputa- 
tion of a brave, correct and active officer until October, 1806, 
when he resigned and retired from the service. He was then 
for a season employed in the United States Factory estab- 
lished at the fort where he had been stationed', and then 
returned to his legal studies at Milledgeville. After some 
time thus spent he was attacked with a severe illness from 
which he never fully recovered. He then returned to Noith 
Carolina and became private secretary to General B. Smith, 
his former guardian, who was at that time, 1810, Governor of 
the State. ■ Here his desire returned to dedicate himself to 
the preaching of the Gospel. With this view he became as- 
sistnnt teacher in the Raleigh Academy, under the Rev. Dr. 
McPheeters, who was its principal, and at the same time 
pastor of the Presbyterian Church in Raleigh. Early in 1813 
he was licensed as a preacher by Orange Presbytery, and till 
November of that year officiated as a voluntary Missionary 
in various parts of South Carolina and Georgia. He was 
married in December, 1813, to Miss Altona H. Gales, 
daughter of Mr. Joseph Gales, of Raleigh, and sister of Mr. 



1810-1820.] HISTORY OF THE SEPARATION. 201 

Gales, afterwards of Washington City. She was born in 
Altona, in Holstein, and her full name was Altona Holstein 
Gales. 

Mr. Forster was a man of popular manners and very con- 
siderable talent. So far as his theological education was 
concerned, it had been in the Calvanistic faith, and the creeds 
and discipline of the Presbyterian Church he must have 
assented icf, or he cpuld not have been authorized by it to 
preach the Gospel. But he could not have been a thorough 
and well-read theologian. And when he came under the 
personal influence of a Unitarian friend, in the City of Charles- 
ton, he was led to adopt, more or less, his opinions, and to 
favor doctrines which are subversive of the Gospel. 

The following history of these ever-to-be-lamented events 
is compiled from the narrative of a committee appointed July 
14th, 1817, "to collect, collate and submit a' statement of 
the causes which led to a separation of this congregation." 

" For a time," say thi.s committee, " his preaching and con- 
duct won greatly upon his hearers, while his pecuniary cir- 
cumstances awakened their sympathy. He was engaged for 
the church at the small annual stipend of ^1,140, which was 
made thus narrow by the necessity of continuing a large por- 
tion of the salary of Dr, Hollingshead. His pecuniary 
necessities were relieved from private sources. But the 
necessities of Dr. Hollingshead being soon after provided for 
by the Society for the Relief of Disabled Ministers, Mr. 
Forster had placed at his disposal the annual sum of ^2,140. 
The death of Dr. H. created a vacancy which the existing 
engagement with Mr. F. could not be construed to embrace. 
It was, however, no less necessary that some person should 
officiate as a temporaty stipply, on the same terms as before 
stated. The members and supporters gave another evidence 
of respect for Mr. F. by a unanimous election of him to fill 
this new vacancy. The second contract with Mr. F. was 
of the ordinary duration, and so prevalent was the opinion 
that he would succeed as co-pastor, that the course indicated 
by the Constitution, and similarly pursued on similar occa- 
sions, was not resorted to. It was during this latter en- 
gagement that some of his discourses awakened apprehensions 
of the unsoundness of his principles in the minds of the most 
intelligent and discerning members of the congregation. 
These impressions were received with caution and uttered 



202 HISTORY CONTINUED. [1810-1820. 

with hesitation. Such was the deh'cacy observed towards 
hiin, and such the confidence of the church in him, that the 
day for the election of co-pastor was already announced and 
not one effort essayed to obtain another candidate. On the 
day appointed for the election, the members and supporters 
of the church were convened. Pursuant to the letter and 
spirit of the Constitution, the members in communion first 
assembled to determine on the expediency of proceedings 
forthwith to elect a co-pastor, an election which they well 
knew, for the causes above stated, must eventuate in favor of 
Mr. Forster. While thus deliberating, two of the members 
stated to their brethren that, to satisfy certain doubts, they 
had waited on and held a personal communication with Mr. 
F., the result of which was a confirmation of those opinions 
which previously existed but in doubt; and further, substan- 
tially declared that the tenets of Mr. Forster were at variance 
with those adopted, and which had uniformly obtained in 
that church; and they sincerely believed that, even if elected, 
he would not subscribe the Constitution and articles of faith. 
This important communication from gentlemen whose vera- 
city was above suspicion, and whose intelligence and zeal 
left no room to suppose the existence of error, awakened the 
most poignant reflections, and became the source of extreme 
embarrassment. Could they imagine that he who had been 
received into the bosom of the Church, in the view of a 
written constitution, embracing those great doctrinal points 
or articles of faith which had been interwoven with its very 
existence ; which had been recently reviewed and solemnly 
confirmed, and with which every member of the congregation 
was supposed to be conversant ? Could he have been ignorant 
at the moment of his acceptance of so important and respon- 
sible a charge, that such was their constitution, such their 
faith ? They were aware that it was impossible. Even 
ignorance, under such circumstances, was culpable and with- 
out the pos,sibility of extenuation. Could he, then, possess 
ing principles hostile to both, voluntarily become their 
spiritual guide, without intending secretly to sap the most 
venerable and beautiful pillars of the Institution? 

Mr. F had been received into the Church in the true spirit 
of Christian :)hilanthropy. It had in advance, and while he 
was yet a stranger, bestowed its confidence and affection. 
Could he, in return, retain thosa principles lockid up in his 



]810-18.'20.] HISTORY CONTINUED. 203 

own bosom until his increasing popularity should awaken 
the spirit of discord and erect this triumph on the divisions 
of the church? Or did he imagine their concealment for* a 
time essential to the great object of effecting a gradual change, 
and having once set afloat the immutable principles of the 
church on the tempestuous ocean of theological speculation, 
deign graciously to become their pilot, and guide them, by 
the polar Star of his opinions, to a haven of more security? 

Whatever suggestion this intelligence gave birth to, con- 
strained them either to impute to him a conduct so wholly 
opposite to the sacred character he sustamed — to that 
correct and honorable sentiment which must ever constitute 
and give dignity to that character — or to regard with an eye 
of suspicion a communication which, in the o|)inion of several, 
was directly confirmed by his own discourses. 

On a review of this conduct the mind intuitively pauses, 
and the question is irresistibly obtruded, was it in human 
ingenuity to devise a measure more liberal, ingenuous and 
respectful, than to '' instruct the deacons of the church to 
inquire and ascertain from Mr. Forster, whether, if elected, 
he would subscribe the constitution and articles of faith?" 
The only known candidate was represented as opposed to 
that constitution, by virtue of which he was to be elected, and 
to that faith which the church required him to enforce by 
precept and illustrate by example. An inquiry into the fact 
was indispensable, because enjoined by the most sacred duty, 
and a postponement of the election absolutely necessary, be- 
cause an election would have been nugatory and void. To 
whom, then, could an inquiry, so peculiar in its character and 
consequences, have been so properly committed, as to the 
responsible and solemnly recognized . officers of the church, 
the deacons. Having adopted these measures, the supporters 
were called in, and the chairman announced to them, that the 
members in communion deemed it inexpedient to proceed at 
that meeting to an election for a co-pastor. A motion was 
then made by one of the supporters, that the church should 
pursue its usual course on such occasions, and that, as here- 
tofore, a committee be appointed to inquire for and report the 
names of suitable clergymen as candidates for the office of 
co-pastor, which having been concurred in, the meeting ad- 
journed. 

Availing themselves of the earliest moment, the deacons ad- 



204 HISTORY CONTINUED. [1810-1820. 

dressed a respectful letter to Mr. Forster, to which they 
received an answer of a character so evasive, that they would 
have been fully justified in not holding any further communi- 
cation with him, and in reporting these proceedings to the 
church ; but a spirit of forbearance prevailed, and a second 
was addressed. The result mortified the hopes of all to whom 
the peace of the church was dear. The committee appointed 
to inquire for a suitable candidate, also wrote to Mr. F., en- 
closing a copy of the constitution, and requested to be in- 
formed whether he would become a candidate under its 
provisions. His answer to this communication referred to his 
correspondence with the deacons, from which even the faintest 
ray of information on those essential points sought after by 
the church, could not be elicited. 

A few days subsequent to the occurrences just developed 
he addressed a letter (o Mr. Thos. Jones, the venerable chair- 
man of the church, in which he expatiated at length on the 
blasphemy of creeds, and commenced with acrimony on those 
who subscribed to them, alluding particularly to the members 
of the church. Nor did he wait the effect this last effort was 
calculated to produce on the minds of the congregation, bvt 
gave it to the public in pimphlet form. To temporize was to 
submit — replication involving doubt was inadmissible ; under 
such circumstances even forbearance ceased to be a virtue. 
The adherents to the constitution and faith of the church were 
importunately required to act, and at a numerous meeting of 
the members and supporters immediately subsequent, the 
connection between the church and Mr. F. was solemnly dis- 
solved. Hence arose that division which eventuated in the 
separation of the congregation and of the two churches. That 
in Archdale Street was yielded to the advocates of Mr. F., 
that in Meeting Street to those who adhered to the constitution 
and faith of the church. 

For the motives which induced a unanimous vote on the 
question of separation, the views which governed the opposite 
party, and for embodying much valuable information relative 
to this interesting occurrence, your committee take the liberty 
of embracing in their report a report of a committee who were 
appointed to carry into effect and arrange the several matters 
growing out of a division of the churches, and which was 
made to a select meeting of the friends and adherents to the 
Constitution, as follows: 



1810-1820.] HISTORY CONTINUED. 205 

" This meeting has been solicited by the committee who 
consider themselves the representatives of the friends and 
adherents of the constitution of the church. The motives are 
to have a free conference on the state of the church, without 
being controlled by the presence of those who, unhappily for 
the church, have organized a violent opposition to its rules 
and constitution. The present state of this church is beyond 
all example in its past history critical and ominous. 

A large portion of worshipers have leagued with a floating 
mass composed of persons who claim to have a voice, but 
whose voices, until now, have not been heard in the concerns 
of the church, and who, neither by attendance on worship, 
nor by contributing to its support, have ever manifested any 
extraordinary interest. It is not to be disguised that the 
party at present opposed to the constitution of the church is 
composed of various materials and that they are influenced 
by various motives. 'A portion of them, and not a small por- 
tion, have sprung from a party heretofore subsisting on the 
lifetime of our late venerable pastors. Others are influenced 
by personal attachments to Mr. F. and others by religious 
opinions, conforming to those he is supposed to possess and 
which have decided this church to withdraw from him their 
support. 

Others there may be who, partaking of none of those 
motives, have been driven by that wayward spirit of opposi- 
tion too often found among men, and others drawn in by the 
personal influence of the zealous. Various as may be the 
motives of this party tiiere is one point in which they all 
agree, either to divide these churches or to upturn them from 
their foundations. They were to have taken the most effec- 
tual means of securing united counsels and of acting with 
combined force on these their favorite points. They have not 
left the men of their party to that freedom of will which 
seeks the line of prudence in free and common discussion at 
a fair church meeting, but they meet separate and apart, hear 
arguments on one side only, and resolve before -hand what 
they will do, before they meet their other brethren of the 
church. 

To deliberate under such circumstances is nugatory. They 
come not to deliberate, but to act. This was sufficiently 
manifested at the last church meeting, which must be fresh in 
every one's recollections. The result of that meeting showed 



206 HISTORY CONTINUED. [1810-1820. 

what extremities the affairs of this church are fast ap- 
proaching. 

Your committee felt deeply the importance of the charge 
and the weight of responsibility under which they acted. 
They could not but perceive that what might be done was 
pregnant with great effects on this church and on posterity; 
that it was to be reviewed by their cotemporaries and looked 
back to by posterity with censure or approbation. They felt 
themselves bound, therefore, to suppress theirpassion or indig- 
nation at what had passed, and taking a long view of the 
actual state of the church, from whatever cause it had arisen, 
concert such measures as promised to diminish, if not eradi- 
cate present evils, and leave an open door of hope for more 
prosperity and harmony in future. It is manifest that this 
could be done only by union or disunion ; that is by again 
harmonizing present parties under the prfesent constitution of 
the church, or by separating the congregation into the two 
distinct churche.s, so that each might be organized by itself, 
without interfering with one another. It is needless to tell 
this meeting how more than hopeless, how utttrly imprac- 
ticable it was to attempt the first. Independently of all other 
considerations, the party in opposition had so completely 
identified their cause with that of Mr. Forster that nothing 
short of his being brought in as co-pastor of both churches, 
could have met their concurrence. 

It is superfluous to state, how perfectly repugnant this 
would be to those whom we represented. Measures 
had gone too far on both sides fo"r Mr. F., ever to have be- 
come a bond of union. To sit again under the ministry of a 
man, not only more than suspected of being erroneous in 
the fdith, but who, with a most unsparing hand had lavished 
grossest abuse upon the living signers of the constitution of 
the Church, and the memory of those who had died in the 
faith of it, was abhorrent to every principle. 

To agree to differ, was the only alternative, or to wage a 
war of doubtful issue. When your committee say, of doubtful 
issue, they mean to say doubtful on which side victory would 
be found. But in one respect this issue is not at all doubtful, 
for let the victory settle where it might, it would be a grievous 
or disastrous victory, one to be bewailed by victors and van- 
quished. 

If the friends of the constitution maintained the ascendency, 



1810-1820.] HISTORY CONTINUED. 207 

they would maintain their favorite constitution, it is true, 
but they would empty both Churches of a very large number 
of effective member.s. These would go away and rear a hostile 
Church, the germ of endless animosity, .leaving this Church 
reduced, wounded and bleeding in every part. It is no trifling 
consideration too, that this state of things would rear the 
demon of discord in the bosom of private families. How 
many cases are there, where the nearest connection, not ex- 
cepting husband and wife, differ from one another. In the 
best issue therefore to which the contest might or could be 
brought, we should have much to lament and regret as indi- 
viduals — and much as a Church. How deeply would it suffer 
in its friends and in its vital interests, it is impossible to fore- 
tell. It is even to be apprehended that it might lose, not 
only the whole body of the vanquihed party, but that others 
either from personal connection with them or from uneasines.'; 
of mind, would seek peace in the bosom of some other 
Chury:hes. Many years at least must roll away, perhaps the 
present generation must pass, before the Church would re- 
cover. If our principal fears and alarms are from the hazzard 
of organizing a Socinian Church in this city ,»that event would 
be at least as certain in the issue we are now contemplating, 
as in any other that might occur. Opposition is sonictimes 
the parent, but always the nurse of Sectarianism. The pas- 
sions of men always mingle with their principles, whether 
political or religious, and never fail to push those principles 
further, and give them more activity and effect than they 
would ever have attained' by their own accord. Men may, 
through spite and opposition, become rooted and confirmed, 
where, if left to their cool and dispassionate judgment, they 
would have forsaken the soil into which they had become 
transplanted in the first moments of schism. It is very cer- 
tain that a great many of the present adherents of Mr. Forster 
profess to disbelieve the facts of his being of Arian or Socin- 
ian principles, and some have declared that if it turn out 
otherwise, they will forsake him. How many would adhere 
to him after his avowal of these principles, and whether there 
would be a number sufficient to maintain a distinct church, 
it is difficult to say. But of one thing we may be certain, 
that the number will be greater when the establishment is 
made through the medium of angry passions, than when it 
springs from the unaided force of mere opinion. 



208 HISTORY CONTINUED. [1810-1820. 

If the character and views of Mr. Forster are not greatly- 
mistaken, he will be more governed by the necessity of a 
parochial establishment than by his. zeal for revolutionizing 
the theological opinions of tiie public ; and if he finds, as 
we trust the truth is, that the favorers of those opinions are 
comparatively few, the opinions will be submerged, and we 
shall hear nothing of them. But let us for a moment reverse 
the scene and suppose the possible case, that the other party 
shall obtain a constitutional majority, and be proud in pos- 
session of a complete victory. Then they will have it in 
their power to alter the whole constitution — to expunge all 
articles of faith, to abolish everything that distinguishes this 
Church from any other, and to bring to the communiontable 
any man of any sect who merely professes to believe the Scrip- 
tures. It cannot be doubted that the principles avowed and pub- 
lished by Mr. Forster^o most decidedly that whole length. His 
publication is their text-book, and what would be the result 
of this? It must drive our present pastor out of the pulpit, 
the body of the communicants and a large portion of the 
supporters from the church forever, and both buildings become 
the temple of ei^ery sect, as mixed and heterogenous as the 
audience of a theatre. Should the heat of the triumphant 
party abate a little when the paroxysm of triumph is over, 
they might deign to allow us to collect in the Archdale Street 
Church. The qualified negative of the body of the com- 
municants, that most valuable protecting principle, would 
probably be abolished in both churches; for the party possess 
great hostility to it. Indeed, so much darkness and horror 
surround the church in this event of things that it is equally 
difficult and painful to anticipate the result. If this result 
should not be the worst that could occur, it would not be 
for the want of mischievous passion to work the engine of 
destruction. And if the future situation of the constitutional 
worshippers should be better than our fears, they must enjoy 
it under the humiliating sense that they owe it to the 
clemency and concession of the dominant party. There is a 
third result to which the contest might be brought, perhaps 
full as probable, and not less disastrous in its consequences 
than either that has been contemplated. 

Our opposers might obtain a decided majority at the church 
meeting, though not quite a majority of all the voting mem- 
bers of the church. To what extremity they would carry 



1810-1820.] RESULT REACHED. 209 

their power under the passion now excited and the aggrava- 
tions that would attend the struggle it is difficult to say and 
painful to anticipate. They would probably leave nothing 
undone that is constitutionally in the power of a majority to 
do, calculated to draw the minority into terms of their pre- 
scribing. But as men, when possessed of power and strongs 
ly excited do not always measure their steps by the rules of 
legitimate right, they might seize one or the other of the 
churches for their favorite minister, and leave us to contest 
the question of right in the courts of law. They might flatter 
themselves that we' would submit to almost anything, rather 
than embrace a long contested, and acrimonious and distract- 
ing litigation, or that our ranks would become thinned while 
the contest lasted, while they would be in possession, and not 
without the chances of a sufficient number of individuals join- 
ing their party, for the sake of putting an end to so painful 
and unprofitable a controversy. In the meantime the shep- 
herd might be drawn away and the flock scattered — the foun- 
dations of the ancient and venerable church torn up — the 
aged worshipper driven from the sanctuary and left to mourn 
between the porch and altar. 

Your committee could not contemplate either of these 
results with minds prepared to embrace them. Neither re- 
sentment, nor indignation, nor zeal for victory, nor. any nor 
all personal considerations could stimulate them to put so 
much to hazard. They had a meeting by themselves prior to 
the joinfmeeting, and taking a calm and solemn view of the 
state of things, they resolved upon the expedient of dividing 
the congregation, if they should find the party ready to go 
into the measure on proper principles. They saw that some 
difficulties in detail might occur, out they were not of such a 
nature, but they might not be adjusted either by previous 
arrangement or by individual negotiations." 

The result that was reached at last was that the two 
churches or congregations of Archdale and Meeting Streets 
should be separated wholly, and be thereafter established as 
independent churches with power to elect their own Pastors, 
and that the church in Meeting Street should be liable for 
two-thirds and that in Archdale Street for one-third of the 
church debt, which liability of Archdale Street Church should 
be a condition in the deed of conveyance of said church. 
After the separation some 89 male members were found 
14 



210 REV. ANTHONY FOESTBR. [1810-1820. 

adhering to the Circular Church, and 63 to the Archdale 
Street Church. A number of the members, especially female 
members, returned to the Circular Church and some left both 
churches for other churches of the Presbyterian faith or of 
other denominations that had not been involved in this 
strife. 

Mr. Forster had addressed a letter to the Presbytery of 
Harmony, covering his dismission from the Presbytery of 
Orange to put himself under the care of that Presbytery. 
This letter came before Presbytery on the 28th of October, 
1814. Presbytery appointed him as a supply to the churches 
of Charleston and Beaufort Districts and appointed a meeting 
for his ordination. This was held on the igth of November, 
1814, and on the next day his ordination as an Evangelist 
took place in the Second Presbyterian Church in the city of 
Charleston, Dr. Leiand preaching the sermon from i Tim. iv. 
16: "Take heed to thyself and to thy doctrine; continue in 
them, for in so doing thou shalt both save thyself and them 
that hear thee," Mr. Forster's name appears on the minutes 
of Presbytery until April 30th, 18 17. In a letter to the Mod- 
erator dated April 29, 1815, he announced his declination of 
its jurisdiction on the ground of "the inconsistency" of the 
Presbyterian "system of Church government with our civil 
institutions — with our habits and our mode of thinking on 
other subjects; its establishment of a tribunal, by whose de- 
cisions the exercise of private judgment is fettered, and by 
which a difference of opinion might be tested as involving as 
much of a crime as a violation of moral duty," little remem- 
bering that, "What think you of Christ?" was the searching 
question of our Saviour, the answer to which involved the 
moral character and eternal destinies of man. In November 
of the same year the following overture was made to the 
Synod of South Carolina and Georgia for their decision : 
"What shall be done in a case when a man places himself 
under the care of Presbytery, professed our doctrines and 
consents to our Government, receives ordination, and thus 
becomes a member, afterward renounces our government, 
rejects our doctrines, preaches heresy and demands a regular 
dismission ?" The Synod directed that the Presbytery should 
"proceed with such persons as directed and authorized by the 
Book of Discipline." The final action of the Presbytery of 
Harmony at Columbia, April 30th, 1817, was as follows : 



lSlO-1820.] SBV. ANTHONY FORSTEE. 211 

"Whekeas, Rev. Anthony Forster having at our last Spring 
session, brought forward and submitted to Presbytery a 
written document in which he declined the authority of the 
Presbyterian Church, in consequence of conscientious scru- 
ples as to the scriptural authority of its discipline, and where- 
as he voluntarily declined availing himself of whatever rights 
and advantages he considered himself entitled to from said 
declinature for some time. It is therefore hereby 

Resolved, That the said Anthony Forster be and he is here- 
by dismissed from all connection with the Presbyterian 
Church in the United States of America, and that his name 
be stricken from the records of this Presbytery as a member 
thereof" MS. Min. Vol. I., p. 259-270. 

During the short period which intervened between the dis- 
continuance of Mr. Forster's connection with the co-ordinate 
churches or church, worshipping in Meeting and Archiiale 
Streets, he preached to crowded auditories which assembled 
in the Hall of the South Carolina Society, drawn thither in 
part by the excitement of this controversy. But when the 
final decision was made, his friends, to whom the possession 
of the church in Archdale Street was accorded, organized 
under the name of . the Second Independent Church in 
Charleston, but which has since been known properly as the 
Unitarian Church. 

Such was the unforeseen result of the device set on foot by 
William Tenneni before the Revolution, to provide increased 
church accommodations for the city of Charleston, involving 
a colleague pastorship and two places of worship, and two 
congregations under one independent ecclesiastical organiza- 
tion. It was during this same decade, 1810-1820, that the 
memorable and open avowal of Unitarianism in the Congre- 
gational Churches in Massachusetts took place. 

Mr. Forster spent the summer and autumn of 1817, while 
the fever was raging so fatally in Charleston, at the North, 
where he was sick in Philadelphia. Returning in December, 
be continued his laborS' most of the winter. The next sum- 
mer was, in like manner, spent at the North in pursuit of 
health. His last sermon was preached on the 7th of March, 
iBrg. He remained with his people till May, 1820, when he 
went with his family to Raleigh, N, C, where, after nine 
months of almost insensible decline, he died on the morning 
of January i8th, 1820. A brother of his, who had no sym- 



•212 WAPPETAW. [1810-3820. 

pathy with his errors, has been long a worthy,. honored and 
useful minister in the Methodist Episcopal Church. A vol- 
ume of Mr. Forster's sermons, with a memoir of his life, was 
published at Raleigh in 1821 ; pp. 335, 8vo. 

The Independent or Congregational Church of Wappe- 
TAW, in Christ Church Parish after the death of Dr. McCalla, 
in April 1809, appears to have remained vacant for some 
time, and dependent upon such casual services as could be 
obtained from neighbouring Clergymen. Near the close of 
the year 1813, they invited the Rev. Anthony Forster, of whom 
we have spoken in the preceding pages, who had, in the early 
part of that year, been licensed by the Presbytery of Orange 
at its meeting in Raleigh, to settle with them as their pastor. 
This invitation he was induced to accept and he removed 
early in January 18 14, with his wife to whom he had been re 
cently married, into the bounds of the congregation to enter 
upon the. dutie.s of this charge. But he discovered the reality 
of his position there to be essentially different from the expec- 
tations he had been led to form, and he sought to recall from 
the congregation his acceptance of their invitation. To this 
request they as.sented. He contiued laboring among 
them till the month of June, when their call was formally 
repeated which he felt it his duty to decline. (Memoirs pre- 
fixed to his works.) How this Church was supplied between 
this and the latter part of the year 1817. is unknown. On 
the 26th of December of this year, Mr. William Perrin, a 
licentiate of the Royalton Association, Vermont, was receiv- 
ed under the care of Harmony Presbytery at their meeting in 
the Second Presbyterian Church, Charleston, when a call from 
the Congregational Church at Wappetaw for his pastoral ser- 
vices was laid before that body, and by them placed in. his hands 
and accepted. At an intermediate session held at Wappetaw 
on the 17th of January 1818, at which Drs. Flinn, Leland and 
Rev. John Cruickshanks were present, Mr. Perrin was ordain- 
ed, Mr. Cruickshank preaching the sermon, and Dr. Flinn pre- 
siding and. giving the charge. Mr. Perrin continued their 
pastor through the remainder of this decade, and we find from 
the first report of the Religious Tract Society of Charleston 
which began its operations in 1815, that 634 Tracts were de- 
livered to Dr. Leland and Rev. Mr. Osborn for distribution 
in Christ Church Parish, so that Mr. Forster and Mr. Perrin 
were probably not the only laborers within the bounds of the 
congregation during the period of which we speak. 



1810-1820.] dorchester. 213 

The Congregational Church of Dorchester and Beech 
•Hill. The Rev. L. D. Parks, the pastor of the Church at 
White Bluff below Savannah, was invited early in tlie decade 
to supply this Church at a salary of ;^6oo for the year. He 
wrote to them from Hagget's Hill, Dec. 26, 181 1, and on the 
20th of May, 1812, accepted their invitation. At the meeting 
of Charleston Association, May nth, 181 3, he reported the 
addition of 7 white and 11 black members to the Church 
since his connection with it, and the whole membership at 15 
whites and 50 blacks. His salary was increased to $700. In 
March 1814, he declined to serve them further, but is prevailed 
on to continue till June 27th. Dec. 13, 1814, he informs the 
Association of his resignation of this charge and of his pres- 
ent employment as a Missionary. The congregation next 
turned their attention to William States Lee, a native of 
Charleston, who was a graduate of Princeton College in 1812, 
and was taken under the care of the Congregational Associa- 
tion of So. Ca. Dec 13th 18 14, and by them licensed as a pro- 
bationer and jireached his first sermon in Bethel Church St. 
Bartholomew's Parish, on Dec 25th of that year. On the 5th 
of June he was called on a salary of ^550, which call he ac- 
cepted and was ordained on the last Sabbath of February 18 16, 
as their pastor. A meeting 0/ the Association was held at 
this Church on the 9th of June 1819 at which Mr. Henry 
White, a graduate of Williams College, Mass., who had been 
licensed as a probationer by the Association on the 13th of 
May, 1818, was ordained. Sine titulo, Dr. Palmer preaching the 
sermon, Mr. Parks offering the ordination prayer, and Mr. 
Lee delivering the charge. On the 12th of March, 1817, the 
Congregation resolved to offer for sale 50 and 45 acres of 
land extending from the road to the river. In January, 1818, 
they took measures for the erection of a parsonage. 

The Independent Presbyterian Church of Stony Creek. 
The Rev. Robt, M. Adams continued pastor of this church 
until his death, which took place on the 29th of October, 
181 1. On the i6th of October, 1810, at the request of the 
Saltkehatchee Church, he had been permitted to devote one- 
fourth of his time to its service. The church seems to have 
been much in arrears for his .salary and did not pay it wholly 
until 1817. Mr. Adams was bv no means deficient inability. 
His sermons, existing in MSS., and which are written in full, 
are evangelic in spirit, manly in tone, and often elegant and 



214 STONY CREEK. [1810-1820. 

eloquent in diction. He did not need to borrow ever from 
the labors of others. • 

Mr. Adams was, we believe, never married. Some of his 
habits were, we judge, somewhat peculiar, and might not 
have existed to the degree they did if he had not so long re- 
mained in that state in which the highest of all authorities 
declared His judgment when He said, '" It is not good for 
man to be alone." Yet he appears to have been a faithful 
pastor. At the close of an appropriate and eloquent sermon 
on Public Worship, deliyered at the opening of a new house, 
dedicated to the service of God, he thus alludes to himself: 
" I trust I shall not be inattentive to preparation for the dis- 
charge of my public duty. Educated from my earliest 
years for the labors of the holy ministry, I glory in the name 
of an ambassador for Christ! I shall peither be found in the 
society of the dissipated, nor the abodes o'f the idle ; but with 
my labors for your spiritual and eternal good, I shall unite 
my prayers with yours at the throne of grace. And happy 
shall I be — inexpressibly happy — if I shall be honored to be 
the instrument of your salvation. The night is far spent, the 
day is at hand ; let us, therefore, gird up the loins of our 
mind, and prepare for that state of existence where the wicked 
cease from troubling and the weary are at rest; where hope 
shall be no more pained by disappointment, and where the 
sorrows of time are forgot in the joys of eternity! " 

This Church was incorporated in 1785 (Statutes at large, 
Vin, 127), but the knowledge of the fact seems to have been 
lost, for it was again incorporated in 18 16 {Idem, 279, 280). 
Both are perpetual charters. The second was adopted by 
the Church, with the name therein contained. 

Mr. Adams himself was doubtless a member of the old 
(Scotch) Presbytery of Charleston. The old Stony Creek 
Church claimed from the beginning to be independent, 
formed much on the model found in the writings of John 
Owen. Its Confession of faith, substantiated by scripture- 
proof — the work, probably of its first pastor, Wm. Hutson — 
though wrong in its theory of church government, is an ad- 
mirable document. • 

After the death of Mr. Adams, the church seems to have 
labored under great difficulty in obtaining supplies for their 
pulpit. There is evidence in the Minutes of the Trustees of con- 
tinued efforts to have the vacancy filled, but without any other 



1810-1820.] KEV. L. D. PARKS. 215 

success than the serving of occa.sional supplies. From 1817 
the Rev. L. D. Parks occupied the pulpit — whether as pastor 
or stated supply is not clear, and this was the condition of 
things through this decade. 

In relation to Mr. Parks the following minute is found on 
the records of the Congregational Association of South Car- 
olina, under the date of Dec. 14, 1819: 

"The Association have heard with regret, that the Rev. L. 
D. Parks, one of the rnembers, has associated in an ordination 
with persons holding sentiments which they deem subversive 
of the fundamental principles of the Gospel, they consider 
such conduct contrary to the spirit of the Constitution and 
calculated to produce serious evil : — Wherefore agreed that 
the Rev. Mr. Parks be cited to assign reasons for his conduct 
to be laid before the Association at the meeting to be held in 
April, 1820." This has reference to the part taken by Mr. 
Parks in the ordination of Rev. (afterwards) Dr. Oilman as 
pastor of the Arclidale Street Church, popularly known as 
The Unitarian Church. 

"Lycen D. Parks," says Eev. John Douglas in his history of Steel 
Creek Church, N. C., "Was the eldest son of Captain Hugh Parks of 
that congregation, and was licensed in 1813 or 14 to preach the Gospel," 
and alludes to his becoming connected with the Congregational Asso- 
ciation, speaks of their action disapproving his course, and of the pub- 
lications respecting him in the public prints, especially that over the 
signature of Rev B. M. Palmer, Sr. D. D. He says that even in these 
Dr. Palmer did not accuse him of being a Unitarian. That after this he 
married the widow of Mr William Hayne and settled on a plantation 
near Walterboro. And that not many months before his death, he was 
sent for by a neighbor who was on his death bed, who wished the pres- 
ence and prayers of a minister of the Gospel. As he approached the 
bedside, the dying man thus addressed hfm : "Mr. Parks, I am a dying 
man, and I wish prayers of mercy for me before I go- Tell me frankly 
do you believe in the Godhead, the Father, Son and Holy Ghost? Are 
you a firm believer in the adorable Trinity !" To which he replied : "To 
you, a dying man, I aver my solemn belief in the adorable Trinity, the 
Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost." "Then," said the dying man, 
"kneel down and pray for my soul." Mr. Parks died early, short of 
middle life, either in 1822 or 1823, and is buried at "Hayne Hall" near 
Bethel Church, S. Paul's Parish, S. C. History of Steel Creek Church, 
by Rev. John Douglas, Columbia, 1872. 

The Church in Beaufort. The Church in Beaufort was 
served by the Rev. B M. Palmer (afterwards D. D.) until 
November or December, 1813, when having been afflicted 
with a severe illness, and despairing of adequate support, he 



216 BEAUFOET. [1810-1820. 

removed to Charleston as has been already mentioned, and 
was elected soon after the successor of the Rev. Dr. Keith in 
the Circular Church.* The Rev. Anthony Forster was ap- 
pointed on the 28th of October, 1814, a missionary for Charles- 
ton and Beaufort Di.stricts and for this end he was ordained, 
as has already been mentioned. The Church in Beaufort now 
came under the care of Harmony Presbytery as a Presbyte- 
rian Church and Dr. Flinn ajid Messrs Leiand and Forster 
were directed to preach in it one Sabbath each before the 
next meeting of Presbytery. These appointments were not 
fulfilled, and Dr. Leiand reported in behalf of himself and the 
others. "That owing to the peculiarly exposed situation of the 
Town and Island of Beaufort to the incursion of the British 
cruisers, the inhabitants had generally removed." At the 
meeting of the Presbytery in November, 1816, Rev. Mr, 
Cruickshank was ordered to supply one Sabbath at Beaufort. 
The Church at Waynesborough, Burke County, Georgia 
had a similar history. It was supplied by Rev. John Boggs. 
On the 5th of April, 181 1, it applied to the Presbytery of Har- 
mony informing them that owing to the removal of their late 
pastor they were destitute of the means of grace Bnd petitioned 
for supplies. The Rev. John R. Thompson of Augusta and 
Rev. Ezra Fisk, then a missionary employed by the Presby- 
tery, were appointed to visit them. The Rev. John Joyce 
also at a later period. January 21, i8i8, Mr. E. Caldwell, a 
licentiate of the Salem Association (Mass.) was received as a 
candidate under the care of the Presbytery of Harmony, and 
a call WEis presented for his pastoral services by the Congre- 
gational church of Waynesborough which he accepted. Pres- 
bytery met at the Church in Waynesborough on the 3rd of 
July, 1818. Present, the Rev. William McWhir, Murdoch 
Murphy, & Thomas Goulding. The Rev. Murdoch Murphy 
preached the sermon from I Timothy 3:2 ; the Rev. Mr. 
(afterwards Dr.) McWhir presided and propounded the Consti- 
tutional questions. Mr. Caldwell was ordained by prayer 
and the imposition of hands, and a charge was delivered to 

*During the residence of Dr. Palmer in Beaufort, the Beaufort Bible 
Society was organizeJ, of which Robert Barnwell, Esq., was president 
and he one of the secretaries. It w^as formed in the lattei- part of March 
1810. A Beaufort Religious Tract Society is al&o spoken of ia the first 
annual report of the Religious Tract Society of Charleston June 10, 1816, 
which had received from the Charleston Society 1,900 tracts for distri- 
bution. 



1810-1820.] WHITE BI^UFF. 217 

pastor and people. Before the sessions of Noveihber, 1819, 
his ministry on earth was terminated. "Since our last ses- 
sions, departed this life, in the lively hope of a glorious im- 
mortality, our beloved brother the Rev. EbenezerB. Caldwell 
pastor of the Church of Waynesboro." [Minutes of the Pres- 
bytery of Harmony, Vol. I, p. 323.] 

The Congregational Church, of White Bluff, in 
Chatham County, Georgia, made application to thi. Congre- 
gational Association of South Carolina on the 8th of May, 
1810, for the ordination of Mr. Lycan D. Parks, a licentiate 
of the Presbytery of Concord, whom they had called to be 
their pastor. The application was signed by David Johnson, 
Daniel Keefer, Geo. Nungizer, Geo. PouUen, N. Adams, and 
E. Floyd. Mr. Parks produced a di.smission from the Pres- 
bytery of Concord, was examined as to his own religious 
expe^ience, read a confession of his faith, and the Association 
having received competent satisfaction, complied with the re- 
quest of the congregation of White Bluff, and resolved that 
his ordination take place on the following Sabbath, at the 
Church in Archdaie street; that Dr. Hollingshead preach 
the sermon, Mr. Price offer up the ordination prayer, and 
Mr. Floyd deliver the charge. This was accordingly done, 
Mr. Parks was furnished with a certificate of his ordination, 
and a letter was addressed to the congregation of White Bluff 
signed by the Moderator and Scribe. [MSS. Minutes of the 
Association, pp. 54, 57. 

Notwithstanding the existence of a Congregational Associ- 
tion in Charleston, the churches of that order or their candi- 
dates for the ministry seem to have sought licensure and 
ordination from Presbytery. Nor did the Presbj'tery of Har- 
mony "decline upon such occasions to meet for the transaction 
of business in their congregations. This was the case with 
the church and congregation of White Bluff which had so 
lately applied to the Congregational Association. On the 
2ist of December, iBii, at a meeting of the Presbytery of 
Harmony, during its fourth session, held in Savannah from 
20th to the 30th of that month, Thomas Goulding. of Sunbury, 
was received under its care as a candidate for the ministry. 
He was licensed at the eighth session of that Presbytery, at 
Augusta, on Sabbath, the 31st of October, 18 13. At the 
1 2th stated sessions at Columbia he received through the 
Presbytery a call to the church at White Bluff and at an in- 



218 MIDWAY, LIBERTY COUNTY. [1810-1820. 

termediate session held at the latter place he was ordained 
and installed over that congregation in the form provided in 
the form of government of the Presbyterian Church. John 
R. Thompson, D. D., preached a sermon from 2 Tim., 24, 
25, Rev. William McWhir presiding, and delivering the 
charge to the minister and people. This ordination and instal- 
lation took place on the 27th of January, 18 16. Here he 
labored faithfully, acceptably and successfully through the 
remainSer of this decade. (Minutes of Presbytery of Har- 
mony.) 

Congregational Church at Midway, in Liberty County, 
Georgia. — The Rev. Cyrus Gildersleeve was still pastor of this 
church at- the commencement of this decade. In 181 1 he re- 
linquished his pastorate m Georgia and was soon after settled 
over the church in Bloomfield, New Jersey. He died in 
Elizabethtown, in 1838, aged about 69 years. 

The Rev. Murdoch Murphy who had been received by 
Harmany Presbytery from the Presbytery of Orange, Decem- 
ber 27, 181 1, at its sessions in Savannah, succeeded Mr. 
Gildersleeve. 

Soon after Mr. Murphy had settled at Midway the inhabit- 
ants were called upon to arm themselves in defence of their 
country's rights, in the war familiarly known as the war of 
1 812. In Septembr, 1814, the descendants of the heroic men 
of the American Revolution formed a committee of safety, 
and commenced the building of " Fort Defence" and pro- 
tected the country from the predatory detachments of Admi- 
ral Cockburn, whose main occupation was to plunder the 
merchant of his merchandize and the planter of the products 
of the soil. [The Congregational Church of Midway, Ga., by 
John B. Mallard, A.-M., Savannah, 1840.] 

At the intermediate Presbytery at White Bluff, Mr. Robert 
Quarterman, a Deacon of the Midway Church, was taken 
under the care of Presbytery as a candidate for the ministry. 
He was licensed on th.^ 7th of November, 18 19, during the 
twentieth regular session held at Columbia. 

We now turn our attention to those churches which aie 
more strictly Presbyterian. And we again mention as the 
oldest of them all, the French Protestant Church of the 
City of Charleston. It seems to have remained for seven 
years without a pastor. " In 18 16 the Rev. Robert Henry, 
a native of Charleston, who had spent some years in 



1810-1820.] FRENCH CHURCH, CHARLESTON. 219 

Europe pursuing liis studies, who had acquired meanwhile a 
knowledge of several European languages and was highly 
educated in the several departments of learned study, return- 
ed to his native city, and through him the attempt was made 
to conduct the worship of the congregation alternately in 
French and English according to one authority* ; according 
to another, he preached in French once a month. (Duyck- 
inck's Cyclopaedia of American Literature.) The services in 
English were conducted by means of a Liturgy for the Lord's 
Day made by Mr. Henry. In Deceniber, 1818, Mr. Henry 
was elected Professor of Moral Philosophy and Logic in 
South Carolina College at Columbia, and resigned his position 
in the Church of Charleston. A small congregation had 
been formed, but the experiment of service in French and 
English was not satisfactory. It made parties in the Church, 
and a few French gentlemen who were members of the Cor- 
poration induced that body to make another effort to revive 
the former French services, when the Rev. Mr. Courlat was 
elected to the Church." This took place in 1819. (From 
the MS. of Mr. -Daniel Ravenel, to whom we have been in- 
debted greatly in the historic outline of this ancient church 
of the City of Charleston in our preceding pages.) Mr. 
(afterwards Dr.) Henry's ecclesiastical conviction was with 
the Old Scotch Presbytery of Charleston : "Robert Henry, 
Minister of the French Calvinist Church in Charleston, S. C," 
begins his baptismal register, August 13th, 1815, in English. 
The last entry is, March 2Sth, 18 1 8. 

First Presbyterian Church in the City of Charleston. 
The Rev. Dr. John Buchan, was pastor of trhis Church at 
the beginning of this decade as the successor of Dr. Buist. 
How long he continued in this relation is-not known to the 
present writer. The minutes of Harmony Presbytery show 
that on the 8th of April, 1813, at their sessions in Camden, 
a call from this church for the ministerial labors of the Rev. 
Aaron W. Leland was presented and read, accompanied with 
a letter from Mr. (afterwards Dr.) Leland accepting this call. 
Mr. Leland had been licensed on the 5th of April, 181 1, had 
been ordained as an evangelist on the 3rd of May, 1812, and 
was installed on the i8th of April, 1813, in the First Presby- 
terian Church, Dr. Flinn preaching the sermon, and Dr. 
Montgomery presiding and giving the charge. 

■ *Southern Quarterly Review for April, 1856, p. 189. 



220 FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, CHARLESTON. [1810-1820. 

Dr. Buchan attempted to apply Scotch rules in the admin- 
istration of church government, " and the Scotchmen of 
America could not stand it," and, to use the expression of our 
informer, " blew him up." There was a secession from the 
Scotch Church (the First Presbyterian), which built a new 
church for him in 1814, at northwest corner of Archdale and 
West Streets, and was known as The St. Andrew's Presbyte- 
rian Church of Charlestion. Dr. Buchan's mind became de- 
ranged, and he returned, at length, to Scotland. The con- 
gregation, without a pastor, discouraged, and burdened with 
debt, disposed of their premises on the condition that the 
church should bs held sacred as a place ot public Christian 
worship, and the ground attached thereto be continued as a 
cemetery. The First Presbyterian Church had erected a new 
edifice in 1814, during the pastorate of Dr. Leland, on the 
southwest corner of Meeting and Tradd Streets. A poor, 
wooden building had served the purposes of the congregation 
hitherto. The dimensions of the church were 120 feet long 
by 70 feet wide. The order, externally, is Roman Doric. 
The front exhibits a recessed portico, flanked by two towers 
surmounted by cupolas. The building is ^of brick covered 
with stucco. 

The following information, derived from a sermon preached 
by Dr. Leland at the dedication of the present house of wor- 
ship on December 29th, 18 14, may be of value to our 
readers : "At the close of the 17th century, soon after the 
first settlement of this city, a religious society was formed, 
chiefly by persons from Scotland and New England, who 
erected a place of religious worship, then called the Presby- 
terian Meeting. For more than thirty years they continued 
united, obtaining their ministers from the Presbyterian estab- 
lishments in Europe. At length, there appeared a disunion 
of sentiment upon the subject of ecclesiastical government; 
the Europeans being zealously attached to the forms and 
discipline of the Church of Scotland, while the majority pre- 
ferred the Congregational or Independent system. This 
difference of opinion terminated in an amicable separation. 
This took place in 1832, when the Presbyterians, consisting 
of about twelve families, formed another society, purchased 
the ground adjoining this church, and erected a small con- 
venient place of worship. They guarded against the evils 
they had experienced, for in the titles to the land, it is ex- 



1810-1820.] FinST PRESBYTERIAN. 221 

pres.sly stipulated that it is for the use of a Presbyterian 
Church, according to the forms and discipline of the Church 
of Scotland, having ministers ordained in the Pieslpyterian 
form, believing in the Westminster Confession of Faith, and 
to be converted to no other purpose forever. The names of 
these patriarchs of our congregation were James Abercrombie, 
Joiin Allen, Daniel Crawford, John Bee, John Frasjr, George 
Duraff, and James Paine. Their first minister was the Rev. 
Hugh Stewart, from Scotland. HiS: place was supplied by 
the Rev. Messrs. Grant, Kennedy, Lorimer, and Morrison, 
who successively filled the pastoral office until the year 1763, 
At that time the Congregation had .so increa.sed that a con- 
siderable addition was made to the church to render it more 
capacious. The trustees then were George Marshall, William 
Woodrup, George Inglis, Dr. John Murray, William Simp- 
son, George Murray, Alexander Rantowl, and James Grind- 
lay. The Church cho:5e for their pastor, the Rev. Dr. Hewat, 
of Edinburgh, who continued with them until 1775. when, 
on account of the Revolutionary war, he returned to England, 
and afterwards settled in London. At the time the church 
was dispersed by vvar, the trustees and leading members were 
Messrs. Robert Phelps, Robert Brisbane, William Glen, 
Robert Wilson, William Aiicrum, Robert Rowand, Andrew 
Marr, Alexander Chisolm, William Wilson and James John- 
ston ; when 1,455 pounds currency was the sum annually 
subscribed for the support of the minister. In 1784 the 
Church was reorganized, at which time Dr. Robert Wilson, 
Messrs. David Lamb, James Gregorie, John Mitchell, and 
James O'Hear were elders. The Rev. James Graham offici- 
ated as minister until 1788, when Rev. Mr. James Wilson, a 
clergyman of the Church of Scotland, then residing in New 
York, was called to the pastoral office, which he held for four 
years, when ill health caused him to resign. The corpora- 
tion then addressed a letter to Rev. Drs. Robinson and Blair, 
requesting them to choose and send them a clergyman, when 
the church had the distinguished felicity to obtain the Rev. 
Dr. Buist. He arrived in Charleston in June, 1793, and was 
installed in November following. The congregation flourished 
under his ministry. Near the close of his life, it was deter- 
mined to erect a new church, and considerable progress made 
in providing funds, when the church was called to mourning 
by the sudden removal of their pastor. The important va- 



222 SECOND PRESBYTEKIAN CHURCH. [1810-1820. 

cancy was filled by Rev. Dr. Buchan, from Edinburg, who 
was succeeded, in i8i2, by tiie present pastor," i. e., " Rev. 
Aaron W. Leland, D. D. Under him the present edifice was 
completed, and at that time, as I gather from a tablet in the 
church, the following gentlemen were elders : Robert Wil- 
son, Robert Rowland, Thomas Ogier, David Haig, James 
Blair, David Lamb, Samuel Wilson, George Macaulay and 
John Cliampney. Dr. Leland was followed by a Mr. Reed. 

The only thing which enables, me to approximate the num- 
ber of communicants, is the number of " tokens " used upon 
communion occasions. There were two hundred of pure 
silver, and five, hundred- of alloy, and all were generally given 
out. The congregation must have been large. These tokens 
were used until the beginning of the war, when they were 
captured or destroyed with the Federal occupation of Colum- 
bia, where with the church records they had been sent for 
safety. They were c?ircular. in size 'slightly larger than a 
quarter, and upon on side had the figure of a burning bush, 
inscribed by the motto " JVec tamen consumedatur ;" on the 
other the representation of a communion table with the cup 
and bread, under which were the words, "Presbyterian Church 
of Charleston, S. C, 1800," and around it. "This do in remem- 
brance of me." It may be of interest to know that for years 
this Church had its own hearse. The tablets within, and the 
tomb-stones around it, bear some of the most honored 
names connected with tne history of this city. 

With grateful remembrances, I am sincerely yours. 

W. T. THOMPSON. 

The Skcond Presbyterian Church and Congregation in 
THE City of Charleston proceeded to carry into execution 
their purpose to erect a house of worship of ample dimen- 
sions and an ornament to their city. But previous to this, 
ah organization in due form was effected. 

"At a meeting in January 25, 1 810, a subscription paper 
was presented for the signatures of those who wished to be- 
come members of the Second Presbyterian Church, to be 
governed by pi escribed rules and by-laws, when the following 
persons signed their names, viz : Benjamin Boyd, Stephen 
Thomas, Robert Fleming, Richard M'Millan, Caleb Gray, 
Richard Cunningham, James Adger, John Porter, William 
H. Gilliland, Alexander Gray, John Blackwood, John Cun- 



1810-1820.] SECOND PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 223 

ningham, Alexander Henry, John M'Dowell, William Wal- 
ton, Samuel Robertson, John Walton, Thomas Fleming, John 
Robin.son, James Beggs, George Robertson, J. C. Martindale, 
John Brownlee, William Scott, John Johnson, Charles 
Robiou, William Aiken, George Keenan, Archibald Grahame, 
James Carr, Lewis A. Pitray, James Leman, John Noble, 
David Bell, James Evans, John Ellison, B. Casey, William 
M'Elmoyle, John Davis, William Pressly, Thomas Johnson, 
George Miller, James Blocker, Robert Belshaw, Samuel 
Corrie, Samuel H. Pratt, James Pennal, Thomas A. Vardell, 
John Steele, Nathaniel Slawson, John C. Beile, William Por- 
ter, Samuel Patterson, Samuel Browne, John M. Eraser, 
Thomas Milliken, John Smyth, John Mushtt, John Crow, 
John Geddes, Peter Kennedy, James Wall, Charles Martin, 
Alexander Howard, William Tliompson, John Dunn, William 
Smith, William L. Shaw, Edward Carew, C. B. Duhadway, 
Samuel Pilsbury, William Scott, R. Gailbraith, Richard Eair, 
Edward M'Grath, James Cooper, William Simms. It was 
dedicated to the worship of Almighty God, by a sermon from 
the Rev. Dr. Flinn, on Wednesday, April 3d, 181 1 ; and con- 
nected with the Ecclesiastical Judicatories of the Presbyterian 
Church. This was the first session ever held in Charleston, 
. by a Presbytery, connected with the General Assembly of the 
Presbyterian Church, in these United States.'^ The Charleston 
Union Presbytery also held its first session in this church, 
April loth, 1823. Thus was consecrated to the service of 
religion, that edifice in which we and our fathers have so 
delightfully and profitably Avaited upon the ordinances of the 
sanctuary. The sermon preached on that occasion is still 
extant, though rarely to be met with ; but few who were 
present on the interesting occasion survive to tell its tale. 

Although great munificence was exercised by the founders' 
of this church, its cost far exceeded both their expectations 
and their means. By the account of the Treasurer presented 
up to April, 1812, it appears that the sum of fifty-five thou- 
sand five hundred and forty-eight dollars had been expended, 
and that a large amount would be still necessary to carry out 
the plans and pay the incurred debt. To meet this, a heavy 
assessment was laid upon the pews of the church, in March, 
181 1 ; and another, to three times its amount, in December, 

*The^r'S< session of Harmony Presbytery was held in the First Pres- 
byterian Church, March 7th, 1810. 



224 EEV. DR. FLINN. [1810-1820. 

1815. Notwithstanding these efforts, in June, 1816, it ap- 
peared that the sum of thirty-one thousand one hundred and 
fifty-six dollars twenty-five cents was still due, when it was 
resolved to sell all the pews on which the assessment had 
been paid." 

" The first pastor of this church was the Rev. Andrew 
Flinn, D. D. He was called in February, 1809; installed 
April 4th, 181 1. Dr. Flinn was born in the State of Mary- 
land, in the year 1773, of honest and pious, but humble 
parentage. When he was about a year old, the family mi- 
grated to Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, where his 
father died in 1785. For his early education, as well as moral 
training, he was indebted to a mother, characterized by sin- 
cere and ardent piety. Through the kind assistance of some 
friends, the buddings of his genius were encouraged by the 
fostering spirit of a liberal education. He entered the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina, where he was graduated with con- 
siderable distinction in the year 1798. He engaged in the 
study of theology, under the care of the Presbytery of Orange, 
and was licensed to preach the gospel in 1800. He soon 
gave proofs of that eloquence, [)iety and success with which 
he afterwards labored in the ministry. His first pastoral con- 
nection was with the church in Fayetteville, North Carolina, 
where he remained a few years ; afterwards he removed to 
Camden, and from thence to the united congregations of 
Bethel and Indiantown, in Williamsburg, South Carolina. 
From this place he was called to Charleston in 1809, where 
he organized this church, dedicated this house of worship, 
and built up this congregation. In 181 1 he was honored with 
the degree of D. D. by the University of North Carolina. In 
1812 he was a delegate to the General Assembly, preached 
the opening sermon, and was elected Moderator. In 1813 he 
again preached the sermon at the opening of the Assembly 
from the words, ' Be tlioii faithful unto death, and I will give 
thee a a own of life! On February 24th,- 1820, in the forty- 
eighth year of his age, after a long and painful illness, Dr. 
Flinn was removed from the scene of his earthly labors. 
During the whole of his sickness, he was eminently sup- 
ported by those truths he had long, faiihfully and ably 
preached to others. His last moments were employed in 
taking a solemn and affectionate farewell of his mourning 
family, and his surroundmg friends, in which he exhibited 



]810-18.'20.] EEV. DR. FLINN. 225 

tliat serenity of mind, and that deep impression of soul, which 
belong to those who die in the Lord. He then, with great 
composure, raised up liis hands and eyes to heaven, and said, 
' Jesus into thy hands I commend my spirit.' Being charac- 
teristically an extemporaneous sp^raker, using but partial 
notes. Dr. Flinn has left behind him no other publications 
than a few sermons, which were published during his life." 

The elders who served during Dr. Flinn's pastorate were : 
Benjamin Boyd, ordained March 4, 1810; died January, 181 1. 
John Cunningham, ordained March 4, 1810; died November, 
1815. William Pressly, ordained February, 1812; died 1820. 
Henry Bennet, ordained July 9, 1812 ; died 1820. 

Pkesidents of the Congregation. — Benjamin Boyd, elect- 
ed 1809. Samuel Robertson, elected 18 10. Stephen Thomas, 
elected 1813. Wiliam Smith, elected 1815. Samuel Patter- 
son, elected 18 18. Thomas Fleming, elected 1819. 

The reports made to Presbytery for the year ending April, 
18 1 2, show that the additions to the membership for that year 
had been "jj, making the total of communicants 91. The 
additions of next year were reported to be 30 ; the total mem- 
bership, 116. The additions, April 14, 1814,9; the total, 
120. The additions reported for the year 181 5 were 57 ; the 
total number of members, 176. The reports in the following 
years are not given in the Presbyterial records, but these show 
a state of great prosperity in this (at that time) infant church. 

The city of Charleston included at the close of this decade 
some 24 or 25,000 souls. A census was taken in the sum- 
mer of 1820, and gave 24,780 as the population of the city. 
It was taken however, in the summer at which time from 
1,500 to 2,000 of the inhabitants were usually absent, princi- 
pally at the North. Including the suburbs the whole popu- 
lation was 37,471. Of this the half or more were of the Afri- 
can race. Among the whites there was more than usual re- 
finement, intelligence and wealth. 

Among the Churches which are represented in this history 
while there was a general accordance with the Westminster 
Confession of Faith and Catechisms as to doctrine, in church 
government there was less, some constructing their church 
discipline according to the Presbyterian and some according 
to the Congregational order, and both perhaps mingling the 
elements of the one discipline somewhat with the other. 
And perhaps there was wanting sometimes that fraternal spirit 
15 



226 ECCLESIASTICAL lUEISDICTION. [1810- 1820. 

which can deal temperately with differences of practice in that 
wide and comprehensive work in which the ministers and 
elders in the church are called on to be employed. 

'The question of territorial jurisdiction was revived again 
as has been mentioned in our preceding pages. And the 
Rev. Dr. Henry Koilock and the Rev. John Brown were 
appointed a committee to draught a letter to the Rev. Mr. 
McLeod on this subject and forward it to him or lay it before 
Presbytery at their next meeting. This letter was reported to 
the Presbytery at its meeting in Charleston in April, 1811, ap- 
proved and ordered to be signed by the Moderator and sent 
to Mr. McLeod. 

A very intemperate pamphlet from the pen of Rev. Raphael 
Bell a member of the Presbytery of Charleston, which reflects 
little credit upon himself, and we may hope, did not faithfully 
represent the temper of his brethren, appeared from the 
Charleston Press and was reprinted in 1817. In this an at- 
tempt of the Charleston Presbytery to form a union with the 
General Assembly about seventeen years before is referred to, 
and it is said, "when the Presbytery asked their Congrega- 
tions' permission to do so, 'they opposed and absolutely re- 
fused their assent to this measure ;' alleging as their reason, 
'that they could not dispense with divine service for nearly 
three months in the year, while their ministers were gossip- 
ing over the country, attending Synods and General Assem- 
blies, which in no way whatever, promoted their spiritual im- 
provement.' 

"Nolumus leges mutare hactrnus usitatas atque prohalas. 'We 
will not change our ancient and venerable customs, said they, 
we wish our Presbytery to continue (as it has always existed 
from the first settlement of this State, and which has been 
found, by long experience, the only test of ability, fully to 
answer all the purposes of religious instruction) an indepen- 
dent one — independent of Synods and General Assemblies, 
which were only intended to retain ministers in their Churches 
contrary to the wishes and intentions of the people. One 
court was fully sufficient to try the disputes that might un- 
fortunately arise between them and their ministers." The 
people then, are to be blamed, and not the Presbytery, if it 
has not yet connected itself with the General Assembly. We 
have waited with patience for some overtures; but we have 
waited in vain. It is not tiue that we were ever invited to 



1810-1820.] EELIGIOUS SOCIETIES EFFORTS. 227 

join the Harmony Presbytery. We have had no communi- 
cations ; — we expected some written propositions, but none 
have ever been received ; the resolve of the General Assembly 
requires that we should effect a comprotnise." We know of no 
subject of difference or controversy that requires to be com- 
promised. The supposed subjects of difference or controversy 
are directed in the event of a failure to be submitted to the 
Synod of the Carolinas. It could hardly be expected that a 
corporate independent body, having a status atque nomen juris 
would submit its rights and property to the decision of a body 
having no legal existence or competent jurisdicticn, who are 
suspected to be our enemies, and who are publicly noted for 
an instance of persecution and op )ression that has no parallel 
in the records of our State." The pamphlet is otherwise full of 
bitterness, ascribing the secession in the Independent Church, 
in the case of Mr. Forster to "the same ecclesiastical junto." 
The pamphlet abounds in personalities, chiefly directed against 
Dr. Flinn, and does little credit to the head or heart of its 
author. The Rev. Raphael Bell was born in the Brewington 
settlement, was educated under Dr. Buist, was a teacher in 
Charleston College, in 1807, and previous to this, had been 
licensed by the Charleston Presbytery.* 

To (his writer, prayer meetings and evening lectures and 
such religious efforts seemed an abomination, to be classed 
with camp meetings and other indecorums. 

Of a far different spirit, we trust, were the great body of 
evangelical christians in that city. Their activity in benevo- 
lent and Christian efforts for their fellow men is shown by the 
numerous organizations which existed for this end. 

The Charleston Bible Society was organized in 1810, 
(its Constitution was adopted on the 19th of June and its 
officers chose-n on the loth of July), six years before the 
organization of the American Bible Society. In 18 19 it had 
distributed five or six thousand copies of the Scriptures. The 
Ladies Benevolent Society instituted September 15, 1813, for 
the relief of the sick and poor, relieved some three hundred 

*Sketch of the College of Charleston, Am. Quarterly Register, vol. 
xii , p. 168, and the pamphlet in question, entitled " The Veil With- 
drawn ; or. Genuine Presbyterianism Vindicated, and the character arid 
intolerance of its enemies exposed in a letter to a respectable planter, 
by a minister of that church." '' Semper ego auditor tantumf Nunguam 
reponam.'^ Juvenal. Charleston: Re-printed byA.E. Miller, No. 29 
Queen street, 1807. 



228 RELIGIOUS SOCIETIES AND EPFOBTS. [1810-1820. 

cases and expended in seven years $2,600. The Religious 
Tract Society was formed in 1815, Tiie Congregational and 
Presbyterian Union Female Association for assisting in the 
education of pious youth for the gospel ministry was formed 
in 1815. In three years it had raised and expended over 
^5,000 and founded a scholarship in Princeton Seminary. 
The Female Bible Society and the Sabbath School Associa- 
tion were formed in 1816. In 1819 it had distributed 851 
copies of the Bible. The Marine Bible Society was formed 
in 1818, and in the same year the Female Domestic Mission- 
ary Society was established to provide and support missions 
in the City of Charleston. The Rev. Jonas King, since the 
well known missionary in Greece, served them faithfully as 
their missionary in the latter part of 18 19, and the early 
months of 1820. His report read before the Society in May, 
1820, was published in pamphlet form the same year. 
Mr. King was ordained by the Congregational Association of 
South Carolina, at the request of the Female Domestic 
Missionary Society, that he might the better serve them in 
the mission in which he was engaged, at the same time with 
Mr. Alfred Wright, who was ordained at the request of Dr. 
Worce.ster, Secretary of the A. B. C. F. M., that he might 
be better equipped for the missionary work among the Choc- 
taws to which he had been appointed. The first successful 
effort to give seamen in the port of Charleston the preached 
gospel was made under the auspices of the Female Domestic 
Missionary Society by Rev. Jonas King. In May, 1819, 
" The Congregational and Presbyterian Society for pro- 
moting the interests of religion,' which had existed for 
some time, changed its name to '' the Congregational and 
Presbyterian Missionary Society of South Carolina," and 
gave greater simplicity lo its plan. They had employed 
since July, 1818, Rev. Henry White, who was a graduate 
of Williams College, Mass., and had been a member 
of a Presbyterian Church in Utica, New York, and was 
licensed by the Congregational Association of South Caro- 
lina on tiie 13th of May, 1818, as their Missionary. His 
health being imperfect he seems to have had a kind of roving 
commission. Beginning in Western New York, he passed 
into some destitute parts of Pennsylvania, thence through 
Kentucky into Tennessee, laboring through Davidson, Wil- 
liamson, Maury and Giles Counties. He then spent some 



1810-1820.] RELIGIOUS AND BENEVOr.ENT SOCIETIES. 229 

time in Northern Alabama, spoke of Huntsvilleas a desirable 
missionary .station. The citizens were wealthy and had it in 
contemplation to build a large and commodious house of 
worship ere long. The Society wanted to engage the Rev. 
Messrs. King and Smith as Missionaries for the destitute parts 
of South Carolina and to support Rev. Mr. Kingbury as their 
Missionary among the Choctaws. In September, 1819, tiiey 
had a Missionary laboring in the upper districts of South 
Carolina. [Southern Evan. Intelligencer, vol. i, pp. 70, 220.] 

A Sunday School Union Society was formed September, 
1 8 19, thoue;h there were Sabbath schools in the Circular 
Church in January, 1817, in the Second Church in 1818, in 
the Archdale Street Church in July, 1819, and an Association 
had existed in 18 16, The Elliot Society, named out of re.s- 
pect to Elliot, the Missionary, who died in May, 1690, was 
instituted in 1819, f)r' the purpose of sustaining missions 
among the Indian tribes. The Associate Reading Society 
was instituted in the Circular Church, in 18 19, which met 
weekly to work for the Choctaw Indians, connected with the 
school of Rev. Mr. Kingsbury. These are the evidences of 
Christian action and Christian union in this city which in 
former years has had a greater number of charitable institu- 
tions, in proportion to its population, than any other in the 
Union. There were also many active and benevolent ladies, 
of whom were Mrs. Martha L. Ramsay, daughter of Henry 
Laurens, signer of the Declaration of Independence, President 
of Congress and prisoner in the tower of London, for his 
country's sake, of Huguenot descent and a nob e Christian, 
and wife of Dr. Ramsay, the historian, who died June 10, 
1811, and left behind her a shinmg example of the power 
there is in the life of an intelligent, refined and active woman, 
like those of the gospels, who were " last at the cross, 
and first at the sepulchre." [See and read memoir of her 
by her husband.] 

The Church on James Island was associated, through its 
pastor, at lea -it, during a part of this decade, with the Congre- 
gational Association, the Rev. Mr. Price bein^ a member of 
that body. He .was born March 16, 1773, on Crowder's 
Creek, in the southern part 'of Lincoln County, N. C, about 
five miles northwest of Bethel Church, in York District. He 
was a schoolmate with the Rev. James Adams, so long the 
pastor of that church, and received his early education in 



230 JOHN'S ISLANJ) AND WADMAI^AW. [1810-1820. 

that congregation. His theological education he obtained 
under the tuition of Rev. James Hall, of Iredell County, N. C. 
Mr. Price is represented as being a man of energy, and of 
practical talent. His wife was a Miss Baxter, of Bermuda. 
His daughter was married to Mr. F.Jenkins Mikell,of Edisto. 
He died on the i6th of June, 1816. We are not at prestnt 
informed who was his immediate successor. The Rev. Aaron 
W. Leland appears as pastor of this church in the Minutes of 
the Assembly for 1819. 

The Presbytekian Church of John's Island and Wad- 
MALAW. — The Rev. William Clarkson continued pastor of this 
church until September, 1812, when death put an end to his 
labors. He had the affections of his congregation and was 
well esteemed by his brethren in the mini.stry as a man of 
more than usual ability and worth. He was commonly known 
as Dr. Clarkson, his title being derived from his degree as 
Doctor of Medicine. The following is the inscription upon 
his tombstone : 

In memory of the Rev. Wm. Clarkson, 
who, during the last six years of his life, sustained the pastoral charge 
of the united Presbyterian Churches on this Island and on Wadmalaw. 
And while zealously discharging the important duties of his ministry, 
was by a short illness summoned from his useful labors to enter into ■ 
the joy of his Lord on the 9th day of September, 1812, and in the 50th 
year of his age. He was a native of Philadelphia, and of very respect- 
able parentage and connections. As a husband, a father, a friend, and 
in the various relations of life, he exhibited an amiable example of 
affection, tenderness, and Christian integrity in his public character 
and service. As a minister of Christ, 

" I would express him, simple, grave, sincere. 
In doctrine uncorrupt : in language plain. 

And plain in manner ; 

Much impressed 

Himself, as conscious of his awful charge, 
And anxious mainly that the fiock he fed 
Might feel it too : affectionate in look 
And tender in address, as well becams 
A messenger of grace to guilty men." 

For him to live was Christ, to die was gain. 

After the death of Dr. Clarkson they are said to have been 
supplied for a year or two by a Mr. Morse [Letter of Rev. A. 
F. Dickson, then, Sept. 6, 1854, pastor of this church.] A 
letter tvas received from this Church by the Presbytery of 
Harmony at its meeting in Charleston, April 14, 18 14, "re- 
questing to be taken under the care of this Presbytery and 



1810-1820.] WILTON BETHEL PON PON. 231 

supplicating for supplies. On motion it was resolved that the 
prayer of the petition be granted." [MS. Minutes, p. 171.] 
The Church appears after this among the vacant Churches of 
this Presbytery. On the 26th of April 1816, Mr. John 
Cruickshanks was received as a Licenciate from the Presby- 
tery of New Brunswick, and "a call from the united congre- 
gation of John's Island and Wadmalaw was profered to him, 
requesting him to become the pastor of said Churches, which 
call he declared his willingness to accept." "It was ordered 
that the Rev. Drs. Flinn and Leland, Mr. Forster and Couser 
be a Presbytery to meet at John's Island Church on the 2nd 
Wednesday of May next to ordain Mr. Cruickshanks and in- 
stal him Pastor of said Churches ; that Dr. Leland preach the 
sermon and that Dr. Flinn preside and give the charge." 
[Minutes p. 234, 267.] His ministry was a short one. His 
death was reported to Presbytery, Nov. 5, 1818. 

Sub.s.equent to this the Rev. Mr. Abbot supplied the Church 
during the winter of 1818, 1819, and in the year last named 
Rev. Mr. Wright preached to his Church for a short time. 
Richard Cary Morse, who afterwards was one of the origina- 
tors of the New York Observer and a licentiate, supplied this 
Church for a season. In 18 18 this Church is mentioned in 
the minutes of the General Assembly as one of the vacant 
Churches of Harmony Presbytery. 

The Presbyterlvn Church on Edisto Island, enjoyed the 
labours of their esti .lable and able pastor, the Rev. Donald 
McLcod", through this decade. Their connection through 
their pastor was with the old Charleston Presbytery whose 
last recorded act known to us was the licensure of James S. 
Murray, son of a wealthy planter of this congregation which 
occurred on the 15th of April, 1819. [So. Evan. Intell., Vol. 
I, p. 47 and Raphael Bell's Pamphlet, p. 32.] 

Wilton Peesbytebian Church. We have no means of 
ascertaining who ministered to this people till near the end of 
this period. In 1819 the Rev. L. Floyd preached to the con- 
gregation on alternate Sabbaths. Either in this year or in 
the latter part of the year previous, money was raised by sub- 
scription for the erection of a new house of worship. [MS. of 
Rev. Dr. Girardeau.] 

The Presbyterian Church of Bethel Pon Pon was served 
during this decade by Rev, Loammi Floyd who was settled 
as its pastor in l802. Of the numerical strength of the con- 



232 SAI>TCATCHEK. [1810-1820 

gregation during this period we have not the means of judg- 
ing. The report of Mr. Floyd to the Congregational Asso- 
ciation in 1811, was three whites and 40 blacks in communion. 
In 1813 he reported the addition of 7 whites and 20 blacks. 
We think that in reference to the white communicants in 
181 1, there must be some mistake in the record. It proba- 
bly refers to the additions during that year, and not to the 
total membership. ■ 

Saltcatcher. There are several memoranda among the 
papers of Rev. R. M. Adams, pastor of Stony Creek Church. 
One is an enumeration of arguments tg be set before the con- 
gregation in St. Luke's Parish to induce them to accede to 
the proposition of Saltcatcher Church that he should labor 
with them a part of his time. It would unite the two Churches 
and prevent the intrusion of ignorant or false teachers. It 
would afford the Gospel to those who had been long desti- 
tute of it. The pious and devout would have more frequent 
opportunities of enjoying the Holy Ordinance of the Supper. 
The Church in St. Luke's would have a claim upon them for 
the services of their minister, when that should be destitute 
and Saltcatcher be supplied. Another paper proposes the 
arrangements which will be adopted for the supply of the two 
congregations from the 1st of November to the 1st of June, 
and also for the intervening five months of Summer, and for 
the administration of the Lord's Supper. Among them is the 
purpose expressed of visitmg the members of the Church at 
least once a year as their minister. 

They are to see that the church building be finished and 
the church yard enclosed with a parapet wall and railing on the 
top as soon as convenient. He enters into minute particulars ; 
as that a new Bible, Church Register, Confession of Faith, 
Psalm and Hymn Book, Pulpit cloth and cushion, Sacramen- 
tal tables, cloths, flagon, baptismal basin, towels, chairs in 
front of the pulpit, a box with lock and key beneath the pul- 
pit seat to contain the books of.the Church, benches for the 
vestry room, the appointment of a sexton and precentor, five 
elders to be elected and ordained, seven copies of Psalms and 
Hymns to be procured ; thirty dollars to be requested, and a 
like sum from the Trustees of Prince Williams, to purchase a 
silk gown. A thoughtful and careful minister indeed I 
Whether these were private memoranda for his own guidance 
or public propositions to his Church, we are not informed. 



1810-1820.] INDEPENDENT (UIURCII, SAVANNAH. 233 

He is said to have been especially attentive to his own per- 
sonal appearance. His hair was powdered, and he rode to 
Church in his carriage, hat in hand, lest his hair should be 
disarranged. 

Mr. Adams' ministerial labors were terminated with his 
death, which occurred, as before stated, on the 29th of Octo- 
ber, 1811. The next we learn of Saltcatcher is the record 
from pp. 76 and "JJ of ' the MS. Records of the Presby- 
tery of Harmon)', April 9, 1812. " Mr. Colin Mclver, a 
licentiate of the Presbytery of Orange, produced a dismission 
from that Presbytery to put himself under -the care of the 
Presbytery of Harmony, and applied to be received. He was 
received accordingly." A letter from the Representatives of 
the Saltcatcher Church, which had formerly been under the 
care of the Presbytery of Charleston, assigning reasons for 
their withdrawing from the jurisdiction of that Presbytery, 
and praying to be taken under the care of the Presbytery of 
Harmony, was received and read. Whereupon, after consid- 
eration, resolved that the prayer of the petition be granted. 
A call was then preferred from the Church of Saltcatcher for 
the whole of the ministerial labors of Mr. Mclver, read, pre- 
sented to him and ^accepted. The Presbytery met by appoint- 
ment at Saltcatcher Church on the 29th of April, 18 12, when 
Mr. Mclver passed his trials, and was ordained. Dr. Kollock 
preaching the sermon, from I. Thess. v: 21, and Dr. Flinn 
presiding and giving the charge. Twenty-two members were 
reported as added to the church during the following year, 
and the whole number of communicants as thirty. Mr. 
Mclvet did not remain long in this pastoral charge. He was 
leleased from it on the loth of April, i8i3,and was dismissed 
on the 19th of May, 1814, to tiie Presbytery of Fayetteviile. 
The Church of Saltcatcher reported thirty members in 1815, 
twenty-two of whom were added the last year. 

The Independent Presbyterian Church in Savannah. — 
Of this we have writte*n briefly, and of the ministers who pre- 
ceded Dr. Kollock. One name we neglected to mention, that 
of Rev. Robert Kerr, of whom we only learn that his memory 
was cherished with grateful affection by surviving members, 
but at what period, a;id how long his labors were enjoyed, we 
are not informed 

In the fall of 1806 the Rev. Henry Kollock, D. D., who 
was then Professor of Theology in the College of New Jersey, 



234 DE. KOLLOCK. [1810-1820. 

and pastor of the Presbyterian Church in Princeton, was called 
to be the pastor of this important church, and in the autumn 
of that year he removed to Savannah, and undertook the 
charge of the congregation with zeal, fidelity, and forcible and 
eloquent presentation of divine truth, which were attended 
with great success. 

At the first communion after he entered upon his labors, 
twenty, and at the second eighteen persons made a [)ublic 
profession of their faith. Dr. Kollock was born December 
14, 1778, at New Providence, New Jersey, to which his pa- 
rents had retired from Elizabethtown as refugees in the 
war of the Revolution. His father was active in that struggle, 
was a man of intelligence, and for some time the editor of a 
paper. His son showed a great thirst for knowledge in his 
youth, and having entered the Junior Class of the College of 
New Jersey, was graduated in 1794, at the early age of fifteen 
years and nine months as Bachelor of Arts. In 1797 he was 
appointed tutor in college, his colleague in the tutorship 
being John Henry Hobart, afterwards Bishop of New York, 
between whom and himself there existed an intimate friend- 
ship, though differing widely on politics and ecclesiastical 
government, if not in theology. " Although he was both a 
Democrat and a Calvinist," said Hobart, of Dr. Kollock, " he 
was the most intelligent, gentlemanly and agreeable com- 
panion I ever knew." He was licensed to preach the gospel 
by the Presbytery of New York on the 7th of May, 1800. 
The first sermon he preached at Princeton after his licensure 
on " The future blessedness of the righteous," was listened to 
with the intensest interest. Nor did this interest diminish 
during the time of his tutorship. In October, 1800, he was 
called nearly at the same time to a colleague pastorship with 
Dr. McWhorter, of Newark, and to the church of Elizabeth- 
town, the place of his early education, and where mosi of his 
relatives resided. Here he was ordained on the loth ot Sep- 
tember, 1800. His reputation sustained no diminution, but 
the reverse. The favorite authors of this entire period of his 
life were Owen, Bates, Charnock, Howe, Baxter, Tillotson, 
Barrow, Leighton, Bishop Hall and Pictet's larger work in 
French, for his professional reading. His life at this period 
was one of even excessive devotion to study. He allotted 
little time to sleep, preserved the most rigid abstinence and 
mj.de rapid progress. In December, 1803, he was called 



1810-1820.] DR. KOLLOCK. 235 

with urgent solicitations to the pastorate of the Dutch Pres- 
byterian Church at Albany, and soon after was appointed 
Professor of Divinity in the College of New Jersey. During 
his pastorship, in concert with James Ricliards, Asa Hillyer, 
Edward Dorr Griffin, Amzi Armstrong, Matthew La Rue 
Perrine, and Robert Finley, most, if not all of them, men of 
note, he devoted some portion of his time to missionary 
labors in the mountainous regions of Morris and Suffolk 
Counties. Of these preaching tours Mr. Kollock was wont 
to speak with great satisfaction. The flowing tears coursing 
down the cheeks of these hardy men from the mines, coal 
pits and furnaces, gave him more pleasure even than the 
wrapt attention of the most polished city audience. On their 
return'he and his brethren would sometimes spend the last 
day of the week in preaching in some one of their congrega- 
tions. After such a day had reached its close, at Basking 
Ridge, Mr. Finley's charge, as the congregation was about to 
be dismissciJ, Mr. Finley arose with emotion too deep for ut- 
terance. After laboring in a few broken sentences, his tongue 
was loosed and he burst forth in such impressive eloquence 
as Mr. Kollock said he had never before heard. The con- 
gregation, before apparently passive, was powerfully moved 
and remained after the benediction, sobbing and overwhelmed. 
A powerful revival of religion followed which extended to 
other congregations around. In May, 1803, when a little 
more than two years in the ministry, he was called to preach 
the missionary sermon before the General Assembly, usually 
counted a distinguished honor, and performed the duty with 
great acceptance. This sermon was published, the only one 
he gave to the world' in a pamphlet form. 

The duties of Mr. Kollock in the Divinity Chair at Prince- 
ton, in which he succeeded a Dickinson, a Burr, an Edwards, a 
Withefspoon, were to supply the college and the adjoining 
congregation with preaching, and instruct such of the students 
as were in preparation for the ministry, in Theology and the 
Hebrew language. He also lectured to them or examined 
them on their studies in the several departments of Theologi- 
cal learning. In the commencement of 1806 he was honored 
at the age of 28 years, with the degree of Doctor of Divinity 
from Harvard, and in a few months afterward from Union 
College. 

For two or three years after his settlement in Savannah, at 



236 DR. KOLLOCK. [1810-1820. 

tile wish of his friends, he spent the Summer months in jour- 
neying in the Northern States. On one of these excursions 
he travelled through New England and attracted great atten- 
tion wherever he preached. This was the case especially in' 
Boston, which he visited on three different excursions. Multi- 
tudes were attracted by his eloquence, and in 1808 the con- 
gregation of the Park Street Church, their spacious house of 
worship being completed, called him unanimously as their 
pastor. He had this call for sometime under consideration. 
According to one account, his connection with the Church in 
Savannah was dissolved with aview to his removal. Accord- 
ing to another, he was prevailed upon by the trembling anxie- 
ty, and affectionate entreaties of the people of his charge, aged 
and young, male and female, to remain with them, and in 
Sept., 1809, he wrote to the Park Street Church declining 
their call, and they immediately extended it to that eminent 
man, Edward Dorr Griffin, his former neighbor in New Jer- 
sey, then Bartlett Professor of Rhetoiic in the Seminary at 
Andover, who was gradually prevailed on to accept. 

At the second stated sessions of the Presbytery of Harmony 
at St. Paul's Church in Augusta, Sept. 27, i8iO, Dr. John 
Cumming was present as a ruling elder, but there being no 
quorum present it was agreed that a meeting be called by the 
Moderator, which was accordingly summoned for January 11, 
181 1, agreeably to a resolution of the General Assembly of 
1796. At this meeting Dr. Cumming, a ruling elder from the 
church in Savannah was present as a member, and Dr. Kol- 
lock was received as a member of Presbytery, upon a dismis- 
sion from the Presbytery of New Brunswick to the Presby- 
tery of Piopewell, bearing date July 13, 1809. The Presby- 
tery of Harmony had been constituted since that date, and 
that portion of Hopewell Presbytery which then held Savan- 
nah within its bounds, was now covered by the geographical 
limits of Harmony. The Sai^annah Church was several times 
represented in this Presbytery by one of its elders, and the 
4th regular sessions of the body was held in that Church from 
the 20th to the 30th of December, 18 II. In 1810 Dr. Kol- 
lock was called to the Presidency of the University of Georgia, 
but this office he thought it his duty to decline. The winter 
of 181 1 was rendered memorable by the earthquakes by which 
the city of Savannah was visited, which may have made the 
minds of the people less certain of the endurance of earthly 



1810-1820.] DR. KOLLOCK. 237 

things. Their attention was directed to their eternal state and 
under the influences of the Spirit, the Word of God as it was 
preached, was effectual to the conversion of many. Besides 
preaching with unaccustomed power on the Sabbath, his 
week-day meetings were numerous, and much of his time was 
occupied in counselling those who were inquiring the way of 
salvation. In the .same year he published a volume of ser- 
mons which were much admired and extensively read. 

Dr. Kollock became each year more and more firmly en- 
throned in the affections of his people. It is greatly to be 
regretted that their should have been anything to mar a life 
so apparently useful and happy. But the usages of .society 
as to alcholic and intoxicating drinks were a temptation to 
many of all professions and classes of society. A man could 
not live in society, whether cultivated or otherwise, without 
having wines, often the most costly and tempting, or liquors 
more fiery, and less expensive, set before him as a mark of at- 
tention and hospitality, which it were rude and uncivil to 
refuse. Under these circumstances there were men of every 
profession, grave judges, able lawyers and physicians, mer- 
chants of influence and wealth, and occasionally re verend 
divines, who, before they were aware, were seduced by these 
subtile and unsuspected poisons, to their great injury and to 
the no small impairing of the respect in which they were held 
by others. It was regarded as necessary, in the severe seasons 
of the year, in wearisome journeys, in times of peculiar ex- 
posure, in malarious climes, on occasions requiring peculiar 
efforts, and even in social hilarity, to have recourse to such 
stimulants as these. In 1812, the General Assembly passed 
very earnest stringent resolutions on the subject of intemper- 
ence which came before the Presbytery of Harmony at its 
meeting in Augusta, in November of that year, for its action, 
at which meeting the subject of these remarks was present. 
In 1813, rumors were rife that he had yielded to these in- 
fluences, and the moderator was called upon by several minis- 
ters and elders, to call by letter a pro re nata meeting to in- 
vestigate the rumors that were afloat prejudicial to his stand- 
ing in the Ciiurch. Such a meeting was held at Edgefield C. H, 
on the nth of August, 1813. At the meeting in 1812, such ru- 
mors were known to the Presbytery, and were privately com- 
municated to him with much tenderness and candor, and assur- 
ances were received from him offuturecircumspection and con- 



238 DE. KOLLOCK. [1810-1820. 

sistency in his walk. But new instances were alleged as having 
publicly occuned, and charges were reluctantly tabled, and 
witnesses summoned, and testimony at a distance taken and he 
cited to appear to answer to these charges, but while they 
were on the threshold of this painful duty, they were furnished 
with a document from him prepared with care, in which he 
informed them that he felt it his duty to withdraw, and says, 
" I do hereby withdraw from the Presbyterian Government." 
There follows this withdrawal an argument stated with (no 
inconsiderable) ability and extended to some length, designed 
to prove that there is no other'than the parochial or congre- 
tional Presbytery known to scripture or discoverable in what 
is known of the first ages of the Church. To tliis the Pre.sby- 
tery replied, expressing the oi)inion that no human councils 
profess the right of controlling the consciences of inen, or of 
restraining or preventing them from exercising such forms of 
church discipline as is most agreeable to themselves, yet that 
the time and circumstances under which this declaration is 
presented, the Presbytery having been making efforts for the 
recovery of an offending brother and having been frustrated 
by the alleged repetition of the crime, and being now called 
upon in the most solemn manner to take further steps of 
dealing with him, were peculiarly unfortunate, inasmuch as it 
will be judged that the fear of conviction is the real cause of 
this declinature, and not any conscientious scruples which are 
alleged to have lately arisen with respect to the scripture au- 
thority of the Presbyterian form of Church Government. 
The Presbytery proceeded to pronounce its judgment that 
the declinature of Dr. Kollock was, under the circumstances, 
an act o{ contumacy , to express its abiding conviction that 
the standard of doctrine and discipline of the Presbyterian 
Church is agreeable to the Word of God, and suited to secure 
the peace, purity and prosperity of the Church; and to de- 
clare Dr. Kollock as suspended from the duties of the minis- 
try on account of his contumacy in refusing obedience to the 
orders and authority of Presbytery. He was served with a 
record of its proceedings, and cited to appear at the next 
stated sessions, to show reason why a sentence of deposition 
should not be passed against him. These sessions were held 
by invitation in the Scotch Church, in Charleston, April 14-16, 
1 8 14, and after rehearing the several steps of process which 
had been taken, from the private admonition, to the public 



1810-1820.] DK. KOLLOCK. 239 

suspension, they proceeded to depose him from the office of 
the holy ministry, Dr. Kollock having failed to appear. Thus 
matters remained until a pro re nata meeting was held at 
White Bluff, below Savannah, on the 25th and 26th of January, 
18 16. This meeting was held for the ordination and installa- 
tion of Thomas Goulding as pastor of that church, for the 
receiving of any candidates who might present themselves, and 
for the relief of the vacant churches in that part of the coun- 
try. At this meeting Rev. William McWhir, John Cousar, 
John R. Thompson, D. D., and Murdoch Murphy, ministers, 
were present, and in the course of their proceedings they dis- 
annulled the sentence of deposition passed against him, and 
recommended that he be regarded and treated as a minister 
of the gospel in good standing m\}a.G Independent Presbyterian 
Church, to which he is now attached. And it was ordered 
that a copy of this minute be transmitted to each member 9f 
Presbytery, and to the Moderator of each Presbytery under 
the General Assembly. The Presbytery, however, at its regu- 
lar stated sessions, did not ratify this action of the meeting 
pro re nata, on the ground that those present had transcended 
their powers, and had in other respects not acted in a way 
authorized by the rules of discipline, nor had any direct com- 
munication from Dr. K., as a Presbytery, nor any clear ex- 
pression of his repentance. The communications were in- 
formal, and could not in themselves be a ground for Presby- 
terial action. These transactions were painful in the extreme 
to Dr. Kollock. In reference to their first action he says : '' I 
do not then attend the Presbytery ; and I cannot recognize 
your authority over me. It is to me of little consequence 
what you do. Life has lost its charms to me ; and confiding 
in the cross to which I have fled, relying on that infinite 
grace, which is all my plea, hoping as a pardoned sinner to sing 
the song of Moses and the Lamb, I wait for the liberating 
stroke of death. I have received a wound in my heart which 
will cause me to groan all my days." He had committed a 
great mistake. At the moment that he was to be brought to 
trial he had, in a spirit of resistance, disowned the authority 
of that body he had sworn to obey. If his opinion as to the 
lawfulness of Presbyterial government had undergone a 
change, that was not the time to avow it. If he had appeared 
before. Presbytery he would have found that those who had 
been faithful to him, and wept and prayed with him in pri- 



240 DR. KOLLOCK. [1810-1820. 

vate, would have been ready to accept any manifestations of 
repentance, to have made the sentence as light as pos.sible, 
and to remove it on the evidence of reformation. The prove 
nata meeting again had committed an error, led into it by 
their own kindness of heart, and the representations infor- 
mally made to them by a near relative of the accused. But 
his congregation still remained enthusiastically devoted to 
him, and although the Presbytery of Harmony had been in- 
formed that if they did not take action in the case, a neigh- 
boring Presbytery was resolved to do it, they could not see 
that they could have done otherwise. It was much blamed 
by those who did not understand the Constitution and Gov- 
ernment of the Church, and had loose views of it besides, as 
arbitrary, unwise and tyrannical. Under these circumstances 
they addressed the General Assembly of 1816 directly by 
letter, rehearsing their whole proceedings, and earnestly re- 
questing, to use their own words: "That our proceedings 
may either be rectified by your wisdom, or decisively sanc- 
tioned by your approbation. The state of public feeling in 
this vicinity, the abused cause of discipline and of truth, and 
the few and persecuted advocates of ecclesiastical law and 
order, all implore and demand the effectual interference of the 
General Assembly." " The General Assembly will easily 
perceive the most unpleasant situation in which these trans- 
actions involve us. A circular is out declaring that we have 
restored Dr. Kollock. He declares that he nev^r expressed 
penitence nor asked for restoration. Surrounded by the ene 
mies of Presbyterianism, and the friends of Dr. Kollock, our 
situation is peculiarly embarrassing. We have acted, as we 
believe, cautiously, conscientiously and firmly. We beseech 
you to examine our conduct. If you find us wrong, censure 
us; if right, give us the support of your public approbation." 
The Assembly replied by letter, and tlie Presbytery laid all 
its proceedings in tlie case before the Synod of South Carolina 
and Georgia, at their Sessions at Willington, in November, 
18 16, which decided that the act of the Presbytery at White 
Bluff was irregular, and that the Presbytery, meeting at 
Charleston, acted rightly in its repeal. 

AH these unpleasant things — unpleasant and painful to both 
parties — did not cause the piety of Dr.'^K. to be questioned 
by those who knew him. Even if they admitted much of 
what had been alleged, they remembered that none are per- 



1310-1820.] DR. KOLLOCK. 241 

feet; that Noah, Abraham, David and Peter had grievously- 
erred, and were yet owned by God as hi.s chosen servants. 
To Dr. K., it seemed that liis case was greatly exaggerated. 
" Is not your address," said he, in an unpublished reply to 
the authors of the Letter to the Assembly, " calculated and 
designed to represent me as perfectly abandoned to intem- 
perance ? And yet you well know that, on this point, I had 
long abstained from the very appearance of evil, and was not 
only temperate, but rigidly abstemious." It was, then, a 
fault which had been corrected, and, perhaps, by the painful 
discipline to which he had been subjected. 

He continued to attend assiduously to the duties which his 
large and. increasing flock imposed upon him, remaining now 
during the sickly season when sometimes he was the only 
minister in the city, " the care of all the churches," as it were 
upon him, the pastor, in some sense, of them all, visiting the 
sick and dying, and following them to their graves. ^ Under 
these circumstances, his health gave way, and, at the advice 
of physicians and the urgent solicitations of friends, leaving 
his brother in charge of his pulpit, he sailed for England in 
March, 1817, visiting the chief cities of England, Scotland, 
Ireland and France. He was received with marks of great 
respect, and in Great Britain he preached to overflowing and 
admiring congregation!?. One object he had in view was to 
procure materials for the life of the great reformer, John Cal- 
vin, which he had projected and had commenced. In this he 
was disappointed. Returning in the month of November, on 
the evening of the monthly meeting for prayer, he delivered, 
to a crowded congregation, a deeply interesting discourse 
from I Sam., vii. 17 : "And his return was to Ramah, for 
there was his house; and there he judged Israel ; and there 
he built an altar unto the Lord." 

In 1819, on the 9th of May, he dedicated the new, spacious 
and noble house of worship, his congregation, now greatly in- 
creased, had erected. But during the summer and autumn 
of that year, the pestilence raged in Savannah with unusual 
violence, and under his severe labors he became again en- 
feebled ; but in proportion as his health declined did he 
become the more earnest to accomplish the work it was given 
him to do. He had appointed the 13th of December as the 
day when he would preach a charity sermon in behalf of the 
orphans. Against the remonstrance of his friends he entered 
16 



242 DE. KOLLOCK. [1810-1 820. 

the pulpit, and delivered an impressive and touching discourse 
on the parable of the Good Samaritan, the last he ever 
prcciched. While listening in the afternoon to a sermon on 
the subject of Death, preached for him by a stranger, he ex- 
perienced a slight paralysis of the arm, which soon passed 
off, but on returning home he fell prostrate under a new shock 
at his own door. On the next Sabbath the disease returned 
with new violence, depriving him of reason and conscious- 
ness, and, on the 29th, he died at the comparatively early 
age of forty-one. On the Wednesday before, his reason was 
restored to him, and as Dr. Capers, who was called to his 
bedside has written, " He lay with his countenance lookin^j 
as if bathed in the light of the third heavens, serene and tri- 
umphant. Mrs. K. was in great agony, and his attention was 
most tenderly directed to her. He asked for Bunyan's Pil- 
grim's Progress, and caused one of the family to read the 
pilgrim's passage through the swellings of Jordan, and begged 
her to be comforted. He called for the singing of the hymn 
of Watts' : 

' Why should we start, or fear to die ! ' 

and when it could not at once be found, he repeated the hymn, 
' There is a land of pure delight,' his face lighted with holy 
joy. 

"Observing me approaching his bed, he gently extended 
his hand, and as I pressed it in mine, he uttered, with some 
effort, ' Blessed be God, even the Father of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, the Father of mercies, and the God of all consolation, 
who comforteth us in ail our tribulation, that we may be 
able to comfort them which are in any trouble, by the com- 
fort wherewith we ourselves are comforted of God.' And 
shortly after he had spoken these words, he felL asleep in 
Jesus." 

The portrait of Dr. Kollock prefixed to his works, which 
were printed in four octavo volumes in 1822, exhibits a coun- 
tenance of manly beauty, and of great expression; his presence 
was commanding, his gestures appropriate and graceful, his 
voice, if not of the highest melody and of the greatest com- 
pass, was clear and distinct. His style was simple, yet suffi- 
ciently ornate, full of pathos and characterized by great 
energy and vigor. His eloquence was a strong, uniform and 
noble stream, acquiring velocity, beauty ani power as it 



1810-1820.J DE. KOI.LOCK. 243 

advanced. There was a glowing eafnestness and emotion 
which touched the soul. His descriptive powers were great 
and when his own feelings and those of his audience were 
wrought up to the highest pitch, he would sometimes burst 
forth in a short prayer or an apostrophe, which gave utter 
ance to his own emotions and those of the hearers, that hung 
on his lips. "His eloquence" says Dr Capers, "was the 
unique, the living expression of what he believed, approved 
and felt. Its primary elements were light and love, and its 
instruments, I think, were chiefly exquisite sensibility and a 
refined taste." He wrote his sermons out in full and placed 
the manuscript in the Bible before him. A glance of the eye 
on a page enabled him to repeat the whole, and he rarely 
recalled a word or hesitated in uttering a syllable. " In the 
latter part of his life, his brightest efforts of eloquence were 
purely extempore. Then his understanding seemed all light, 
his heart a fountain gushing with sensibility, every feature of 
his face beamed with glowing thought, and his whole person 
looked as if animated with a new life. I have not heard," 
says Dr. Capers, " more than one speaker in my life whom I 
have thought fairly on a par with him, and that was Dr. 
Jonathan Maxy, the first President of South Carolina Col- 
lege." He was fond of society and his frank, cordial and 
unassuming manner made him always a welcome visitor, 

He introduced no metaphysical or philosophic specula- 
tions into his sermons, and seldom displayed the stores of 
Biblical learning he unquestionably possessed. The truths 
he brought forward were the plain doctrines of the Bible 
presented in a form which the people would feel and under- 
stand. 

He was married in 1804 to Mrs. Mehetabel Campbell, 
widow of Alexander Campbell, of Richmond, Va., and 
daughter of William Hylton, of the Island of Jamaica. She 
survived her husband a number of years. He had no children. 
He was a man of large benevolence, and was generously 
sustained by a generous people, his salary being $3,000, in- 
creased afterwards, in 18 18, to $4,000. 



244 EZRA FISK AND RICHARD S. STORRS. [1810-1820. 



CHAPTER in. 

The Presbytery of Harmony in the earliest period of its 
history gave great attention to the subject of Domestic Mis- 
sions. At its second session in Augusta, January nth, 13th, 
181 1, Mr. Ezra Fisk, a licentiate of the Hampshire Associa- 
tion, Mass., and Mr. Richard S. Storrs, licentiate of the Pres- 
bytery of Long Island, expressed to Presbytery their willing- 
ness to itinerate as missionaries vvithin'their bounds and on 
the frontiers of Georgia, and produced letters recommenda- 
tory from these bodies as suitable persons for this service. 
They were received under the care of Presbytery and em- 
ployed for four months. Without applying to the Synod, 
Presbytery proceeded to ordain Mr. Fisk after the ordinary 
examination, which was in the Presbyterian Church (St. 
Paul's) ill Augusta. On the 13th the ordination took place 
in the Methodist Church, Dr. Brown presiding, and Dr. 
Kollock preaching the sermon from Acts xx., 28. They 
travelled and preached in the counties of Green, Hancock, 
Putnam, Morgan, Randolph, Clark, Oglethorpe, Wilkes and 
Burke ; in Liberty, Mcintosh, Screven, Washington and 
Baldwin, arriving in Savannah December i, 18 10, having 
travelled 1,100 miles, having preached eighty sermons be- 
sides attending private societies and exhorting, as opportunity 
offered, visiting many families and inculcating religious truth 
at the fireside. 

Measures were at once taken to form a Missionary Society 
and the Rev. John Brown, Drs. HoUingshead and Keith, Rev. 
Andrew Flinn and Dr. Kollock and the elders Zebulon 
Rudolph, of Columbia, and Dr. Harral, of Savannah, were 
appointed a Committee to draft a plan and Constitution for 
the same. The Presbytery addressed a letter to the church 
of Braintree, Mass., requesting them to release Mr. 
Storrs from his obligation to them and permit him to 
remain longer in the missionary work, but without suc- 
cess. Mr. Fisk was engaged in missionary labor also 
from the loth of April to the 2Sth of December, 181 1, 
during which time he itinerated for three months through 
tiie Counties of Burke, Jefferson and Warren ; Wash- 
ington, Hancock, Baldwin, Jones, Putnam, Randolph, Mor- 



1810-1820.] THE UNION MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 245 

gan, Clarke, Oglethorpe, Green and Wilkes, traveling about 
one thousand miles, preaching sixty-five times, lecturing also 
and exhorting where opportunity offered. Congregations 
were larger, listened with more candor and interest, and were 
more favorable than before towards the Presbyterian Church 
and its missions. In Morgan County, he had the happiness 
of seeing the Church called Pergamos organized ; elders 
ordained, and about thirty seal their faith in the Lord Jesus 
at the communion table in the midst of fhe wilderness. In 
July he took his station at Washington, Wilkes County, where 
he spent most of the Sabbaths. He performed missionary 
labor in the neighborhood of Washington, and visited again 
most of the counties mentioned before. (Min., pp. 58-61.) 
On the 30th of December the Presbytery adopted the Con- 
stitution of '■ The Union Missionary Society,"* to meet alter- 
nately on the second Thursday of January, in Charleston and 
Savannah, and appointed Messrs. John Bolton, of Savannah, 
and Stephen Thomas, of Charleston, its Treasurers: {lbid,yi) 
The missionaries thus alluded to were "Rev. Richard S. Storrs 
(afterwards D. D.), of Braintree, Mass., father of Rev. Rich- 
ard S. Storrs, Jr., D.D., of Brooklyn, N. Y.,and Rev. Ezra Fisk, 
who afterwards married the daughter of Rev. Dr. Francis 
Cummins, of Georgia, was for twenty years pastor of the 
Church in Goshen, N. Y., and received the degree of D. D. 
from Hamilton College in 1825. 

In 1812 the Synod of South 'Carolina and Georgia returned 
to the hands of the Assembly the conduct of Domestic Mis- 
sions, before entrusted to them, and the direct action of the 
Presbytery in the control of this matter does not again appear 
during this decade. 

On October 28, 18 14, the Presbytery received an applica- 
tion from a number of subscribers in the Counties of Tatnall 
and Montgomery, Ga., praying to be taken under the care of 
Presbytery and to be furnished with supplies. Messrs. Mur- 
phy and Goulding were directed to visit them as often as 
practicable, and at the next meeting it was reported that it 
had been done ; t.hat they were a duly organized congrega- 
tion, and both able and willing to support a pastor. A^nd at 

*So called because it was to be supported by the Presbyteries of 
South Carolina and Georgia, and those Associations which receive the 
Westminster Commission. Its missionaries to be ministers or proba- 
tioners in regular standing in the Presbyterian or Independent Church, 
and were to be stationary or itinerant as the Managers should direct. 



246 WILLIAMSBURG. []810-182a 

the meeting at White Bluff, to which allusion has before been 
made, a delegation from Mcintosh County appeared in Pres- 
bytery, representing several Societies in Mcintosh, described 
the destitute situation of the inhabitants, and prayed for relief 
A similar application was made by the inhabitants of Louis- 
ville, Ga., and supplies were appointed at the two next stated 
meetings for each of these places. Among the ministers 
named were Murdock Murphy, Thomas Goulding, Dr. Mc- 
Whir, A. G. Forster, John Cousar, A. G. Fraserand Anthony 
W. Ross. 

In the southeastern part of South Carolina, east of the 
Santee, was the ancient Church of Williamsburg, which con- 
tinuing in connection with the old Scotch Presbytery, remained 
vacant, so far as we know, through this decade. The Rev 
Mr. Birch, spoken of on a preceding page, in a letter written 
to Dr. William Dollard, in i8il, and which breathes a heav- 
enly spirit, recommended to them a Rev. Robert Reid, also 
a native of Ireland, and resident in Pennsylvania; but it is 
not known that he was ever invited to visit the church. Mr. 
Birch seems to have been acquainted with Mr. Malcomson in 
Ireland, and makes affectjonate inquiry after him, as his old 
friend. [Wallace, p. 89, and MS. Memoranda of the Church.] 

On the first of January, 18 19, after Mr. Covert had served 
the neighboring congregations of Bethel and Indian Town, 
with great acceptance, " the original congregation of Wil* 
liamsburg " addressed the Rev. Dr. Palmer, Moderator of the 
Congregational Association of South Carolina, through their 
committee, who expressed their desire that Mr. Covert should 
be ordained by them " in the Independent order," " that he 
may be qualified to discharge all the functions of the minis- 
terial office, and to advance (under the divine blessing) the 
.'spiritual interest of the congregation." This request was 
joined in by Mr. Covert, who presented ^ dismission from 
the Presbytery of New York, by which he was licensed, and 
read a confession of his faith, which was approved by the 
Association. His ordination took place in the Circular 
Church, Charleston, on the nth of February, 1819, the Rev. 
Dr. Palmer presiding. The ordination sermon preached by 
the Rev. Mr. Parks, the Rev. Mr. Floyd having preached an 
introductory sermon the evening before, the Rev. Mr. Lee offer- 
ed the ordaining prayer, and the Rev. Dr. Palmer delivered the 
charge. [MS. Minutes of Association, pp. 86-88.] The old 



lSlO-1820.] BETHEL CHURCH. 247 

Presbytery of Charleston had not yet ceased to exi'-t, for on 
the 15th of April, " at a meeting of the incorporated Presby- 
tery of Charleston, Mr. James Murray, of Edisto Island, was 
licensed by them to preach the gospel wherever God in his 
providence may call him." 

The settlement of Mr. Covert over this congregation was a 
propitious event,' as will afterwards be disclosed. The only 
elders of that church, whose names are recollected, are John 
McCiary and Thomas and James McConiiell. Thomas Mc- 
Connell died in 1801. All were men of piety and worth. 

Bethel Church, Williamsburg. We have seen that at 
the beginning of this decade, this Church was enjoying the 
useful ministry of Rev. Daniel Brown. He was received as 
a member of the Presbytery of Harmony on the 14th of Jan- 
uary, 18 II, but probably had already been preaching for some- 
time to this congregation. On a visit to his native place, in 
the summer of 1815, he was seized with a sudden illness and 
died ; and there sleeps with his fathers. [Wallace, p. 90.] 
During the vacancy which existed for nearly two years, divine 
service was regularly kept up by the elders. On the 2Sth of 
March, 1817, this Church, in connection with that of Indian 
Town; made arrangements with the Rev. John Covert as a 
supply for one year. John Covert was a native of New York 
and a student of the Theological Seminary at Princeton. A 
manuscript letter of Rev. Dr. Miller, dated May 29th, 1816, 
addrcs.sed to Dr. Flinn, speaks of him as having been appoint- 
ed by the Assembly's Committee of Missions, upon the ap- 
plication of Dr. Thompson of Augusta for missionary services 
in a large, and important district of country between Augusta 
and St. Mary's. He was to go into that country as early in 
the fall as may be deemed expedient and safe, and to spend a 
number of montHs in a missionary tour. He was directed to 
receive advice and orders as to his route from Dr. Flinn as the 
member of the Assembly's Committee of Missions for South 
Carolina and Georgia. Dr. Flinn was probably the means, 
after Mr. Covert had served a few months on an itinerant ser- 
vice in the field for which he was originally designed, of di- 
recting him to his own former field in Williamsburg. On the 
23rd of March, 1818 the Rev. Robert Wilson James, a' native 
of that District, a graduate of South Carolina College, and of 
Princeton Seminary, and a grandson of Major John James, of 
whom we have written, Vol. I, p. 407, 4O9, 480, was chosen 



248 EEV. E, W. JAMES — INDIAN TOWN. [1810-1820. 

as joirit Pastor of the two Churches of Bethel and Indian Town, 
Mr. James was received by Harmony as a licentiate under its 
care from the Presbytery of Concord, and at the same time a 
call for his services was laid before Presbytery, and put into 
his hands and by him accepted- He was ordained and in- 
stalled at Bethel Church on the nth of February,. 1 8 19, con- 
currently with the ordination and installation of Rev. Thomas 
Alexander, as pastor of Salem and Mount Zion Churches, the 
representatives of these congregations being also present. 
The Rev. Geo. Reid preached the ordination sermon from 
Mark 16: 15, and the Rev. Dr. Flinn presided and delivered 
the charge to the pastors and congregations. 

There were in the Bethel Church as elders prior to the 
ministry of Mr James, Robert Frierson, Samuel Frierson, Dr. 
John Graham, Samuel Wilson, JohnWilson, William Wilson, 
James Bradley, and Thomas Witherspoon. At the com- 
mencement of Mr. James' ministry there were of these living. 
Samuel Wilson, William Wilson, Robert Frierson, and 
Thomas Witherspoon.* In 18 18 there were added to the ses- 
sion by ordination, David McCiary, Robert I. Wilson, Samuel 
E. Fu'ton, R. S. Witherspoon and I. B.Witherspoon. [Wallace 
•p. 91.] 

The history of the Presbyterian Church of Indian Town 
was much • interwoven with that of Bethel through the ten 
years of which we write. They were united under the same 
pastors, and supplies, Daniel Brown, 1810-1815 ; John Covert, 
1817, and Robert W. James, 1818. Of the two the Church 
of Indian Town was the largest. In 181 2 Bethel reported to 
Presbytery 56 as the total number of communicants and In- 
dian Town 94, Afterwards their reports were joint reports 
and the total number of communicants was 164 in the united 
churches. * 

The united Churches of Hopewell and Aimwell on Pee- 
Dee were left vacant by the removal of Rev. Duncan Brown to 
Tennessee. See Vol, I, p. 1 18. Daniel Brown was appointed 
to supply Hopewell in 1811. On the 9th of April 1812, 
Daniel Smith a licentiate of the Presbytery of Concord was 
received under the care of the Presbytery of Harmony, and 
at the same meeting a call for two-thirds of his ministerial 
labors was received by Presbytery, and being tendered to him 

*Thomas Witherspoon was the father of Rev. Thos. A. Witherspoon 
of Alabama. 



1810-1820.] RLACK RIVER WINYAH — SALEM, B, R. 249 

was accepted. He was ordained and installed at Hopewell 
Church on the 7th of January, 1813, the Rev. Daniel Brown 
preaching the ordination sermon from I Tim., iv:i6, and the 
Rev. George G. McWhorter, presiding and giving the charge. 
The remainder of his time he preached at the Aim well church 
On the 26th of December, 1819, "the Rev. George Reid in 
behalf of the Rev. Daniel Smith applied to Presbytery for the 
di.ssolution of the pastoral relation between him and the con- 
gregration of Hopewell, in consequence pf the continuance of 
his ill health whereby he was altogather incapable of discharg- 
ing his ministerial duties toward, them, and had but little 
prospect of recovering his health. sufficiently to do so. Tiie 
application was granted and the pastoral relation was dis- 
solved. [Minutes, 283.] At the end of this decade the Aim- 
well church became extinct. The house of worship passed 
into the hands of the Baptists, who put it in repair about -the 
the year 1850 to 52, and have preached in it occasionally 
since as a missionary chapel. John Witherspoon had left in 
his last will and testament tiie Lower Ferry on Lynches 
Creek to the church as long as it continued of the Presbyterian 
faith and order. Since the church organization has become 
extinct his family has sold the ferry to other parties. The 
comnmnicants in the tvyo churches in 181 1 were 67, in 1815, 
"J"] in number. 

The Presbyterian Church of Black Mingo, named in 
1808 by Dr. Ramsay (Hist., Vol. H, p. 25), as being one of the 
churches of the old Presbytery, and of which Rev. William 
Knox was pastor, must have been in existence during this 
decade, but we have been unable to find any items of history 
respecting it. 

The minutes of the Presbytery , make no allusion to the 
Church of Black River, Winyah, in Georgetown District 
during this decade. It probably had but a transitory ex- 
istence. The Rev. Murdoch Murphy, its former pastor, 
applied to Presbytery, December 27th, i8li,to be received 
again from Orange Presbytery, to which he had been dis- 
missed three years before. But he was now pastor of Midway 
Church, Georgia (p. 492). 

The Church of Salem, Black River, by the removal of 
Rev. George G. McWhorter, became vacant, and on the 4th 
of March, 181 1, petitioned Presbytery for supplies. The Rev. 
John-Cousar, Rev. David Brown, Rev. John Brown, and Rev. 



250 MOUNT ZION. [1810-18'20. 

Andrew Flinn were appointed from time to time to visit it, 
preach, cateciiise, and administer the co iimunion. On the 
19th of May, 1814, the Rev. Robert Anderson, who had been 
licensed on the lOth of April, 18 13, and had been sent to the 
church as a supply, was ordained and installed as their pastor, 
the Rev. Geo. Reid preaching the sermon from 2d Cor., iv 5 : 
" For we preach not ourselves, but Christ Jesus, the Lord," 
Rev. Daniel Brown proposing the questions and giving the 
charg? to the pastor and people. He was a minister greatly 
beloved, and while he remained, discharged with great faith- 
fulness and zeal, all the duties of his sacred office ; but fiom 
motives of health he was forced to leave them. On the 9th 
of November, 1815, he was released from his pastoral chargj 
and dismissed to the Presbytery of Lexington, Va. The 
church was supplied by the two Messrs. Hillhouse, in the 
winter of 1816, and by Rev. John Joyce, in the winter of 
1816 and 1817. In January, 1817, the Rev. Thomas Alex- 
ander, a licentiate of the Presbytery of Concord, vi'iited Salem 
and preached to them till tiie April following'. The people 
resolved on extending to him a regular call to the pastoral 
office. In April, 1818, he was received as a member of Har- 
mony Presbytery, a united call for the two Churches of Salem 
and Mount Zion was presented to him, and he was ordained 
(the first appointment having failed), concurrently with Rev. 
R. W. James, on the 11 of February, 1819, at the Bethel 
Church, representatives of both Salem and Mount Zion being 
present. Two elders, William Bradley and John Shaw* 
were ordained in May following. 

Mount Zion, in Sumter District, owes its foundation to 
the efforts of three benevolent individuals, Capt. Thomas 
Gordon, Capr. John DuBose, and Thomas Wilson, Esq., in 
the year 1809. By an arrangement among themselves, Capt. 
Thomas Gordon furnished the whole of the Lumber for the 

*0n the 9th of June, 1810, the Presbyterian Churches of Medway, 
Salem and Mount Zion, met according to previous notice at Salem 
Church and organized the " Salem Auxiliary Union Society," whose 
object shall be to co-operate with the Bible Society of Charleston, also 
to aid the funds of the Missionary and Education Societies and the 
Theological Seminary at Princeton, each of the three last being under 
the care of the General Assemnly of the Presbyterian Church in the 
United States Of this Society Rev. John Cousar was elected the 
President, Robert Witherspoon 1st, and Robert Wilson 2d Vice-Presi- 
dent, and Rev. Thomas Alexander Corresponding Secretary. (Evan- 
gelical Intelligencer, September 11, 1819) 



1810-18:20.] CONCORD — NEW HOPE. 251 

house of worship free of charge John DuBose gave the land, 
and Thomas Wilson raised a subscription of ;?400, for which 
Mr. Samuel DuBose agreed to build the church. In the year 
1810, Rev. Geo. G. McWhorter accepted an invitation to 
preach to the congregation, and during that year preached 
from a stand erected for that purpose. Near the close of this 
year the church was completed. During the years 1811, 

1812, 1813 and 1814, Mr. McW'horter preached to them one- 
half of his time in the new church. It receives its fir«t men- 
tion, so far as we have discovered in the minutes of Presby- 
tery, on the 8th of April, 1813, when it was represented in 
the Presbytery of Harmony by William Carter, an elder. 
Whctt was the precise date of its organization we are not able 
to say. The statistical table which is appended to this, the 
Seventh Stated Sessions of the Presbytery, gives Rev. Geo. 
G. McWhorter as the pastor of Concord, Mount Zion and 
Beaver Creek, and the number of communicants in this 
united charge as 102. The same report of the same united 
charge is made at the April sessions of 1814; the same at 
April sessions of 1815. Mr. WcWhorter Itft this charge 
about the beginning of 1815. It was dependent now upon 
such occasional supplies as it could obtain. As Rev. George 
Reid was appointed to supply Mount Zion, both in the year 
1816 and 1817, it remained vacant durmg those years and 
until in i8i8, it was united with Salem, under the pastoral 
charge ot the Rev. Thomas Alexander. The three persons 

'so active in the erection of the house of worship, Thomas Wil- 
son, Thomas Gordon and John DuBose, all left before the 
church was organized. Messrs. Robert Wilson, William 
Carter and John Fleming were the first elders. 

Of Concord Church, in Sumter District, we know as little. 
The same tables show us that it was under the pastoral case 
of Rev. Mr. McWhorter in 1813, 1814, 1815 ; that it continued 
so till May, 1819, is established by the Minutes of the As- 
sembly, which show that Mr. McWhorter was the joint pastor 
of Beaver Creek and Concord B. K. at that time. 

Newhope, was served still by Rev. Mr. Cousar. The total 
number of communicants, January 11, 1811, was 28. 

Mount Hope, is mentioned as one of his churches in April, 

1813. It may be another name for the same organization. 
Neither of these names appear after this latter date. 



252 MIDWAY — CHESTEEriELD C. H. [1810-1820. 

Midway Chukch, which is on the N. E. side of the eastern 
branch of Biack River or in what is now called Clarendon 
District or County, and Bruington, which is south of the 
south western Branch continued to be the charge of Rev. John 
Cousar, Midway in January i8i i, reported twenty members 
in communion, an increase of eight since the report in 1809. 
In the Spring of 1812, the membership was twenty-seven in 
number, eleven having been added and four dismissed. Bru- 
ington, which is now mentioned for the first time, is said to 
have been established in 1811 or 1812, during which year a 
house of worship was built and the. Rev. John Cousar con- 
stituted its pastor. The same authority says it consisted at 
first of but five rtiembers, viz : Jane Nelson, James Nelson, 
Isabella Nelson, and Samuel Pendergrast, In ihe statistical 
report to the Assembly, under date of April 13, 1812, it had 
eleven members. In the two churches, thirty-eight. In the 
Sprin'.j of 18 13, the united membership of Mid A-ay, Bruington 
and Mt. Hope, is fifty-nine, of whom twenty-three were added 
during the preceding year. In the Spring of 1815,- the total 
of communicants in Midway and Bruington was eighty-five, 
fourteen having been added. Neither New Hope nor Mount 
Hope appear anymore. 

Chesterfield C. H. among the supplies appointed on the 
13th of April, 1812, were those of Daniel Smith, who was di- 
rected to preach two Sabbaths in the Districts of Darlington 
and Chesterefild. On the gth of April, 1813, Mr. McNeil 
Crawford, an elder from the congregation of Chesterfield, 
appeared in Presbytery and made known the desire of that 
congregation to place themselves under presbyterial care ; the 
application was acceded to, and Mr. Crawford took his seat 
as a member. At the same meeting, Rev. Colin Mclver was 
released from the pastoral at charge of Saltcatcher congrega- 
tion and was appointed to supply at least one Sabbath at 
Chesterfield C. H. On the 19th of May, [814, Mr Mclver 
was dismissed at his own request to the Presbytery of Fayette- 
ville into whose bounds he had removed, and on the 28th of 
October, a letter was received from him. praying the Presby- 
tery to give permission to the churches of Chesterfield, Pine 
Tree and Sandy Run, to make their reports to the Presbytery 
of Fayetteville and to request that Presbytery to receive those 
reports and attend to the interests of those churches so long 
as a member of their body shall minister to them as their 



1810-1820.] LITTLE PEEDEE — RED BLUFF. 253 

pa.stor. The prayer was granted. Before i8ig, as appeared 
from the reports made to the General Assembly in that year, 
the Rev. John McFarland, also of the Presbyteryof Fayette- 
ville, had succeeded to the pastoral care of these churches, 
though Che.sterville and Pine Tree are reported in the same 
minutes, as of the Presbytery of Harmony, and as being 
vacant. 

Changes were also taking place which led not yet, but in 
the next decade, to the establishment of a Church known as 
the Little Peedee. 

This was found in what was originally a colony from Ash- 
pole Church in N. C. In their new home they did not neglect 
the assemi)ling of themselves together, but met on Sabbath 
days at the house of Mr. John Mnrphy, one of their members, 
for religious worship ; sermons were read by Dugald and 
Duncan Carmichae], Esqrs., and by Mr. Murpny himself. 
Rev. Mr. Lindsay of North Carolina had occasionally visited 
them at their request. Afterwards, and during their religious 
services, the Rev. Mr. McDiarmid preached occasionally at 
private houses. These ministerial visits were between the 
years of 1805 and 1820. About the year 1815, the Rev. Mr. 
Caldwell of Concord' Presbytery, preached in the house of 
Mr. Peter Campbell, while he, Mr. Caldwell, was employed as 
a teacher at Marion Court House. These religious exercises 
prepared the way for what supervened m the next decade. 

Red Bluff. — This church still belonged to the Synod of 
North Carolina, though in Marlboro' County, South Caro- 
lina. " The first meeting of Fayetteville Presbytery was held 
af Centre Church, Robeson County, N. C, on the 21st of Oc- 
tober, 1813. The roll of churches is not given, but simply 
the roll of ministers. Red Bluff was doubtless one of the 
original churches, for soon afterward we find it supplied by 
the Rev. Malcom McNair. in connection with Centre, Ashpole 
and Laurel Hill. This date gives us a clue as to the length 
of time that Sharon existed as a separate congregation. It 
could' not have been more than ten or twelve years. 

The Fikst PuEgBYXERiAN Church, in Columbia, so far 
as our historical researches have yet discovered, although 
existing in some form in 1795, (see Vol. I, 59$,) received 
its first artd complete organization as a Presbyterian Church 
under Rev. John Brown, afterwards D. D., who had re- 
cently become a Professor in the South Carolina College. A 



254 COLUMBIA. [1810-1320. 

meeting was held early in the year 1810, at the hou.se of Mr. 
Daniel Grey, at which were present Rev. Mr. Brown, Mr. 

Thomas Lind, Mr. Becket, Mr. James Young, Mr. James 

Douglas, Mr. Daniel Gray and Mr. John Murphy. Having 
agreed to associate themselves together as a Presbyterian 
Congregation, they proceeded to the nomination of Ruling 
Eyers ; and after consultation and conference on the subject, 
Mr. Lmdsayand Mr. Murphy being nominated were elected 
by the suffrages of the members present at the meeting. 

At a meeting held on the 15th of May, 1810, at the house 
of the Rev. Mr. Brown, the members entered into and sub- 
scribed a more formal agreement, and appointed the Saturday 
next ensuing as a Day of Fasting, Humiliation and Prayer for 
the Divine blessing on the Church in general, and the newly 
formed society in particular, and especially for His blessing to 
await them in the celebration of the Holy Sacramental Supper 
of our Lord, which it was agreed should be administered in 
the College Chapel on the next Sabbath." 

"At a meeting held at the house of the Rev. Mr. Brown, 
Col. Thomas Taylor, Mr. Lindsay and Mr. Murphy were or- 
dained Ruling Elders in the manner prescribed in the ' Forms 
for the Government and Discipline of the Presbyterian Church 
in the United States of America.' " [Old Records of the 
Presbyterian Church cf Columbia.] 

This is the first communion of the Presbyterian Church in 
Columbia of which we have any record. Those who were 
present and participated in it frequently referred to it as a 
season of peculiar interest. The number of communicants 
was precisely the number of those who first sat down at the 
Sacramental Supper when it was instituted by Christ. Their 
names have been traditionally preserved, and it may be 
proper to record them. They are as follows: Mr. and Mrs. 
James Young, Mr. and Mrs. James Douglass, Mr. and Mrs. 
Zebulon Rudolph, Mrs. W. C. Preston, Mrs. Chancellor 
Harper, Mr. David Grey, Mrs. James Lewis, Mrs. Dr. Brown 
and Miss Clementine Brown, afterwards Mrs. Golding, to 
which list must be added," says Dr. Palmer, from whose MSS. 
we are culling most of these facts, '' Col. Thomas Taylor, the 
Patriarch of the settlement, who subsequently became an 
Eider in the Church, but who then communed for the first 
time under circumstances of peculiar interest. This venerable 
gentleman, so justly revered as one of the Fathers of the 



1810-1820.] COLUMBIA. 255 

Town, and of the Presbyterian Church, appears to have been 
through h'fe a man of strong reh'gious sensibilities. By edu- 
cation he was an Episcopahan, that being the church of his 
father. For himself, however, he had not been sufficiently 
satisfied with any existing church to attach himself to it. 
When on this occasion he saw the table spread in the Chapel 
of the College, and heard the free invitation given to God's 
children to celebrate the Redeemer's Passover in the Supper, 
his mind was powerfully affected. He had found the people 
among whom he was willing to cast in his lot, and yielding 
to the strong impulse of his heart, he went forward. Speak- 
ing with the emotions which mastered him, he bowed his head 
upon the table among the communicants, who were all happy 
that the Lord's Tabernacle was' established among them. 
When the Elders came around to collect the tokens, (which 
were then used,) being ignorant of the usages of the Church, 
he slipped a piece of coin into the hand of the Elder, who 
with a smile returned it. But though not exactly qualified 
as to Church form, he was not disturbed ; all recognized his 
pious emotion as the true token that he was the Lord's disci- 
ple. This circumstance he often referred to in later years, 
when he had become an officer in the Church, and is now fre- 
quently spoken of by his few surviving compeers, who dwell 
with affection upon his memory; which is the memory of a 
pure life and virtuous deeds." MSS. Hist, by Dr. Palmer, 
pp. 8, 9. 

We have referred to this circuirntance in Vol. i, p. 597, not 
being perfectly satisfied as to whether it occurred under the 
Mr. Dunlapor Mr. Brown's ministry. That Mr. Dunlap should 
have preached in Columbia nine years after his ordination 
without ever administering the communion of the Lord's 
Supper seemed to us somewhat strange. Then the sequence 
in the "old recoids." The meeting at the house of Mr. 
Grey early in 1810. their agreeing to associate as a congrega- 
tion, electing Messrs. Lindsay and Murphy as elders, the 
more formal subscription and agreement May i3, 18 10, at 
the house of Mr. Brown, and their having a day of fasting 
and prayer before the communion, their holding a meeting at 
the house of Mr. Brown, at which the twp elders btfore men- 
tioned and Col. Taylor were ordained, does not give a natural 
sequence of events, unless the communion in question was 
administered by the two elders, when as yet their ordination 



266 DR. BROWN — DR. MONTGOMERY. [1810-1820. 

bad not taken place. There is no doubt, however, that the 
tradition, at the time of the writing of the history of this 
church by Dr. Palmer, was in accordance with his statement. 
And his conclusion was that elders were induced to come 
from neighboring churches to assist in the communion when 
administered by ivlr. Dunlap. " Dr. Brown's useful labors in 
Columbia were terminated by the resignation of his office as 
Professor in the South Carolina College, which was on the 
first of May, 1811. He soon afterwards removed and trans- 
ferred his relations to Hopewell Presbytery, having been 
elected as President of the University of Georgia, established 
at Athens. His short stay was, however, pre-eminently use- 
ful, as by him the church was fully organized and a spirit was 
infused which has continued to this' day." The degree of 
Doctor of Divinity was conferred on him by the College of 
New Jersey in 181 1. 

At the meeting of the Synod of South Carolina and 
Georgia, at Columbia, in 1831, Dr. Brown was present as a 
worshipper in the church for the last time, and overpowered 
with emotion, alluded to the circumstances and scene of their 
first communion, in which he participated. Some of the 
letters written from Columbia while he was resident here 
and addressed to his friend. Dr. Flinn, are marked by that 
easy and flowing style, that childlike simplicity and that 
language of affection for which he was always so remarkable. 
Did our limits allow we would be glad to follow this good 
man through the remainder of his career. He resigned the 
Presidency of the University of Georgia in 1816, was twelve 
years pastor of Mount Zion Church, in Hancock County, 
when he removed to Fort Gaines and entered into the eternal 
re.st on the nth of December, 1842, in the 80th year of his 
age. " Our Apostle John," he was sometimes called, a man 
of guileless simplicity and universally beloved. Sprague's 
Annals, vol. iii., LaBorde's Hist. S. C. College. 

The immediate fruits of his labors here were reaped by his 
successor, the Rev. Benjamin R. Montgomery, elected to the 
chair of Moral Philosopy and Logic, November 27th, 18 11. 
"His ministration as Chaplain of the State Institution were 
attended by the people and he became as Dr. Brown, their 
quasi pastor." The members of the church being desirous of 
assuming a more regular form of connecting themselves more 
nearly with Dr. Montgomery as their pastor, held a meeting 



lMO-1820] COLUMBIA. 257. 

on the 19th of July, 1812, in the Court House, in the town of 
Columbia. Col. Taylor was appointed chairman of the meet- 
ing. At this time the following paper was drawn up : "We 
whose names are hereby subscribed, do hereby agree to asso- 
ciate ourselves into a congregation for religious worship, under 
the, pastoral care of the Rev. Dr. Montgomery, and his suc- 
cessors, whom we may hereafter choose. Divine service to 
be performed according to the Presbyterian or Independent 
form of public worship. Signed by Thomas Taylor, Sr., 
Henry D. Ward, James Douglas, Thomas Lindsay, J. Smith, 
John Murphy, H. Richardson, Henry W. DeSaussure, D. 
Coattes, William Shaw, James Young, Abram Nott, Zebulon 
Rudolph, A. Mulder, James Davis and John Hooker. At 
the same meeting Col. Taylor, Judge Nott and Maj. Ward 
were appointed a committee to procure a proper place for 
building a church. 

Thus far the members of the church and congregation had 
been accustomed to worship in the College Chapel, occupy- 
ing the galleries, while the body of the building was filled by 
the students. As the church grew in numbers this arrange- 
ment was no longer convenient. 

When the town of Columbia was originally laid out by a 
Commission of the Legislature, a square of land containing 
four acres was reserved for a public burying ground in the 
southern portion of which interments were made. 

At a later period, there being some dissatisfaction in the 
location of this public ground, an Act was passed in the year 
1808, the same year in which the town itself was incor- 
porated, authorizing the sale of half this square as yet unoc- 
cupied by graves. , The proceeds of this sale were to be ap- 
propriated to the purchase of another burial place. This was 
done and the surplus of money over and above the purchase 
was to be divided equally between the four denominations. 
The two remaining acres were appraised, were to be the 
property of the Episcopalians and the Presbyterians. It was 
not advisable that their houses of worship should be so near 
each other, and it was agreed that one of these denominations 
should buy out the rights of the other. Lots were cast to de- 
termine which of the two should buy out the other party and 
become the sole proprietor. The decision was that the Pres- 
byterians should hold the ground, extinguishing by purchase 
the just claims of the Episcopal Church. A contract was 
17 



258 COLUMBIA. [1810-1820. 

made on the 22d of Jun^;, 1813, for building a house of 
worship. The whole expen.ses of which, including what 
was spent in procuring the site, is estimated, to amount to 
gS.OOO. 

In the month of October, 1 814, the Presbytery of Harmony 
met in Columbia and at this time the church was dedicated. 
We do not know what the services of dedication were. But 
the Presbytery was opened with a sermon by the Rev. Dr. 
Flinn from Revelation, 2:10. "Be thou faithful unto death 
and I will give thee a ciown of life," The building at this 
time was in a most incomplete state, being only enclosed and 
floored, but without pew.s and sashes. Rude seats were con- 
structed for the occasion, and the Methodist church was cour- 
teously tendered to the Presbytery for the services at night. 

During the year 18 15 the building was completed. In 
October, 1817, a bell waa added, the same indeed' which now 
calls us to worship. These first houses of worslhip irf Colum- 
bia were not in the highest style of church airehitecture- 
which is now affected. The Presbyterian Church, like most 
of the others was of wood. It had two square towers sur- 
mounted by cupolas in front, and perhaps was ratrfcer more- 
tasteful and aspiring than the other churches, thought ii would' 
appear not very imposing to the men of the generationn now 
coming on the stage of action. ' 

Dr. Montgomery, though still the chaplain of the coEege- 
was permitted to officiate in the qhurch, the students accowi- 
panying him from the Chapel. He continued to minister tO' 
them, receiving from the people the stipend of ;g500, per an-- 
num till the year, 18 18. During the six: years of his residence 
and labors in Columbia, the leading incidents were the erec- 
tion of a house of worship with all its necessary furniture, the 
gracious work of God's Spirit in the first year of his ministry 
during which 36 persons were added to the church and the 
election of a truly worthy and valuable elder. Mr, Thomas 
Lindsay, one of the three original elders having removed to 
St. Charles, Missouri, Edward D. Smith, M. D., Professor of 
Chemistry and Natural Philosophy in South Carolina College 
was chosen to fill his place. About the first of the year i8i8 
Dr. Montgomery began to meditate a removal to Missouri, 
and the church having grown in size and importance, realized 
the want of a settled pastor whose whole time and talents 
might be devoted to their interests, A public meeting of the 



T 810-1820.] DK. T. C. HENRY. 259 

pew holders was called on the 28t-h of April, 1818, to take this 
.subject into consideration. The result was the appointment of 
a committee of seven, consisting of Col. Thomas Taylor, Hon. 
Judge Nott, Ainsley Hall, Zebulon Rudolph, who had before 
been an elder in the church in Camden, Samuel Guirey, 
David Thompson, and Dr. Edward D. Smith, to vs^hom was 
committed the whole matter of inquiring for a suitable candi- 
date, and when t/iey were satisfied, of conducting all the ne- 
gotiations for his settlement in the pastorate. By this arrange- 
ment, the congregation bound itself to submit to the judg- 
ment of a select committee ; but they sought to protect them- 
selves by a condition in the settlement which Hmited the con- 
tract to a term of three years, when it would expire of itself 
but might be renewed at the pleasure of the parties. This 
rule, wholly unknown as it is to the constitution of the Pres- 
byterian church, proved afterwards a prolific source of evil. 
But it was the only check which they could place upon the 
power which they had unwisely deposited in the hands of a 
committee to call and settle a pastor at (ketr discretion. 

The committee vested with this power and being aware 
that the Rev. Ebenezer Porter, D. D., then Bartlett Prof 
of Rhetoric in the Theological Seminary at Andover, Massa- 
chusetts, and afterwards President of the same, was obliged 
to spend his winters in the South to avoid the rigors of a 
Northern climate, and supposing that on that account he 
might prefer a Southern residence, expressed the desire that 
he would consent to receive a call from this church. In the 
following November he was chosen President of the Univer- 
sity of Georgia. Both offers were declined by Dr. Porter, 
through his supreme devotion to the Theological Seminary 
with which he was connected. [Memoir of Dr. Porter by 
Lyman Matthews, p. 75.] They next directed their atten- 
tion to Mr. Thomas Charlton Henry, son of Alexander 
Henry of Philadelphia, a graduate of Middlebury College and 
the Theological Seminary at Princeton, New Jersey, and at 
this time a licentiate under the care of the West Lexington 
Presbytery, Kentucky. Though personally unknown to the 
conamittee he was warmly recommended by the Rev. Mr. 
Joyce, then of Augusta, and by several persons in Charleston. 
Accordingly a letter was addressed to hirn on the 23rd of 
June, 1818, which resulted in his being ordained and installed 
the first Pas/ffr of ihe church, if we except Mr. Dunlap, who 



260 l)K. T. C. HENRY. [I810-l«'i0.; 

had been ordained here by the old Presbytery of South Car- 
olina in 1795. During the interval of the five years between 
the death of Mr. Dunlap and the advent of Dr. Brown, there 
has yet appeared no trace of the church's history. The Pres- 
bytery of Harmony met in the town of Columbia on the 5th 
of November, 1818. 

At the earnest desire of the congregation, Mr. Henry 
passed through the several parts of his trial, and was ordained 
and installed on Saturday, the 7th of November, 1818, the 
Rev. Dr. Montgomery preaching the sermon from 2nd Cor. 
ii : 16, and Rev. Dr. Flinn presiding and delivering the charge 
to the pastor and the people. 

Dr. Montgomery, at the same meeting, was dismissed to 
join the Presbytery of Missouri. A subscription was set on 
foot, as soon as the call was made out, to raise the .'-alary, 
which was $2,000, and to procure a residence. This church 
was incorporated in i8i3,by the name and style of The First 
Presbyterian Church in the Town of Columbia. The total 
of communicants reported by Dr. Montgomery was forty- 
eight; twenty-six were received under Mr. Henry's ministry 
before the close of 1 8 19. 

The church met with a serious loss in the summer of 18 19 
in the death of Edward Darrill Smith, M. D., one ot its elders, 
. who was greatly beloved. He was descended from the Land- 
grave Thomas Smith, one of the early settlers of Carolina, was 
born in the City of Charleston in May, 1778, and was the 
youngest son of Josiah and Mary Smith, who gave him the 
advantages of a liberal education. He was graduated with 
distinction at Princeton at the age of 17, and took his degree 
of M. D. at Philadelphia. In January 7, 1802, he entered 
into partnership in the practice of medicine with his uncle, 
Dr. William S. Stevens, and Dr. Joseph H. Ramsay, and was 
married in November of the same year to Miss Sarah J. 
North, who survived him many years, an ornament and ex- 
ample to all, and universally beloved. In March, 1807, he 
removed to Pendleton, where the death of his eldest daughter 
quickened the religious impressions made upon the mind of 
/Mrs, Smith and himself He joined the Hopewell Church, 
under Mr. McElhenny, in the summer of 1810, and set up the 
altar of prayer, without delay, in his house. The solemn 
covenant he entered into at that time was found among his 
papers after his death, and ,is worthy of preservation as an 



1810-1820.] BR. E. D. SMITH. 261 

example lo others The chair of Chemistry and Natural 
Philosophy ill the College of South Carolina being vacated 
by the lamented death of Professor Charles Devvar Simons, 
wiio was drowned on his way home from Charleston, he was 
elected to succeed him, November 26th, 1812, and removed 
his family to Columbia in January following. He transferred 
his membership to the church in Columbia, took an active 
part in the erection of the church edifice; and Mr. Thomas 
Lindsay, one of the three original elders, having removed to 
St. Charles, Mo., he was elected an elder in his place. As a 
Christian, he was much in prayer ; as a college officer, a man 
of wonderful diligence, methodical in his habits, successful as 
a teacher, and beloved and revered by his pupils. He was of 
a magnanimous and generous nature, sacrificing his own ease 
for the good of others, a model of manly viriue. He sat at 
the Lord's table at the communion in July for the last time. 
On Monday morning he left for Missouri with his friend, Mr. 
David Coulter; was attackea with bilious fever soon after his 
arrival at his friend's house, and died in the month of August 
(far away from the wife and children of his bosom,) where his 
remains were interred. Great was the sorrow at his death. In 
the epidemic which had prevailed in Columbia in i8i5, his 
duties in college were suspended that he might bestow his 
professional labors upon the suffering, to whom he was often 
the instrument of good. 

The Bethesda Church, Camden. — The Rev. Andrew 
Flinn having resigned his pastoral charge on the 14th of 
August, 1809', the church was declared vacant, and a tem- 
porary engagement for the conduct of its worship made with 
the Rev. W. Brantly, of the Baptist Church, until a pastor 
could be procured. 

At a regular meeting of the congregation, on the i6th of 
October, 1809, it was unanimously resolved that the Rev. B. 

On Thursday, February 4, 1819, the Columbia Sunday School Union 
was formed. Col. John "Taylor, President; Dr. James Davis, Dr. E. D. 
Smith, Major C. Clifton, and Eev. Prof. R. Henry, Vice-Presidents ; Rev. 
T. C. Henry, Corresponding Secretary ; John Dickson, Recording Secretary ; 
Andrew Wallace, Treasurer; Messrs. Zeb'n Rudulph, Wm. Cline, D. 
Thompson, and Wm. DeSaussure, Directors. On the resignation of Dr. 
Davis, Rev. W. B. Johnson was appointed in his place. This organiza- 
tion embraced different denominations. Schools No. 1, 2 and 3 are 
referred to, and the objects of the organization seem to have been car- 
ried forward with great system and efficiency. Among the most dili- 
gent and interested workers in this Society was Dr. E. D. Smith. 



262 BETHESDA, CAMDEN. [1810-1820. 

R. Montgomery be called to the pastoral cliarge of the con- 
gregation, and, finding that the pew rents amounted to about 
six hundred dollars, that this sum be guaranteed to. him an- 
nually as a compensation for his services. 

The Rev. B. M. Montgomery entered upon the duties 
of hi:i office. January 1st, i8n, and Mr. WiUiam Lang' 
and Jarnes K. Douglas were at that time elected elders. 
From this position he was called to a professorship in the 
College in Columbia. Dr. Laborde says (Hist, of S. C. Col- 
lege, p. 95) his first official act bears date February 9th, i8tO. 
" In a letter now before me," says Dr. Laborde, " I am as- 
sured that never was a separation between a pastor and his 
people more trying. Nothing but the importance of uniting 
the pastoral relation of the young and feeble church at Colum- 
bia with the professor's chair in College could have induced 
him to relinquish his connection with the chur.ch at Camden. 
He was often heard. to say that the most sorrowful day of his 
life was when he left Camden. His farewell sermon was 
preached from- 2d Corinthians, xiii. 11. One who heard it 
writes that " it was an occasion never to be forgotten by 
those present. There was not a tearless eye in the church, 
and niany irrepressible bursts of sorrow testified the love and 
attachment between a beloved pastor and his people." (^Ibid, 
pp. 95, 96.) The parting of pastor and people, when there is 
even the common bond of friendship, is always painful. But the 
description reminds the present writer of what was said of 
Dr. Montgomery by Dr. Loland, lately departed, that "he 
was capable of great eloquence ; " and by Dr. Campbell, who 
also departed this life some years since, that the most brilliant 
discourse he ever heard was pronounced by Dr. Montgomery. 
But his pulpit effort.s were not always equal. Dr. Mont- 
gomery's stay in Camden was comparatively a brief one. He 
was elected to the chair of Moral Philosophy and Logic, iii 
the College of South Carolina, November 27, 1811. 

The church was again declared vacant, and the Rev. Geo. 
Reid was called to fill the vacancy occasioned by the resigna- 
tion of Rev. B. M. Montgomery, and remained until the year 
18 19, when he removed to Charleston, and the church was 
again vacant. Various methods were adopted to keep open 
the house of God, and to sustain the interest of the people in 
religious things. At a meeting held January 7, 1819, it was 
resolved to invite Mr. John McEwen, who was not yet 



1810-1820.] PINE TREK CHURCH. 263 

licensed, to read a sermon each Sunday at the usual hour of 
service.* It was dependent on temi)orary .supplies, among 
whom wa."? Rev. Alfred Wright, afterwards missionary to 
the Choctaw Indians. (MS. of Jas. K. Dougbis,) The num- 
ber of communing members in this church in 1809 was 33. 
Other reports made to the Presbytery of Harmony give tlie 
total communicants, in different years as 39, 48'. 52 and 45. 

Pine Tree Church. — The Rev. Colin Mclver is reported 
in the extracts from the minutes of the General rV.«sembly for 
1812 as employed for three months, " between Charle.ston, 
S. C, and Baltimore, on missionary ground." (Extracts. &c . 
p. 12. Mr. Mclver was a young minister recently from 
Scotland, who came into this neighborhood about tliis time, 
and preached to several Scotch Presbyterians, both in English 
and Gaelic, .who had settled between Camden and Big Lynch's 
Creek, and during that year, as our informant says, organized 
tiiem into a church. The number of members is not known,' 
but the first elders were Daniel McLeod, Daniel McLean, 
and Peter McCaskill. During his ministry a house of worship 
was built, near a branch which was called " No Head," by 
which the church was generally known for a number of years. 
Mr. Mclver preached first at the house of Benjamin McCoy, 
and, afterwards, at other private residences before the hou.se 
of worship was built. (MSS. of J. R. Shaw, Oct. 4, 1878.) 
There maybe some error in dates, for we find Mr. Mclver 
received as a licentiate of the Presbytery of Orange by the 
Presbytery of Harmony on the 9th of April, 1812, accepting 
a call from the church of Saltcatcher,. and was ordained 
and installed over that church on the 29th of April, 1812. 
[MSS. Minutes of Harmony Presbytery, Vol. I, pp. yy, 93.] 

He must have returned to his former field of labor. In 
their statistical report to the General Assembly in May, 1844, 
he is reported as laboring at Chesterfield, Pine Tree, and 
Sandy Run. He was dismissed to the Presbytery of Fayette- 
ville, May 19, 18 14. 

ZiON Church, (Winnsboro') — In 1804 the corner stone of a 

*This John McEwen was from Bdinburg, had been a student of 
divinity in the Relief Church, was received under the care of the 
Presbytery of Harmony February 10, 1819. Presbytery addressed a 
letter to hiim on the 9th oj November, 1819, expressing their disappro- 
bation of his performing the duties of a licentiate before receiving 
license, and forbade his officiating in any manner in a public capacity 
till authorized bv them. 



264 ZION, WINJS'SBOKO. [1810-1820. 

new church was laid, which, after great exertions and much 
expense was finally completed and dedicated to the service of 
Almighty God in September, 1811. During the period of 
Mr. Raid's ministry gradual accessions were made to the 
church and the interests of religion were generally promoted. 
The Presbyterial minutes furnish but occasional notices of 
this church, especially in the earlier part of this period. 

The church was reprt^sented in Presbytery by its session 
and returned in April, 1812, six additions and thirty-one as 
the total of their membership. In May, 1816, Rev. Anthony 
W. Ross commenced his ministry among them. At the 14th 
session of Harmony Presbytery, held at Edgefield C. H. 
on November jtli, 1816, he was received as a licentiate from 
the Presbytery of Concord; calls were presented to Presbytery 
from the congregations of Zion (Winnsboro') and Salem, 
Little River, for an equal dividend of his ministerial labors. 
A special meeting of Presbytery was ordered, at which 
Messrs. McCulioch.Yongue, Forster, McWhorter, Cousar and 
Montgomery were ordered to be present for the examination 
of Mr. Ross for ordination. Presbytery met as appointed, 
and on Saturday, January 25th, 1817, the ordination and in- 
stallation took place. Dr. Montgomery preaching the sermon, 
from Luke ii : 34, and the Rev. Samuel Yongue presiding 
and delivering the charge to the minister and the congrega- 
tion. Previous to this Dr. Montgomery, Colin Mclver, and 
John Forster had been appointed as supplies. 

The church was prosperous and harmonious under Mr. 
Ross until a division of ssntiment arose on the subject of 
Psalmody. Several persons felt themselves aggrieved by the> 
singing of Dr. Watts' version of the Psaln-.s. After frequent 
correspondence had taken plade between the minister and the 
disaffected members, it issued in a secession from the congre- 
gation, which secession erected a small church in the village 
where they could enjoy " liberty of conscience" and sing a 
Psalmody of their own choice. After some time had elapsed 
the animosities subsided and different members of both con- 
gregations frequently mingled their devotions together in the 
worship of God. (Session Book of Zion Church). 

The ladies of Sion Church and those of Salem L. R., 
made their pastor Rev. Anthony W.' Rioss, a member for life 
of the American Bible Society. And a Female Missionary 
Society was organized in Winnsboro', denominated "the 



1S30-1820.] SALEM (LITTLE RIVER) — LEBANON. 265 

Missionary Society of Zion Church," which is constituted 
an auxiliary to " The United Foreign Missionary Society." 

There was a Bible Society formed also at Winnsboro', 
known as "The Auxiliary Bible Society of Fairfield District," 
the object of which was to co operate with the American 
Bible Society. The names of its officers were David R. 
Evans, President, John Mickle, John Pickett, John Johnson, 
William Joiner, Rev. James Rog-ers, Charles Bell, Rev. Mr. 
Montgomery, Rev Anthony Ross, Vice-Presidents, Rev. 
Samuel W. Yongue, Treasurer, John Bachman, Jun., Secre- 
tary. Its first anniversary \yas celebrated on the first of May, 
1819. [Quar. Intelligencer of July 21, 1819.] 

Salem (Little River), which had been, recentfy organized, 
applied at the sixth stated session of the Presbytery of Har- 
mony, held in Augusta from the 12th to the i6th of Novem- 
ber, 1812, to be taken under its care. Supplies were at dif- 
ferent times appointed for it, mostly to be filled by Rev. 
Saml. W. Yongue, until, as we have seen, it united with Zion 
Church, Winnsboro, in calling Rev. Anthony W. Ross, and 
shared with it in his pastoral labors. 

Lebanon Church, (Jackson's Creek,) Fairfield. — Mr. 
Yongue was still its pastor. His occupations were much as 
before, and he was again cited for non-attendance at Presby- 
terian meetings. He was appointed to duties beyond his own 
charge, as a supply: for example, to the vacant congregations 
of Concord, Horeb and Aimwell, and Salem, (Little River). 
He served both the Lebanon and Mt. Olivet Churches 
through this entire period. The total membership in the two 
churches in April, 1813, was 120. The same number is re- 
ported in April, 1 8 14. 

Mt. Olivet Church (or Wateree) had the same pastor 
who ministered to Lebanon, Both congregations were com- 
posed of similar materials, with few exceptions they were of 
Scotch-Irish descent ; possessed the same hardy virtues, 
and were attached to the same doctrines, church order and 
discipline. 

Horeb Church is associated in the minutes of the Presby- 
tery through this decade in connection with Aimwell, is 
represented as vacant and unable to support a pastor, is sup- 
plied by appointment of Presbytery in the earlier part of 
this period by Messrs John Foster and Yongue, Doubtless 
the ministers resident in Winnsboro' preached for these 



266 AIMWELL — CONCORD — BEAVER CREEK. [1810-1820. 

churches far oftener than tlie mere day-! when they did so in 
obedience to Presbytery. The Rev. B. M. Montgomery, D. D., 
began to preach in this church in February, 1819. His regis- 
try of baptisms begins in that year. 

Aim WELL Church (on Cedar Creek) was vacant for about 
two years. Rev. WilUam G. Rosborough or Rev. Francis H. 
Porter, who was principal, about 1812, of Mount Zion Col- 
lege, at Winnsboro, preached for it an occasional sermon. 
Rev'. Anthony W. Ross is said, in tiie records of the session, 
to have preached to Salem one-fourth, to this church one- 
fourth, and to Winnsboro' one-half his time. 

A log building was then erected near the site of the present 
building, which remained in use till a frame building was 
erected in 1833. 

Concord Church, Fairfield District. — Rev Mr. Rose- 
borough, who had ministered to Horeb Church in connection 
with Concord, died on the 5th of May, 1810. His remains 
were interred in the cemetery connected with Lebanon Church. 

For a year or two after this the congregations were again 
vacant, though supplied in part by Rev. Francis H. Porter. 
then residing in Purity congregation. In 1 81 3 they obtained 
the labors of Rev. Robert McCuUoch for one-fourth of his 
time. In 1814 they secured one-half his time. This arrange- 
ment continued through the remainder of this decade. 

Beaver Creek. — We are able to make no statement of the 
condition of this church in the earlier part of this decade. It 
had already absorbed into itself Miller's Church. In the 
minutes of the 6th sessions of the Presbytery of Harmony, 
November 12-16, i8l2, p, 104, we read that, "report being 
m ide to Presbytery that the congregation of Hanging Rock 
had become extinct, and the iew remaining members had 
attached themselves to the Beaver Creek Church, wiiereupon 
it was resolved that no further notice of it be taken on our 
minutes." It is recorded (Minutes, Vol. I, p. 24, of Presby- 
tery of Harmony) that Rev. George G. McWhorter had 
removed from the Salem Church. This was in April, 1811. 
His name occurs in the reports to the General Assembly in 
connection with the united churches of Concord (Sumter 
District), Mount Zion and Beaver Creek, the total member- 
ship of his united charge, 102. He seems to have remained 
in charge of Beaver Creek and Concord (Sumter District) till 
the end of this decade. 



1810-1820.] CATHOLIC^ — HOPEWELL — AUGUSTA. 267 

Catholic Church. Chester District. — The Rev. Robert 
McCuUoch continued the pastor of this church through the 
whole of this period. He continued to preach one-fourth of 
his time at Bethlehem, a branch of Catholic, near Beckham- 
ville, as before, until iSll.when his time was wholly occupied 
by his labors between Cutholic and Concord (in Fairfield), 
which was some ten miles distant. The combined statistics 
of these two churches are twice given in the Presbyterial 
minutes: in the spring of i8 13, 127 members of the church, 
1 1 having been added the preceding year, and 41 infant bap- 
tisms; in the spring of 1814, the total of church members 
was 125, the addition.s the preceding year 16, infants baptized, 
31. There had been, therefore, 18 lost to the two churches 
by dismissions, removal, or death. 

This church formed, according the boundaries of tlie Pres- 
bytery of Harmony, as settled by the act of the Synod, the 
outward limit of the jurisdiction of that Presbytery on the 
northwest. 

Hopewell CHURcri, Che.ster, in the only notice we have 
found of it, during this period, is represented as vacant. 

The Church in Augusta, Georgia, was thrown within the 
limits of this Presbytery, whose boundary extended thence to 
the St. Mary's. Of the earliest notices on record of this 
church we have, made mention in preceding pages. The Rev. 
Dr. Thompson, its pastor, was present at the first meeting of 
the Presbytery of Harmony, March 7, 18 10, in the city of 
Charleston, and, while his health continued, was an active 
member of that laody. This Presbytery held its 6th sessions 
in Auga.sta, from the 12th to the l6th of November, 1812 ; 
its 8th, October 28, 1813 ; its 17th, April 17, 1818, and its 
19th, April IS, 1819. The church of Augusta reported it 
had, in September, 1810, 54 members, and had, during the 
year, baptized 2 adults and 20 infants. In April, 1812, they 
had added lO, their total was 65, their baptisms the preceding 
year 19 infants. In April, 1813, they had added 20, their 
total was 83, they had baptized 2 adults and 11 infants. In 
the spring of 18 14 they report 4 additions, total of communi- 
cants 83, and 15 baptisms, infants. Other reports are not re- 
corded in the minutes. 

Dr. Thompson's healtlj seems to have declined in 1817. 
At the meeting in November of that year, a letter was re- 
ceived from the session of the Augusta Church, requesting 



268 HARMONY PRESBYTERY. [lSlO-1820. 

Presbytery to appoint the Rev. John Joyce, who was received 
dt tiiat meeting as a ineinber in good standing from the Pres- 
bytery of Philadelphia, as a supply to the pulpit of Dr. 
Thompson during his absence for the recovery of his health. 
He was accordingly appointed until the next stated meeting 
of Presbytery. At the next meeting, April 29, 1817, we find 
the following record : " The Presbyteiy have learned, with 
deep regret, that, since their last stated sessions, they have 
lost, by death, their brother, Rev. Dr. John R. fhotiipson. 
pastor of the Church of Augusta, who departed this life fully 
sensible of the approach of death, in the lull possession of his 
mind, and in the triumph of fiith, on the 18th of December, 
1816, in the town of Nassau, New Providence." Mr. Joyce 
was appointed to supply four Sabbaths at Augusta, and one 
at Waynesborough. 



CHAPTER IV. 

We have now gone through the territory occupied, at this 
time, by the Harmony Presbytery. A few names of candi- 
dates or licentiates have occurred in the minutes which, per- 
haps, have not been mentioned on these pages. J. R. Golding 
who commenced his trials in this Presbyteiy was dismissed 
to tiie Presbytery of Hopewell. William Houck was licensed 
in April, 1813, with a view to his laboring among the German 
emigrants, but afterwards joined the Lutheran Church. Dan- 
iel F. McNeil, commenced his trials, but was afterwards 
stricken from the list of candidates. John Murphy, a deacon, 
say the minutes, but more probably an elder of the Columbia 
Church and a graduate of the South Carolina College, com- 
menced his trials for licensure. Hiland Hulburd also, but 
was dismissed as a candidat;e to the Presbytery of South 
Carolina. Alexander G. Fraser was licensed the 27th of 
April, 1816, and dismissed April 23, 1818, to the Presbytery 
of New Jersey. 

We have seen, that when the Presbytery of Harmony 
was created, the First Presbytery of South Carolina re- 
quested of the Synod of the Carolinas that it might be dis- 
solved and its territory be so divided that the lower part of it 
should fall into the Presbytery of Harmony and the upper into 



1810-1820.] IHTRITV CHURCH. 1269 

the Presbyteiy of Concord. It was, perhaps, believed that 
the here.sy of Wm. C. Davis would be more successfully dealt 
with thus than if all remained as before. The upper division 
included,' as we have seen, the Rev. William C. Davis, pastor 
of Bullock's Creek Church, the Rev. Robert B. Walker, of 
Bethesda, Rev. John B. Davies, of Fishing Creek, L. Richard- 
son, the Rev, Thomas Neely, of Purity, and Edmonds; also 
the vacant congregations of Waxhaw, Unity, Hopewell, Ebe- 
nezer, Bethel, Beersheba, Shiloh, Yorkville and Salem. In 
this division was also the residence of John Williamson, a 
candidate. 

These churches, included in this triangular portion of ter- 
ritory tliat remained true to us, we must now consider. That 
which stnnds nearest to the then existing line of Harmony 
Presbytery, is Purity Church. 

PuKiTY Church, in Chester District, is about two miles 
from tiie Court House, on the road from Chester village to 
Rocky Mount. As we have seen, the Rev. Thomas Neely 
was pastor of this church at the close of the first decade in 
this century. " Owing to feeble health," says Rev. John 
Douglas, in his history of this church, " he was not able dur- 
ing the few last years of his life, to apply himself with much 
energy or efficiency to his work, though he rarely failed to 
meet his appointments." He was "' suffering" under a wast- 
ing disease, from which few recover and by which many are 
carried away." "Of his acceptance and fidelity we may judge 
from the affection and regard with which his memory is still 
revered by those who sat under his ministry. There was 
nothing like a revival of religion during his ministry ; nor 
were there any internal dissentions to mar the peace of the 
people of God. The fallow ground was broken up and the 
good seed sown, the harvest of which future laborers were to 
enjoy the privilege of reaping." 

Mr. Neely died November, 26th, 1812, aged 41 years, 3 
months and 21 days, and was buried in the church yard of 
Bullock's Creek. He was united in marriage with Miss Martha 
Feamster, by whom he had a daughter and a son who were 
left orphans at an early age, for she survived him but a short 
time. She died February 24th, ,1814, and was buried in the 
same grave with her departed husband. 

The church was now left as sheep without a shepherd. 
What Presbyterial supplies they had from 181 2 to 1815 is 



270 PURITY CHURCH. [1810-1820. 

unknown. For the years 1815 and 1816 they procured the 
labors of Rev. Francis H. Porter. Mr. Porter was the .son of 
David Porter, of the contjregation of Bethesda. in York. His 
primary education he received from his pastor, the Rev. Robt. 
B. Walker. At a proper age he repaired to the High School 
of Dr. James Hall, in North Carolina, and there perfected his 
attainments in the higher branches of learning, and. under 
the same teacher, pursued the study of theology. He was 
licensed by the Presbytery of Concord in iS\2. He had 
charge of Mount Zion College at Winnsboro, and, for a time, 
preached in that vicinit)-. At the time of his taking charge 
of Purity Church, he was a married man. Two of his chil- 
dren lie buried in Purity Cemetery, and one survived his brief 
residence here, and others were subsequently born to him. 
Four of his sons have been ministers in the Presbyterian 
Church. (All of them, Abner, Rufus, David, Joseph, have 
now passed away.) He lemained here two years, in the last 
of which he encountered some unpleasant opposition from 
those who were offended at the use of Watts' Psalms and 
Hymns, which may, perhaps, have been the cause of his re- 
moval. After this, for two years, the church had only occa- 
sional supplies. Mr. Porter is said to have preached also at 
Concord a portion of his time while residing within the bounds 
of this congregation, and ministering to it in things spiritual. 

After this he removed to Asheville, N. C, and ministered 
to the Asheville, Rimm's Creek, and Swanano Churches, 
and, at the same time, coYiducted a flourishing classical 
academy. 

In the year 1819 they obtained the labors of the Rev. 
Aaron Williams, for a part of his time, then a licentiate of 
Concord Presbytery. 

The original elders of this church began to disappear by 
removals and death. James Williamson had returned to 
Bethesda congregation, where he died ; William Bradford 
became an elder at Fishing Creek ; Robert Boyd remained 
with the same congregation ; John Harden died, February 
28, 1816, at the age of 53; Andrew Morrison also had died, 
when in June, 1818, John Walker, Charles Walker and 
Matthew McClintock were elected to the eldership, and were 
ordained by Rev. John B. Davies, of Fishing Creek. 

Edmonds' Church, a/ias Pleasant Grove, continued under 
the ministerial labors of Rev. Thomas Neely until the year 



lS10-]820.] FISHING CKEEK — BULLOCK's CREEK. 271 

l8i2. After liis death tlie church withdrew from Presby- 
tery and connected themselves with the Independents, or 
the followers of the Rev. Wm. C. Davis. 

Fishing Creek, which is situated near the creelc of that 
name, about two miles below where the York and Chester 
line crosses that stream, was still served by that indefati- 
gable minister of Christ, Rev. John B. Davies. This church 
shared richly, from time to time, in the quickening in- 
fluences of the Holy Spirit. These seasons were of shorter 
or longer duration, from two to four or five years. Christians 
were quickened and encouraged, sinners were awakened and 
constiained to take refuge in Christ, and numbers were 
added to the church. Ihe first of these seasons commenced 
in 1802, and continued about four years ; the second in 
1817, and continued two years. ICncouraging indications 
of the Divine Presence were observed two years before, in 
1815. At the beginning of this decade, in 1810, the com- 
muning members of this church were 79 or 80 to 83. In 
April, 1820, says Rev. Mr. Saye, there were 162, an increase 
in the ten years of 83. In 181 2 the name of James Seele 
disappears from the list of elders, and James E. McFadden 
and John Boyd are added to it. 

The Chukch of Richardson, or formerly Lower Fishing 
Creek, as it had been called during the preceding decade, 
was a part of the pastoral charge of Rev. J. B. Davies. The 
church was smaller in size than the Church of Fishing Creek, 
having less than one-third as many members. Governor Wil- 
liam Richardson Davie and his family supported this church 
as long as^ny of them remained in the community, but the 
tide of emigiation was always setting against it. 

Bullock's Creek. — We have seen that Rev. William C. 
Davis became pastor of this people in 1806, and that he con- 
tinued his labors among them for four years of thelast decade 
until 1 8 10. "Shortly after Mr. Davis's settlement here he 
broached and published certain views of Christian doctrine 
which were at variance with the received doctrines of the 
Presbyterian Church, as stated in our Confession of Faith, for 
which he was arraigned before an Ecclesiastical Court." 

We have before seen that the First Presbytery of South 
Carolina had been dissolved at its own suggestion, a part of 
its members and churches annexed to the new Presbytery of 
Harmony, and the other portion, in which was W. C. Davis 



272 ABJURATION OF W. C. DAVIS. [1810-1820. 

and his adherents, to the Presbytery of Concord, in the hope 
that in that Presbytery he might be subjected to discipline, 
and the eyes of his adherents be openled to his aberrations in 
doctrine. An extra meeting, was called by the Presbytery of 
Concord to eonsider liis case, when Mr. Davis, aware that it 
must now progress to a termination, determined to decline 
the jurisdiction, of the Presbyterian Church, and declare inde- 
pendence. He, therefore, sent his declinature to the Presby- 
tery of Concord, as follows : 

" To the Reverend Presbytery of Concord, to sit at Hopewell 
Church, on the third Wednesday of this instant, or when- 
ever or wherever said Presbytery may sit; and through 
them to all the judicatories of the Presbyterian Church 
in the United States of America : 

" October 9, 18 10. 
"After mature deliberation.- In the presence of the Om- 
niscient God, with the day of judgment in ttiy eye^ ; in the name 
of the Lord Jesus Christ, who alone is Lord of the conscience ; 
and Head of the Chnrch; under the influence of the Word of God; 
I do hereby declare that from the date of these presents, I am and 
do hold myself to be withdrawn from the govermncnt of the Pres- 
byterian Church in-thc United States af America, and am con- 
sequently not amenable to the rules, edicts, discipline, or com- 
mands of said Church, from henceforth, sine die. Amen." 

The Presbytery did not consider this act of his as a sufficient 
ground on which to stop the process ; he was cited a second 
time, and as he persisted in his contumacy, the Presbytery 
proceeded agreeably to the rules of discipline, and suspended 
him ; and at length he was deposed, for his continued con- 
tumacy, in 1812. 

Mr. Davis assembled his congregation of Bullock's Creek, 
at which were present many of the members of Salem Church. 
Sixty-one were present at this meeting. By a vote of 5 2 out 
of 61 persons present, they withdrew from the jurisdiction of 
the Presbytery, and forwarded their proceedings to that body. 
To these documents the Presbytery replied through tneir 
committees in separate communications to Mr. Davis and the 
congregation. But both parties adhered to the positions they 
had taken, until all efforts proving unavailing, the sentence of 
deposition was pronounced. 

They formed themselves into an independent community, 



1810-1820.] SALEM CHURCH. 273 

under the title of " Tlie Independent Presbyterian Church." 
He, however, labored' amongst theni but for a short time, 
until he removed to the West. After the removal of Mr. D. 
the congregation returned again to their connection with the 
Presbyterian Church, in the year 1817, and obtained the 
labors of Rev. Aaron Williams, a licentiate of the Presbytery 
of Concord, who was ordained and installed pastor over the 
church in August', 1819. Mr. -Williams also became pastor 
of the adjoining Church of Salem, which had gone with Mr. 
Davis. By these untoward circumstances the congregation 
was greatly reduced in its numbers and its harmony destroyed, 
and became separated into two jarring societies. Who con- 
stituted their first bench of Elders is not certainly known, but 
as nearly as can be remembered they were John Dickey, 
Joseph Feemster, Stewart Brown, John Smith, Henry Plexico, 
Allen Dowdle."— [MS. of Rev. J. B. Davis.] 

Salem Churck, on the west side of Broad River, in Union 
District, was formed by the early labors of W. C. Davis, was 
received under tlie care of the First Presbytery of South Caro- 
lina, March 7, 1810, and sympathised with their pastor. There 
were members of Edmond's Church which eventually went 
over to him, and who sympathized with him during the whole 
period, as also there were in the congregations ofShiloh, and 
in Olney, in North Carolina. Delegates from all these 
churches met in Bullock's Creek Meeting House, in October. 
1813, and framed a Constitution, consisting of the radical arti- 
cles of the faith and discipline of Mr. Davis, and of the inde- 
pendent sect which he established. This Constitution was 
sent to a printing office in Salisbury, N. C, for publication, 
but the printer dying before the Constitution was put to the 
press, the manuscript was lost. The congregation of Salem, 
as well as that portion of Bullock's Creek congregation-, the 
large majority of which, according to the authority from 
which we now quote, [Historical Sketch of the Independent 
Presbyterian Church in the United States, Columbia, 1839,] 
.sided with Mr. Davis, were greatly discouraged when the 
pastor, and a licentiate in the ministry, Robert M. Davis, 
(licensed we suppose by the Congregational Presbytery of 
Bullock's Creek,) removed with some of the members of the 
church to the West. It was after the departure of Mr. Davis, 
and the arrival of Rev. Aaron Williams, that the remarkable 
revival commenced which visited so many churches, " On 
18 



27-t BKTHESDA. [1H]0--182('. 

the first S;ibliath iii August, 1817,"' says Rev. Robert H. 
Walker, in a letter to the editors of the Evangelical Intelli- 
gencer, published in Charleston, " where, on a sacramental oc- 
casion, at Bullock's Creek Church, the Lord appeared in the 
(galleries of His grace, and poured out of His Holy Spirit, 
thirteen were added to the church, and many were awakened. 
At the close of t.lie meeting it was announced that the Sacra- 
ment of the Lord's Supper would be administered at Salem, a 
branch of the Bullock's Creek Church, on the fourth 
Sabbath of the same month. The appointed day arrived, 
the people met, the ministers of the Gospel attended, and 
twenty-one were added to the church." The letter, a part of 
which this is an abstract, proceeds to describe the Sacrament 
at Bethe,'--da and at Bethel, makes allusion to the work at 
Fishing Creek, Beersheba and Olney. See Evangelical hiicl- 
ligenctr, Vol. L PP- 149, 237 A writer in the Weekly Re- 
corder, whose letter is dated October 14, j8i8, says: "In 
Bullock's Creek many (perhaps to the number of 78 at one 
communion) have turned from the error of their ways." 

Bethesda, in York District, still had the labors of Rev. 
Robert B. Walker bestowed upon it. Among the ministers 
who originated in this congregation was the Rev. Francis H, 
Porter, of whom we have spoken while giving the history of 
Purity Church. 

After his residence in North Carolina, there referred to, hejcame hack 
to South Carolina, and conducted an Academy at Cedar Spring, preach- 
ing meanwhile at Kairforest and perhaps Nazareth Churches. He 
visited Alabama as early as 1818, held a two days' meeting there, and 
administered the Lord's Supper under a spacious oak. He repeated 
his visit in 1821, and held a similar meeting. On both these occasions 
parents carried their children thirty miles to have them baptized. He 
removed from South Carolina in the spring of 1828, and joined the 
Presbytery of South Alabama. He there labored both as a preacher of 
the gospel and an instructor of youth. He supplied, respectively, the 
churches of Flat Creek, in Monroe County ; Good Hope, in Lowndes ; 
Pisgah and Selma, in Dallas ; and Hebron and New Hope, in Green 
County. As a preacher, he was solid, sound, practical and instructive. 
As a teacher, he had many peculiar qualifications, and was eminently 
successful, having been the educator of many distinguished men, among 
whom are ex-Gov. Swain, of North Carolina ; ex-Gov. Gist, of South 
Carolina. His earthly labors ended in 1845, when he passed to his rest, 
in the 59th year of his age. He was buried at Bethsalem Church, in 
Green County, Ala. His death was deeply regretted, and his memory 
duly honored by the Presbytery of Tuscaloosa and the Synod of Ala- 
bama, as their' minutes of October, 1845, declare. He married the 
daughter of Kev. C. D. Kilpatrick, of North Carolina. [MS. of Bev. 
Jno. S. Harris and Dr. Nail's " Dead of the Synod of Alabama."] 



1810-1820.] BETHESDA. 275 

Another of the ministers who rose in this congregation,' was Rev. 
John Williamson, a son of the Elder, Samuel Williamson, who received 
his classical education under Mr. Walker. He was liceiised to preach 
in 1812, and settled in North Carolina. From 1818 his labors were be- 
stowed upon the church and congregation of Hopewell, in North Caro- 
lina, where he died in 1841. He was a man of brilliant and vigorous 
mind— fluent and chaste in his style and delivery, poli^hed and 3gree» 
able in his manners, and a highly esteemed and useful minister of the 
gospel. He left his widow and children a large worldly estate, as well 
as a holy and exemplary life, lo be enjoyed as their heritage. [MS. of 
Rev. J. S. Harris.] 

" Rev. Samuel Williamson, D. U., was also from Bethesda, being a 
brother of the former. After an academical course under Father Walker, 
he was graduated with distinction in the South Carolina College in 1818. 
After a few years of teaching and private study of theology, he was 
licensed by Concord Presbytery, and preached at the churches of Prov- 
idence and Sharon, in Mecklenburg County, N. C, and ta,ught an Acad- 
emy in the bounds of the former. After a pa^to^ate of about fifteen 
yeirs, he was elected a Professor in Davidson College, an office he 
.accepted in 1838. much against the wishe.s of the congregations, and he 
was sh rtly afterwards promoted to the Presidency of the same Insti- 
tution. This position he filled until 1854, when he resigned and retired 
to the Church of Hopewell, and served that people until 1856, in the 
fell of which he removed to Washington, Arkansas, where he is still an 
aged but active pastor. The_ writer hopes to be pardoned in saying of 
Dr. Williamson that his partialities for him are very great. Nor are 
they unreasonable when, besides his real worth, it is known that he 
married our parents, baptized ourself and brother and sisters, buried 
.our ancestry, taught us. the alphabet, led us through college as the 
president an-ij pastor, and, lastly, received us into the communion of the 
.ehurcJi Of him. as a son may Bethesda ever be proud." Ihid. 

The elders who were inducted into their office in this decade were 
Frank Ervin, born in York District, received into the church in 1802, 
a.nd promoted to the eldership in 181 2 After several years' of official 
duty, in which he exhibited more than usual religious fervor ind zeaj 
for the cause tf God, he volunt<irily demitted the active exercise of his 
office, .and partially withdrew, owing to some change in his doctrinal 
views, from tbe communion of the church, but afterwards returned, and 
died much lamented, February 8th, 1839, aged 70." 

■" James Black was elected to fill the vacancy occasioned by the death 
lof Ms father in 1812, and faithfully did he execute the duties of his 
office until he removed to Alabama i:^ 1820. He died in Mississippi." 

Kabejrt Robertson, a native of North Carolipa, was admitted to the 
■eldership in 1815. He was a man of exemplary Christian character. 
He reimoved to Hall County in 182(j, where he died ip. 1840." 

" Allison Hope was born in Cabarras County, N. C, in 1780 When 
■quite a young man he canje into the bounds of Salem Church, in Union 
District, in which, for a short time, he was an elder. In 1812 he removed 
.to Bethesda, and was re-elected an elder in 1815. After twenty-three 
years of devoted service here he was constrained, by the necessitous 
■condition of the Church of Mount Pleasant, just organized near his 
residence, to transfer bis services thither. But after a few years that 
church was dissolved, and he returned to Bethesda, and rested from his 
labors, Augru^t 29th, 1S42, being B2 years old. His wife, whose maiden 



276 BETHESDA. [1810-1820. 

name was 'Jane Mnore, survived him several years, and of his children, 
Robert S was invested with the office so long and exemplarily filled 
by his father." 

"In 1817 a precious .season of divine grace was expe- 
rienced in this church. Concerning this the Rev. R. B. 
Walker wrote in one of the periodicals of the day as fol- 
lows : ' The communion at Bethesda was held on the 
second Sabbath of September, five weeks after that of Bul- 
lock's Creek, and two after the Salem meeting. Bethesda, 
once remarkably favored of the Lord, was now sunk into a; 
state of languor as to divine things. Many had begun to fear 
that the Lord had forgotten to be gracious, that His mercy 
had clean gone forever, and that the harvest was past and the 
summer ended, and many were not saved. The .services of 
the sanctuary commenced on Friday. Almost every brow 
appeared to indicate deepening irnpressions and a desire to 
hear the words of eternal life. Forty joined the church and 
partook of the Lord's Supper for the first time. The weather 
was unpleasant, rain poured down in almost incessant tor- 
rents, which were exceeded in nothing unless in the showers 
of divine grace.' 

" The crowds in attendance were not so large, and the num- 
bers under divine influence were not so great, but in the judg- 
ment of the most competent observers, the church received 
more real strength than in the great revival fifteen years 
before. The precise number brought to the Saviour cannot 
be ascertained, but it far exceeded the number first admitted 
to the Lord's Supper before mentioned, and on good authority 
we may say that two hundred at least were gathered in as the 
fruits of this revival. 

" In the midst of the excitement and ecclesiastical changes 
wrought by William C. Davis, between 1807 and 1812, no 
commotion ruffled the serenity of Bethesda. Her elders, in 
the persons of Thomas Black and Elias Davidson, were pres- 
ent in the Presbyteries where his case was under adjudication, 
and always gave, by vote, judgment against him. And al- 
though Mr. Davis had, at one time, many admirers in the 
congregation and many personal friends, yet he eventually 
had no adherents to his erratic creed, and so the church lost 
no members by the schism ; and only a few families, and 
those by intermarriage, have sought church membership with 
his followers. The storm raged and deeply agitated some 



1810-1820.] EBENEZER — BEERSHEBA — SHILOH. 277 

surrounding churches, yet it left Bethesda unmolested and 
united." 

Ebenezer was still a part of the charge of Rev. R. B. 
Wahker. It most probably shared in the work of grace with 
the neighboring Church of Bethesda, and in which other 
churches in this vicinity, from 1817 to 1819, participated. It 
was connected now with the Presbytery of Concord. Its last 
report to the First Presbytery of South Carolina, before its 
dissolution in 1810, gave it forty-four members in communion, 
with seven baptisms of infants. 

Beersheba, in York, was ministered to, as a stated supply, 
through this decade, by Rev. James S. Adams, who at first 
divided his labors between this church and Olny, in North 
Carolina, and afterwards between this and Bethel (York). It 
reported in 1810 one hundred and thirty members, a number 
which probably it never afterwards exceeded. It shared in 
the revivals of 1817 to 1819, which, to the churches of this 
neighborhood, was a season of refreshing from the presence 
of the Lord. [Rel. Intelligencer, New Haven, Nov., 1817, 
p. 464. Christian Spectator, New Haven, Aug., 1819, p. 442.] 

Unity, in York District, was one of the vacant congrega- 
tions of the First Presbytery of South Carolina at its disso- 
lution, and became connected, with others of this region, with 
the Presbytery of Concord. Its history during this decade 
is unknown to us. From the minutes of the General Assem- 
bly for 1819 we learn that, with Providence Church, North 
Carolina, it was a part of the joint charge of the Rev.- James 
Wallis, whose death occurred in that year. See Vol. I, 668, 
Note. 

Shiloh, formerly Calvary, on King's Creek, in the north- 
western corner of York district. Besides the labors of Rev. 
James S. Adams, who supplied it for some years, it was favor- 
ed at one time with the services of Rev. Hen'y M. Kerr. 
Probably this was earlier than this decade. Under their 
labors this church seemed to prosper. This was succeeded 
by a season of long and dreary night. The ways of Zion 
mourned, and a high degree of spiritual declension became 
prevalent. [MS- of Rev. J. 15. Davies.] 

" For ten or fifteen years," continues Mr. Davies, " the 
means of grace were not enjoyed ; the house of worship went 
to ruins, and the attention of the people was only now and 
then, at intervals of months, and sometimes of years, called 



278 BETHEL (YOKK), [lglO-18.'JO. 

to the ministrations of the gospel. During this period of 
darkness and declension, removals took place by which the 
Presbyterian Church was completely disorganized and dis- 
persed. The Baptist denomination formed the congregation 
of Antioch under very promising circumstances." 

It was claimed by Rev. Wm. C. Davis and his followers as 
one of the constituent portions of the Independent Presbyte- 
rian Church. In the minutes of the Assembly for 1819 it is 
set down as one of the vacant churches of the Concord 
Presbytery. , 

Bethel (York). — The vacancy in this church continued 
until 181 1, when the Rev. James S. Adams removed his resi- 
dence to Bethel, the place of his nativity, and was employed 
by the congregation as a stated supply. He continued his 
labors among them for many years beyond the period con- 
cerning which we now write. He was a man after the Mas- 
ter's own heart, a good man and full of tlie Holy Ghost. It 
was during this period that this church, in common with 
others, enjoyed a special outpouring of the Holy Spiiit. In 
a letter of Mr. Adams to Mr. W. W. Woodward, of New 
Haven, dated "York District, S. C, October 27, 1817," he 
says : " We have had a glorious revival of religion in thi.-* 
country. It commenced in July, and has made its way into a 
number of our churches. I have attended five communions 
in the churches around, including my own, and we have 
admitted 162 to the church for the first time ; a large propor- 
tion of whom are young people ; but we have some of alt 
ages. Tne work appeared to spread with great rapidity. It 
differs from the former revival we had in this country in 
several paiticulars. In this we have no bodily exercises ; the 
work is powerful, but mental ; much weeping and praying. 
In this we have no opposition as yet." [Religious Intelli- 
gencer, New Haven, Vol. I, p. 464, for November, 1817.] 
The Christian Spectator, of August, 1S19, says ; " Several 
of the churches in York District, S. C, have been favored 
with a ' time of refreshing from the presence of the Lord.' 
Very considerable additions have been made to the churches 
of Salem, Bethesda, Fishing Creek, Beersheba and Olney." 
[Chr. Spec, Vol. I, p. 442.J Another letter of Rev. Mr. 
Adams to the Rev. R. S. Storrs, Jr., dated December 10, 181S, 
and published in the Boston Recorder, says ; " A Bible So- 
ciety has been in operation with us for more than two years- 



i8]0-1820.] WAXHAW. 279 

It is under the direction of our Presbytery. In all our con- 
gregations we have established Tract Societies. In my own 
congregation we have also e.stablished Circulating Library 
Societies, and we sometimes pay a little to the support of 
missions. Twelve months ago, at a communion season, the 
Lord was pleased to pour out His Spiiit in a remarkable 
manner. From that time it has spread until all the churches 
in the district have partaken in the happy effects. If I am 
correct in my account, more than 400 have been added to our 
churches within these bounds. I have added to my two 
congregations 138, and the work is still going on." 

I he Bethel Acadumy was an important means of educa- 
tion, of which many haH availed themselves. Rev. Mr. Adams 
was Secretary of the Board of Trustees, and attended on Fri- 
day afternoons to hear the declamations and compositions. 
At this time, Samuel Williamson, a graduate of South Caro- 
lina College under President Maxcy, was the teacher. There 
had been schools in this congregation almost from the settle- 
ment of the country, and tradition makes Andrew Jackson 
to have received some portion of his early education heic. 

Waxhaw Church. — John Williamson, of whoin we have 
spoken before in connection with Bethesda congregation 
took cliarge of t-he Academy, which had been taught by 
Rev. Francis H. Porter and others previously, in 181 1. In 
1812 he became a licensed preacher, and preached frequently 
for this church. He was ordained on the 20th of August, 
1813. At this date Alex. Carnes, William Dunlap, George 
Dunlap, Charles Miller and Robert Walkup, were elders. The 
congregation is named among the vacant churches of the 
Presbytery of Concord, in the Minutes of the Assembly which 
met in May, 18 19. 

The name of Little Bethel does' not appear in the minutes 
before us, but Yorkville is enumerated among the vacant 
churches of the Presbytery of Concord in 1819, and we learn 
from the papers of D. G. Stinson, Esq., that .preaching vvas 
commenced in Yorkville in 1813. 

The Second Presbytery was deprived of that portion of its 
territory which was below a line extending from Columbia to 
Augusta, and between that and the sea, in which territory it 
had before exercised practically little or no jurisdiction. This 
was now in the newly-constituted Presbytery of Harmony. 
The fourteenth stated sessions of that Presbytery was held at 



280 PRESBYTERIAL CHANGES. [1810-1820. 

Edgefield Court House on the 7th of November, 18 16. Some 
intermediate sessions were held at the same place, showing 
that this was regarded as included within its bounds. The 
First Presbytery of South Carolina being dissolved on the 
6th of October, 18 10, the Second was dropped from its title 
as no longer appropriate, and it received the name of " The 
Presbytery of South Carolina," which it retained without 
change until the year 1878. Passing over the line of the 
Broad River we find no Presbyterian Churches either in the 
Districts of Lexington or Edgefield north of this line. The 
jireaching station, which existed in the preceding decade on 
Cuffcy Town Creek, in the upper part of Edgefield, was 
already discontinued, the Presbyterian population having; 
moved higher up and being gathered into Presbyterian organ- 
izations in Abbeville or elsewhere. 

During this decade, 

Henry Eeid was received as a candidate from the First Presbytery of 
South Carolina, April 3d, 1810, and was licensed at a meeting held atth(^ 
house of Andrew Pickens, in the congregation of Hopewell (Keowee), 
April 5th of the same year, and was ordained May 12th, 1813 

Alexander R. Callihan was received as a candidate and beneficiary, 
April 4, 1810, but his trials were discontinued August 28, 1811. 

John D. Murphy was received as a licentiate from the Presbytery of 
Orange August 27, 1811. 

Thomas D. Baird was received as a candidate October 4, 1810, was 
licensed April 8, 1812, and ordained April 30, 1818. 

James Oiimhle was received as a candidate April 8, 1812, was licensed 
October 4, 1813, and ordained April 21, 1815. 

John Bull was received as a candidate April 8, 1812. 
. Richard B. C'r/ter- was received as a candidate April 8, 1812, was licensed 
April 4, 1814, and ordained April 6, 1816. 

John Harrison was received as a candidate September 26, 1812, was 
licensed November 1, 1814. 

Williafn Means was received as a candidate April 7, 1813, was licensed 
April 22, 181 5. 

James Hillhouse was received as a candidate October 2, 1813, was 
licensed IS^ovember 14. 1815. 

Thomas Archibald was received as a candidate October 2, 1813, was 
licensed November 14, 1815, and ordained November 7, 1817. 

Joseph Hillhouse was received under the care of Presbytery as a can- 
didate October 4, 1813, licensed November 14, 1815. 

James L. &I0SS was received as a candidate November 13, 1815, was 
licensed November 18, 1817, and ordained as an Evangelist, November 
18, 1817. 

Alexander Kirkpatrick was received as a licentiate from the Presby- 
tery of Balymena, Ireland, April 5, 1817, and was ordained July 31, 1818. 
John S. Wilson was received as a candidate April 5, 1817, was licensed 
October 9th, 1819. 



1810-1820.] GEASSY SPRIKG — LITTLE RIVER. 281 

David Humphreys was rereived as a candidate October 3d, 1817, was 
licensed October 9, 1819. 

James Y. Alexander was received as a candidate October 3d, 1817. 

Hiland Hulberl was received as a candidate from the Presbytery of 
Harmony November 5tli, 1817. wa.8 licensed November 6th, 1817, and 
ordained as Missionary Evangelist' October 3, 1818. 

Michael Dickson was received as a candidate November 18, 1817. 

Thomas C. St.nart, who had been received as a candidate November 1.5, 
1816, was licensed April 3d, 1819 

Benjamin Dupre was taken under the care of the Presbvtery as a can- 
didate October 8, 1819. 



CHAPTER V. 

Of the localities of Mount Bethel Academy and the church 
of Indian Creek, the predecessor of Gilder's Creek, which, 
not ivcn in the preceding decade, was traceable in the min- 
utes of the Presbytery, we find no notice in this. 

Grassy Spring, in Newberry District, enjoyed still the 
ministerial services of the Rev. Daniel Gray. He was a good 
preacher and sound in the faith. The Rev. Wm. C. Davis 
ascribed the first active opposition to his "Gospel Plan" to Mr. 
Gray and Major Mcjunkin. Mr. Gray felt into a " decline," 
lingered a few years and died between the April .^nd Novem- 
ber meetings of Presbytery in i8l6. Mr. Gray is believed to 
have been a native of Abbeville District and to have received 
his education in part there, and under Dr. Doak.ofEast 
Tennesse, (MSS. of Rev. J. H. Saye and letter of D. L. 
Gray.) The Rev. Dr. J. H. Gray and Rev. D. L. Gray, of 
Ttnnessee, were his nephews. Mr. Gray did not serve this 
church through all these years till his death, as its pastor. 
He was dismissed from this portion of his pastoral charge on 
the 2d of April, i8i i. It was afterwards supplied as a vacant 
church by Rev. J. B. Kennedy, Daniel Gray, Hugh Dickson, 
in i8ii and i8i2. It suffered very much from emigration to 
the West. Many of the families in the immediate vicinity 
of the church removed and the remoter ones fell into the 
membership of the Ciiurch of Cane Creek, which was most 
convenient to their own residence. 

Little River, Laurens District. The Rev. John B. Ken- 
nedy was the pastor of this church during this period. 

Duncan's Creek was the other part of the pastoral charge 
of Rev. John B. Kennedy. An unpleasant misunderstanding 



282 DtrprcAN'8 creek — eockv sprikg. [1810-1820. 

between one of the session of this church and its pastor was 
reported to the Presbytery in October, 1817, and an ad- 
journed meeting of that body was iield at Duncan's Creek, 
one of the issues of which was the reconciliation of the dis- 
sensions and the restoration of Christian harmony and fellow- 
ship. It appeared, however, that the reconciliation was not 
permanent, but the Klder withdrew himself from the worship 
of God in that church. The case seemerl complicated by the 
fact that one of the same name, a person of standing in so- 
ciety and probably a relative of the recusant Elder, addressed 
a letter to the session, declining further church connection 
witi) tliem. But it appeared that this was done when the 
session were about to call him to account for some immo- 
rality. Presbytery unanimously reasserted the principle in 
accordance with the discipline of the church, " that a declina- 
' ture after the commission of an immoral act which called for 
the discipline of the church is not to be considered valid in 
any case, and that the church session is clotiied with as full 
power and authority to call the guilty person before their bar 
to answer for his fault as though such declinature had never 
been handed in." This difficulty seems to have passed 
away. The Presbyterial records at least are silent respect- 
in <r it. 

Rocky Spring, in Laurens District, was vacant through 
the largest portion of this decade and a petitioner for sup- 
plies. Messrs. Kennedy, Henry, Reid, John Harrison, Jas. 
Hillhouse and Thomas Archibald, were appointed to preach 
to this congregation as temporary supplies in 1810,1811, 
1812, 1815, 1816. Of all these, Mr. Kennedy's are believed 
to have been the most constant. In April, 1817, they called 
Thomas Archibald, who had been licensed in 18 14, for one- 
half his time. This call he accepted and he was accordingly 
ordained and installed at Rocky Spring Church, November 
7th, 1 8 17, the Rev. Richard B. Cater nreaching the sermon 
from 2d Tim., 2 : 15, and Rev. Hugh Dickson presiding and 
giving the charge to pastor and people. 

Liberty Spring. — The ^Rev. Benjamin R. Montgomery 
was dismissed from the second Presbytery of South Carolina 
to the Presbytery of Harmony, April 3d, 1810, and this 
church applied to the Presbytery for supplies for its pulpit, 
On the 6th of April, 1816, a call was presented to Presbytery 
for one-half of the ministerial labors of Mr. John Harrison, a 



1810-1830.] IJBERTY SPRING— WARRtOR's CREEK. 283 

licentiate under its care. This call Mr. Harrison declined 
accepting, yet he preached to the church in the years 1816 
and 18 17. Says Dr. Campbell, "He was a good preacher, as a 
young man." He was a native of Greenville, married the 
daughter of Alonzo Stewart, of Abbeville, and from Liberty 
Spring removed to Georgia. It was in 1816, during his min- 
istry, that Dr. Robert Campbell was elected an Elder of this 
church. The next preacher was the Rev. Alexander Kirk- 
patrick. He accepted a call from this church for one-half of 
his labors and v/as ordained on the 31st of July, 1818, Rev. 
Jumes Gamble preaching the ordination sermon from i Tim. 
3: I. Mr. Kirkpatrick was a native of Ireland, of good na- 
tive intellect, of rather a cold temperament, a didactic and 
argumentative preacher, a man of great diffidence, good hu- 
mor and benevolence. He married a daughter of Wm. 
Ligon. John McGowan, Robert Hollingsworth and Alexan- 
der Austin, were elected Elders under the ministry of Mr. 
Kirkpatrick. One of the old Elders had died and two had 
removed to the West. (MSB. of Dr. Campbell and minutes 
of Presbytery.) 

Warrior's Creek. — At the 38th regular session of the 
Eresbytery of South Carolina, held at Good Hope from Octo- 
ber I to October 3, 1818, the congregation of Warrioi's 
Creek, about seven or eight miles north of Laurensviile, in 
Laurens District, was received under the care of that body, 
but no information as to the supply of its spiritual wants is 
recorded, save that in 1818-19, it is associated with Liberty 
Spring as under the care of Alexander Kirkpatrick. 

Raboorn's Creek congregation received supplies during 
the decade. Jas. GiUiland, Wm. H. Barr, John Harrison 
and Jas. Hillhouse were appointed as supplies in i8ioand 
181 1. It is only in the earlier years of this period that the 
appointments of supplies are recorded, and when they are 
noted, the appointees are directed to preach so many times, 
at their own discretion, the places where, not being indicated, 
so that those fragmentary notices of vacant congregations are 
very unsatisfactory. 

Union Presbvterian Church (formerly Brown's Creek.) 
The Rev. Daniel Gray continued to preach to this church in 
connection with Fairforest, until his death, which occurred in 
i8i6. He was succeeded by the Rev. Joseph Hillhouse, who 
gave a portion of his labors to this congregation while settled 



284 UNION — CANE CHEEK. [1810-1820; 

at Fairforest. During his ministry he commenced preaching 
statedly at Unionvilie. At what exact period this began we 
are not informed. It may have been near the end of this de- 
cade or soon after. The members of the church thought it 
proper to nbandon their place of worship in the country and 
build a house of worship in the village. The lot on which tlie 
church edifice stands was given by Mr. Alexander Macbeth, 
George Brandon and .\bram Mcjunkin, were ordained Elders 
by Mr. HiUhouse, after lie began preaching at Unionvilie, 
probably about 1819. (MSS. of Rev. J. H. Saye.) 

Cane Creek Church is ten miles from Unionvilie near the 
road leading from the latter place to Columbia and nearly 
equi distant from Broad and Tyger Rivers. "It was formed 
about the year 1809 by a few members of the old Grassy 
Spring church uniting with a few from Brown's Creek. They 
purchased from Mr. Spi.lsbj' Glenn the building now called 
Cane Creek Church. It had been erected by the Society 
of Friends, and from them Mr. Glenn had purchased it be- 
fore it came into the hands of the Presbyterians. The land 
upon which the church stands was purchased from Mr. Isaac 
Hawkins, the agent of the Society of Friends and contains in 
the whole about ten acres. The names of the persons who 
came from the Grassy Spring Church and united in forming 
the Cane Creek Church are the following, viz. : Maj. Samuel 
Otterson and his wife, Ruth, Henry Walker and his wife 
Mary, Mrs. Samuel Lay, James Dugan, Esq., and his wife, 
Frances, Jeremiaii Hamilton and his wife, Mrs. Rebecca Bu- 
ford, James Otterson, widow Brummit, Miss Ruth Otterson, 
Robert Crenshaw, Sen., and Robert Crenshaw, Jr., and one 
other. The following are the names of the members who 
came from the Brown's Creek Church, viz. : Maj. Joseph 
Junkin, elder, and his wife Ann, John Cunningham and his 
wife Ellen, Miss Jane Mcjunkin, Abram Mcjunkin and his 
wife Margaret, making, in the whole 23. Soon after the pur- 
chase of the land and building the services of the Rev. Daniel 
Gray were secured as a stated supply for one-fourth of his 
time. He preached here two years, during which Mary and 
Thany Otterson, daughters of Maj. S. Otterson, and Mary 
Buford became members of the church. Majors Otterson and 
Mcjunkin officiated as Ruling Elders, and constituted the 
session at this period. From 1811 to 1816 the church was 
almost entirely destitute of preaching. Sometimes a sermon 



1810-1820.] FAIRFOREST. 285 

was preached by a minister of the Mtthodist denomination 
who came by invitation. And when no minister could be 
procured, the Elders and members frequently met for prayer, 
praise, and the reading of the Scriptures. In the mean time 
occasional supplies were sent by Presbytery. In November, 
1816, a petition was preferred to Presbytery for supplies and 
Mr. William Means, a licentiate, served this church as a 
.stated supply for six months. From this time onward till 
1620, the church had supplies only occasionally." [From 
the Records of Cane Creek Church.] The country around 
was originally settled mostlj' by Quakers. The house of 
worship as we have seen was built by them. In the first 
years of the present century they left the* country and went 
to Ohio and Indiana. The original purchasers of the house 
unfortunately allowed other denominations to occupy it in 
common until nothing but a forcible expulsion would induce 
them to relinquish what they claim as their right. Under 
these circumstances the church eventually erected a house of 
worship about seven miles west of Cane Creek Church where 
the ordinances of the Gospel are statedly dispensed." The 
above is extracted from the records of the session. But it is 
probable that the persons stated in the preceding sketch, 
to have formed the Cane Creek Church did not regard them- 
selves at the time as uniting in a duly organized church 
capacity, but as merely making arrangements for sustaining 
Gospel ordinances. They were regarded, those especially 
from Brown's Creek, as still members of that church, and it 
may have been so with those from Grassy Spring. (MSS. Mr. 
Saye.) 

Fairforest Church. — The Rev. Daniel Gray continued 
in this pastorate until his death in 1816. He fell into " a 
decline," and the last few years of his life were years of suf- 
fering and weakness. He was a good preacher and .sound in 
the faith. The church was disturbed during his ministry by 
the errors of VVm. C. Davis, and at the meeting of Presby- 
tery, April 3d, 1811, Mr. Gray informed this body that a 
number of persons in the congregation had imbibed the prin- 
ciples set forth in " The Gospel Plan," written by him, and 
sought to be directed by Presbytery as to his treatment of 
these persons. Dr. VVaddel and Mr. Brown were directed to 
prepare a letter, to be addressed to that congregation, stating 
to them the light in which Presbytery viewed this matter. 



286 FAIRFOREST. [1810-1820. 

Tlie letter was .submitted to Presbytery, was approved and 
forwarded, and was as follows : 

" Beah Friends and Brethren : The Presbytery of South Carolina 
Viave learned with unfeigned regret that soine members of your society 
liave viewed certain steps talien by the Presbytery, at their last sessions, 
as being rather rigid. They feel it as their duty towards tliose of 
Christ's household to use their endeavors to preserve both the peace 
and purity of the church, and are sorry to understand that there are 
any symptoms of di.seord among the members of a society once so 
respectable. In present circumstances, though far from desiring to lord 
it over (iod's heritage, yet we consider it as not transcending the bounds 
of our duty to admonish you to mark and beware of those unstable per- 
sons who cause divisions among you, and endeavor, by every proper 
and prudent method, to reclaim them. The elders we exhort to treat 
such with all due lenity consistent with the purity of the church ; and 
should it be deemed proper or necessary in order to reduce the tempo- 
ralities of your church to a state of greater regularity, as well as to 
ascertain the number of those among you who are still disposed to 
adhere to and support the principles of the church to which we belong, 
we recommend that a new subscription be opened and the members 
invited in that way to testify their sentiments. Should any member, 
after subscribing in the manner proposed, afterwards evince himself to 
be an advocate for error, we do recommend that he be dealt with as the 
discipline of our church directs in cases of error. Finally, brethren, we 
admonish you to endeavor to stand fast in the faith, striving together 
in prayer to God for his direction and protection, and may the God of 
peace and the peace of God be with you." 

Mr. Gray was succeded in the pastorship of this church by 
Rev. Joseph Hillhouse, who was brought up in Anderson 
District, received his classical studies at the academy ab Va- 
rennes, and finished his course of preparatory studies with 
Dr. Waddell at Willington. A call for one-half of his min- 
isterial services was laid before Presbytery at its twenty-fourth 
.stated sessions, November 13, 1816, and he was ordained at 
Fairforest on the 19th of July, 1S17, Rev. John B. Kennedy 
preaching the ordinatiorj sermon from Col. 4 : 17, Dr. Wad- 
dell presiding and delivering the charge to the newly-ordained 
pasi or and people. Mr. Hillhouse also preached at Brown's 
Creek, and began to preach statedly at Unionville. During 
his ministry a new brickhouse of worship was erected at 
Fairforest. Under his ministry the congregation of Brown's 
Creek erected a house of worship at Unionville. Mr. William 
Means also preached in this church, probably before Mr. 
Hillliouse, but from debility he abandoned the ministry and 
was never ordained. From the period of the settlement of 
Mr. Hillliouse, things began to assume a more favorable 
aspect. The ordin.tnccis of God's house were slriqtly attended 



1810-1820.] NAZARETH. 287 

to, and now and then a repenting returning sinner was found. 
No very visible outpouring of tlie Spirit was ob=erved until 
about the beginning of April, 1818, when an unusual solem- 
nity was perceived to prevail in the assembly which usually 
attended. Many hearts were filled with grief at the recol- 
lection of their past ingratitude. Many sought to obtain a 
seat at the table of the Lord, whom, by their sins, they had 
pierced. In the last of May twenty-five publicly professed 
their attachment to Christ and his cause; and in August, at 
another communion, twenty-eight more separated themselves 
from the world to follow after the Lord ; thus making an 
aggregate of fifty-three, ip four months, who have made a 
public, and, in most instances, a hopeful profession." (Letter 
dated Union District, S. C, October 14, 181S, addressed to 
the Weekly Recorder, and republished in the Religious Intel- 
ligencer, New Haven, of November, 1818.) Fairforest lias 
been blessed with an eldership of no common excellence. 
Among them was Gen. Hugh Means, tlie son of James Means, 
one of the early settlers, the second child born in the settle- 
ment. His mother died soon after his birth, and he was 
nursed by Mrs. Story with her own son, George. He entered 
the service of his country at an early period, and won distinc- 
tion on various occasions, especially at the battle of the Cow- 
pens, where he was a lieutenant in the company of Captain 
Patton. He commanded a regiment in the war of 1812. After 
the close of the revolutionary struggle he was distinguished 
by his energy and kindness in providing for the pressing 
necessities of the widows and orphans of his fallen comrades. 
He was chosen a ruling elder at an early period of life, ;ind 
discharged the duties of his office much to the edification of 
the church. He was an earnest and devout Christian, and a 
whole-souled man and neighbor. His posterity is numerous, 
but all scattered through the regions of "The far West.'' 
There were other elders whose useful lives extended into the 
times subsequent to this, and whose'names deserve to be 
remembered. [MSS. of J. H. Saye and Minutes of Presbytery.] 
Nazareth Church, Spartanburg' District. This church 
flourished much under tlie pastoral labors of Rev. James 
Gilliland, Jr , who was a lively preacher, a good scholar and 
popular in his manners. At the meeting of Presbytery in 
April, 1815, he and Rev. Daniel Gray obtained leave to travel 
beyond the bounds of Presbytery during the Summer. And 



288 FAIRVIEW. [1810-1820 

it appears to have been the understanding that every minis- 
tei- traveling abroad should do so with the consent of Presby- 
tery, and bearing credentials attested by the stated clerk or 
by the presiding Moderator and clerk, At the meeting No- 
vember r3th, i8[6, a letter was received from iiim stating his 
removal beyond their bounds, suing for a dismission from 
his pastoral relation with Nazareth, accompanied with his 
account book and the moneys held by him as the Treasurer 
of Pres^bytery. These accounts were audited and found cor- 
rect, the Commissioner of the congregation was heard, and 
Mr. Gilliland was regularly dismissed, and the congregation 
now declared a vacancy \x\. good standing, having fulfilled all 
its contracts with its pastor.' On the 3rd of April tiiey applied 
for one-half the labors of the licentiate William Means for one 
year, this application was accepted by him. He perhaps had 
served them before in the same bapacity, for he is said to have 
served them four years after the dismission of Mr. Gilliland 
until 1820. [Minutes and MSS. of Rev. R. H. Reid.] Mr. 
Gilliland removed to Mississippi after having rendered the 
country very efficient service in the pulpit and the school- 
room where many eminent men were his pupils. 

Faikview Church. This church was under the charge of 
Rev. James Gilliland jointly with Nazareth .until September 
28, 1812, when Mr. Gilliland applied for a dismission and was 
directed to cite his people to appear by their commissioner 
at the next meeting to show cause (if any) why the dismis- 
sion should not be granted. As neither Mr. Gilliland nor 
any commissioner appeared, the business was laid over. James 
Hillhouse, Thomas Archibald, Joseph Hilihouse and Alexan- 
der Kirkpatrick were subsequently appointed by Presbytery 
as supplies. The statement we have received is, that the Rev. 
Hugh Dickson took charge of the congregation at the Fall 
meeting of Presbytery in 1 8 14 a fourth of his time at a salary 
of 75 dollars, was succeeded by James Hillhouse at the Spring 
Presbytery of 1 8 16, th'at on the 3rd Sabbath of October he 
resigned and was succeeded by Rev. Thos. Archibald who 
preached until the Spring Presbytery of 1817, then the Rev. 
Alexander Kirkpatrick, a native of Ireland, preached from 
June, 1817, to May. 1818. And during this period the Rev. 
Thomas D, Baird, from Ireland occupied the pulpit some por- 
tion of the time. During this decade Dr. Thomas W. Alex- 
ander, Lindsay A. Baker, were elders, and James Peden about 



1810-1820.] N. PACOLET— MILFORD — SMYRNA. 289 

the year 1816. (Brief history compiled by a committee of the 
church.) The regular sessions of the Presbytery of South 
Carolina were held at this church on the 1st of April, 1814, 
and the 7th of October, 1819. 

North Pacolet. James Gilliland, Jr., was appointed by 
Presbytery to supply this church in 1810, 181 1, 1812 ; Dan- 
iel Gray, in i8ro, and Thos. Archibald, in 1817. The brief 
statement made to us in 1853 is, "In 1817 Rev. Braynard and 
J. Hillhouse labored as pastors, during whose service A. F. 
Jackson and his wife, A. Cunningham and his wife, S. Caruth 
M. and E. Scott, W. Kelso, Jr., and his wife, and J. and P. 
Kelso became united with the church." 

MiLFORD. This name does not appear on the minutes of 
Presbytery during this decade. The same is true of the 
Cuffey Town congregation on CufFey Town Creek in the 
upper part of Edgefield District. 

The Gekman Church on Hard Labor Creek is once men- 
tioned in the minutes of Presbytery. August 28th, 1811, 
Henry Reid, then a licentiate, was appointed to preach at 
"the German Church." This was probably the continuation 
of the Cuffey Town congregation made up of German emi- 
grants from the Palatinate who suffered such bitter persecu- 
tions in the preceding century and were settled in the old 
township of Hillsboro in 1760 and 1770. See Vol.1, p. 642. 

Smv'rna Church, (Abbeville.) The Rev. Hugh Dickson still 
ministered to this church one-half of his time. "In their effort 
to replenish their eldership, removed by death, the church 
elected Samuel Speece and Philip Stiefle who were inducted 
into office as their successors. They lived but a short time. 
Two others were appointed to take their places. They required 
some time for deliberation and before they had obtained their 
consent, they both died suddenly without ordination. Two 
others were appointed to fill their office, they died in like 
manner. This is mentioned as a singular providence. Robert 
Redd was then appointed and continued to act through the" 
following decade." (MSS. by Rev. Hugh Dickson.) 

Greenville Church, (formerly Saluda,) Abbeville. Rev. 
Hugh Dickson continued the joint pastor of this and the last 
named congregation. All things moved on in the even tenor 
of their way with few accessions until 1815, when 14 new 
members were added to the church. Prio» to this, Edward 
Sharpe having died, Isaac Cowan was appointed Ruling Elder 
19 



290 ROCKY CREEK — C'AMBRIIJCiK. [ISIO-lSL'll. 

in liis place. Shortly after this John Seawright and Samuel 
A^new were added to the Session. (MSS. of Rev. Hugh 
Dickson.) 

Rocky Creek now JIock Church. Supplies were ap- 
pointed for this church as follows : Wm. H. Barr, in l8lO; 
Henry Reid. in i8ll. 1812; Daniel Gray, John B. Kennedy 
and Hugh Dickson, in 1812, and John Harrison, in 1814. 
Most of these appointments were for a single Sabbath, some 
were for two or more. "The Rev. Henry Reid," says Rev. 
Joiin McLees, now (in 1872) pastor of tlii.s church, "was li- 
censed by South Carolina Presbytery about the year 1810. 
He supplied the church occasionally until 18 19." Another 
MSS. account says "We have no trace of its history left (i. c, 
after 1805) till 1 8 10, when it was supplied by Rev. Henry 
Reid till :8i2." It was then vacant for five years, when Mr. 
Reid returned and preached once a month durirtg the )-ears of 
i8i8and 1819. He left it and it was again vacant. John 
Blake, Thomas Weir, and Joim Caldwell were appointed 
Rutinrr KIders in 1818. 

Old Cambridge, or Ninety-Six, is again without mention 
in the mmutes of Presbytery during this decade. It sti-11 
existed as ^ community of some importance. "The Cam- 
bridge Library Society" was chartered in 1816. About the 
time of the war of 1812 it rose again to some measure of 
prosperity. It was visited, too, by ministers of the gospel, 
among whom, according to the testimony of Mr. John Mc- 
Bryde, a resident of the place, and a merchant then engaged 
in business, were Rev. Mr. Dickson and Dr. Barr. It was 
visited, too, by Rev. Alfred Wright, afterwards missionary to 
the Choctaws, who was sent from the Missionary Society in 
Charleston as e.xplorer,* who was followed by Rev. John 
Wheeler, afterwards President of Burlington College, Ver- 
mont, who came as a licentiate, in 1819, and preached both 
here and at " the Rocks," that is. Rocky Creek, or Rock 

*" More than five years ago, Mr- Alfred Wright, while a student in 
the Theological Seminary Mt Andover, after serious and prayerful delib- 
eration, caSie to the resolution to devote himself to the missionary 
work, should Providence open to him the way ; but a failure of health 
has hindered him. After a residence, however, in North Carolina for 
two or three years, he found his health so far restored as to encourage 
him to commence poaching ; and for several months past he has been 
employed in missiomirv labors to good acceptance in South Carolina." 
[Report of the Prudential Committee of the A. B. C, F. M,, Sept., 1819,] 



1810-1 S-iO.] HOPEWELL — WILLINGTON. 291 

Church, from November to June. These men were sent by 
the Society of Domestic Missions, and the labors 

of these and their successors resulted in the reorganizing of 
the church in this place early in the next decade. 

Hopewell (Abbeville).— Dr. Waddell continued to preach 
to this church in coimection with VVillington, at which place 
he resided. In the midst of his successful career at the latter 
place as an instructor of youth, and both here and there as a 
preacher of the gospel, he was called to the Presidency of 
Franklin College, at Athens, Georgia. A door of wider useful- 
ness seemed open before him, and he requested a dismission 
from the Presbytery of South Carolina to the Presbytery of 
Hopewell, within whose bounds he had removed, which was 
granted him on the 17th of October, 1819, and the Hopewell 
Church was again vacant. " The organization of a church at 
VVillington drew off soine of the members of the Hopewell 
Church. The stream of emigration which set from this region 
to the new countries in tlie \Vest would have had a still more 
serious effect, had it not been for a counter-current which 
flowed in from the lower part of the State. About this time, 
Messrs. Stephen Lee, Andrew Norris, the Saxons, Pelots, 
Postells, Wilsons, Parkers, Caters and Reids, moved in and 
filled the vacant places. 

WiLLiNGToN. — The circumstances under which the church 
hearing this name was founded have been rehearsed already. 
It was organized about the year 1813, and was composed 
mainly of members from Hopewell. Though useful here in 
the ministry of the gospel, "the reputation of Dr. Waddell 
chiefly rested on his'success as an educator of youth. It was 
this which led to his election to the Presidency of Franklin 
College, a name by which the University of Georgia has been 
known. His removal from this portion of his pastoral charge 
took place, as has already been intimated, in 1819. "The 
school was left," says the authority to which we have before 
been indebted, " in the hands of his nephew, Mr. Dobbins, 
who sustained it but a short time. This Academy had been 
in operation at this place nearly fifteen years, and its success 
was without a parallel in the country. How much this was 
owing to circumstances, or to that 'tide in the affairs of men,' 
which being ' taken at the flood leads on to fortune,' we leave 
logicians to determine ; but its influence for good upon the 
age is a self-evident proposition; The germs of lawyers, phy- 



292 DR. WADDEL. [1810-lKl'(l. 

sicians, statesmen, ministers, &c., tented arouni] that simpL- 
academic buildinjj ; and wayward indeed, even reprobate, 
must have been the youth who retained in after-life no im.- 
pression of the genuine faith, the honest probity, and the 
sterhng energy of his amiable perceptor. He was amiable 
notwithstanding the rigidity of his discipline. A vein of 
pleasantry ran through the rich, heavy quarry of his brain ; 
and flashes of wit not seldom illuminated the thunder of his 
brow ; yet though the luckless culprit might find in this a 
precedent for a smile, woefully deceived was he if he deemed 
that the rod of strict justice would be thus averted. 

There was a manliness and boldness in his dealings which 
compelled the respect of even the worst; and his warm appre- 
ciation of good conduct could not fail to secure the interest 
of the wise and studious. 

Of the ministers who came forth from this school may be 
mentioned Richard B. Cater, D. D., J. B. Hillhouse, D. Hum- 
phries, James Gamble, Henry Reid, John Wilson (Baptist), 
Rev. Daniel Campbell (Episcopalian), Rev. Thomas D Baird, 
D. D., of Cincinnati, and others not now remembered." [Mrs. 
M. E. D.J 

There were times, too, when the Spirit from heaven moved 
upon the hearts of the students who resorted to him. He 
wrote on one occasion that nearly half of the members of the 
.seminary, which contained at that time more than a hundred 
students, had been under serious impressions, and that up- 
wards ot twenty were hopefully converted. [Panoplist for 
May, 1812.] 

As a teacher, Dr. Waddel had been eminently successful. 
Dr. Smith, the learned President of Nassau Hall, in New 
Jer.sey, has repeatedly said, says Dr. Ramsay, that he re- 
ceives no scholars from any section of the United States who 
stand a better examination than the pupils of Dr. Waddel. 
Hist. II., p. 369. ■" Posts of honor and profit in this and the 
neighboring States are so common to Dr. Waddel's pupils," 
.says Judge A. B, Longstreet, " that they might almost be 
considered their legitimate inheritance." But there were 
new responsibilities about to be imposed upon him. In 1818 
he was elected to the Presidency of the University of Geor- 
gia. In 1 8 19 he published the " Memoirs of Miss Catharine 
Elizabeth Smelt," a highly interesting and popular work, 
which soon reached a third edition in this country and at least 



1810-1820.] ' LOWER LONG CANE. 293 

two in Great Britain. He remained at Willington until May, 
1 8 19, wiien lie removed to Athen.s and entered upon the du- 
ties of the Presidency. 

" Dr, Waddel's accesion to the Presidency of the Univer- 
sity," says Judge Longstreet, " was magical. It rose instantly 
to a rank it had never held before, and which, we are happy 
to add it has maintained ever since." 

Lower Long Cane. — At the meeting of the Presbytery of 
South Carolina at Fairforest, September 25th, 18 12, a peti- 
tion from Lower Long Cane congregation, formerly attached 
to the Seceders or Associate Reformed, praying to be taken 
under its care was laid before that body. This church had 
preferred a request to Presbytery at a previous meeting held 
at Duncan's Creek,' 18 12, for the ordination of Mr. Henry 
Reid, who, probably, had been preaching to them as a licen- 
tiate. The Presbytery regarded itself constitutionally barred 
from attending "to the spirit of the petition." perhaps because 
that church was not under its jurisdiction. "After mature 
deliberation had thereon, the prayer of the supplication was 
granted and their elder Robert McCulloch was invited to a 
seat in Presbytery." [Minutes of second Presbytery of South 
Carolina, September 26, 18 12.] The Presbytery seems to 
have proceeded with some measure of caution. It "could not 
view the petition of Lower Long Cane in the light of a call 
from that people for the ordination of Mr. Reid as their pastor, 
yet it appeared to be their desire that the ordination should 
take place for that purpose. Upon the whole, taking into 
consideratioii the peculiar situation of that congregation, they 
resolved that should a regular call for Mr. Reid be brought 
from that people to Presbytery at their next stated sessions 
(Mr. Reid having intimated that he would accept it) they 
would proceed to his examination." A call was regularly 
presented at their next meeting and Mr. Reid's trials were 
entered upon. The Committee, Messrs. Andrew Brown, 
Hugh Dickson and Vv^m. H. Barr, to whom his lecture and 
sermon were submitted, reported unfavorably upon them at a 
prore nata meeting at Varennes, April 30, 1813, as advancing 
doctrines at variance with our standards, the symbols of our 
faith, and the word of God. i. As maintaining that the active 
obedience of Christ is no part of the righteousness by which 
a sinner is justified. 3d That justification appears to be 
extended only to the pardon of sin. 3d. That temporal death 



294 REV. HENBY REID. [1810-1820. 

constituted no part of the penalty of the c )venant of works, 
and that eternal death is not included in the breach of the 
covenant. 4th. An universal purchase of redemption appear.s 
to be inculcated. 5th. That there is no absolute necessity of 
heaping the gospel in order to salvation. 6th. That the 
penalty of the covenant of works consisted wholly in spiritual 
death. 7th. That a fear of punishment and hope of escape 
will bring a sinner to Christ, though the enmity of his heart 
remains unsubdued. 8th. Tliat a holy disposition of heart is 
a consequence of being sealed to God in the exercise of faith. 
9th. The beginning of holiness is regeneration and follow.s 
faith ; faith consequently is not holy in its first exercise. 
From the whole the Committee perceived "the pieces to be 
in perfect unison with the " Gospel Plan'^ by W. C. Davis, 
which has excited and still continues to excites o much uneas- 
iness in our churches and which we believe to be fraught 
with injury to precious and immortal souls." 

After the presentation of this report and its formidable 
array of divergencies from our standards of doctrine, " Mr. 
Reid was called forward, and after a lengthy and amicable 
conference, with some explanations, he disavowed" (as he 
had done previously at his licensure,") " the sentiments which 
were considered exceptionable." At a pro re uata meeting 
at Lower Long Creek Church, May I2th, 1813, Mr. Reid was 
ordained and in.stalled, Doctor Waddel, presiding, Wm. H. 
Barr, preaching the ordination sermon, from Ezek. iii, 17, 
and a suitable charge being given to the newly ordained 
minister and the congregation. At the meeling' the Rev. 
Alexander Porter, of the Associate Reformed Church, was 
present as a corresponding member. 

In the minutes of the General Assembly, of May, 1814, 
Lower Long Cane was reported among the churches of 
the Presbytery of South Carolina, and Henry Reid as its pastor. 

At the October-sessions, Mr. Reid obtained leave to spend 
thrpe-fourths of his time, till the next stated sessions, without 
the bounds of the Presbytery, it being understood that it 
was with the concurrence of the congregation over which he 
had been installed. On November 4th, 1814, Mr. Reid was 
dismissed from the pastoral charge of Lower Long Cane, and 
from the Presbytery, to join the Presbytery of Hopewell, and 
Lower Long Cane became vacant, and was so reported in the 
Assembly's minutes of 18 19. 



1810-1-820.] SARDIS — ROCKY RIVER. 295 

At the same time that this church applied to be received 
under the care of Presbytery, a neighborhood on the waters of 
Long Cane Creek applied to be received also as a congregation, 
and to be known by the name of Sardis Church, and was so 
received and entered upon the records. (Minutes Second 
Presbytery South Carolina, pp. 176, 179.) 

Rocky River.— The Rev. Dr. Waddell preached to this 
church one-fourth of his time until near the close of 18 14. 
On the 29th of October, in this year, the congregation pre' 
ferred to Presbytery a call for three-fourtlis of the ministerial 
labors of Rev. James Gamble, who was a native of Virginia, 
but came into tiiat neighborhood when young, and had been 
licensed and ordained due titiilo as we have before described. 
iVIr Gamble continued in this relation through the remainder 
of this decade. For about five years, from about 18 16 to 
1 82 1, Mr. Gamble had the Superintendence of a large school 
where several young men were educated who afterwards 
became ministers of the Gospel in connection with the Pres- 
byterian Church, and some who attached themselves to 
churches of other denominations. About 18 10, an addition 
was made to the session by the removal into the congrega- 
tion of Josiah Patterson, wiio is believed to have been an elder 
in Lower Long Cane In 1816, John Spear was elected to fill 
the vacancy caused by the death of John Caldwell. A. Giles 
and Thomas Cunningham were afterwards^dded to the elder- 
ship, but at what particular date is not known. During the 
first fifteen or twenty years of the present century, the congre- 
gations which assembled were large and crowded. After this 
period, from deaths and emigration to the West, the member- 
ship was greatly diminished.* The congregation has been 
fruitful in ministers of the Gospel, and tiiis has been the case 
in those congregations where piety has the most abounded 
and where literary tastes have been formed or cultivated by 
good schools and classical studies. Academic; institutions 
under religious influences have contributed largely to the 
supply of ministers of the gospel. (Letters of John Speer 
and A. Giles, Esq., of October and November, 1852.) 

* " Foi'ty-flve years ago, I have no doubt,-' says Mr. Giles, " tliere were 
at least two hundred members. From removals and deaths, small 
farms have been bought up by lar^e planters — who generally are a curse 
to any community — [we suppose this to be said without any bitterness] 
we have dwindled down to thirtv-five." 



296 UPPER LONG CANK. [1810-1820. 

Long Cane (Upper Long Cane), The Rev. Wm. H. Barr 
ministered to this people, serving them, to their great satis- 
faction, three-fourths of his time through this period. The 
old church building having become much dilapidated and 
decayed, subscriptions were opened in December 1813 for 
building a new house of worship. The subscriptions were 
made payable to Wm. Le.sly, Hugh Reid, George Bowie, 
Matthew Wilson and James Wardlaw, trustees of tlie congre- 
gation or their successors m office. On these subscriptions 
a considerable sum was raised wliich enabled the trustees to 
contract for building the house, which was finished to their 
satisfaction. ("It was not finished, I think," says Robert H. 
Wardlaw, who furnishes these facts, "till about 1818, and is 
the same now, [June, 1852,] occupied by the congregation.") 

Thus was business conducted with great harmony and to 
the general satisfaction of the members, by trustees appointed 
from time to time, without any by-laws, rules or regulations 
defining tiieir powers or limiting their privileges till Septem- 
ber 20th, 1819, when the before mentioned trustees, after en- 
during ail the fatigues and surmounting all the difficulties and 
bearing all the losses and privations attendant on the erection 
of the new building, became desirous of retiring, and called 
a meeting of the congregation on that day to elect another 
board of trustees ; but previous to going into the election they 
proposed to the congregation a set of rules and regulations 
which were unanimously adopted. The secular affairs of the 
congregation are still (1832) managed by a board of trustees, 
a regular succession being kept~ up by election every four 
years. 

Between 1818 and 1824 the congregation purchased the 
church lands, containing acres from Patrick Duncan 

of Charleston, it being a part of what is commonly called "the 
Jew's land," raising the necessary amount by voluntary sub- 
scription. (MS. by Robert H. Wardlaw.) 



It is due to the memory of one who from early life was an influential 
member of this ohurch, that some memorial of one who was so distin-. 
guished in war and honored in civil life sliould be here preserved. We 
allude to General Andrew Pickens, who departed this life at Tomassee, 
his residence, August llth, 1817, in his 80th year. 

The following interesting sketch, published many years ago in the 
Keowee Courier, will be read with especial interest : 

A correspondent of the Unionville Times, under the signature of ''Up- 
Uountry," suggests that in filling up the niches of thecapitol with busts 



1810-1820.] GEN'i. ANDEEW PICKENS. 297 

of distinguished Carolinians, as is proposed, the claims of Gen Andrew 
Pickens should not be disregarded. He says while "Gen. Marion and 
Sumter should have a place in the capitoj, so should Gen Pickens, an 
up-countryman, have one assigned him also." AVe agree with "Up- 
Conntry" that the important services which Gen. Pickens rendered 
• during the revolution fully entitle him to this distinction. We make 
the following extract, giving information in reference to the life and 
services of Gen. Pickens, which will prove interesting to our readers: 

"I beg leave to bring to the v'.ew of the good people of South Carolina, 
Gen. Andrew Pickens and some of his military services during our 
Kevolutionary struggle. He was of Irish descent, born in Pennsylvania 
and emigrated to South Carolina with his parents when a boy, and set- 
tled first in the Waxhaws. In 1760, before he was twenty-one years of 
age, he volunteered in Grant's expedition against the Cherokee Indians, 
where he received his first lessons in military discipline, with Laurens 
Marion, Moultrie and Huger. He, early in the revolutionary contest, 
took sides with the Whigs and became a leader of che patriots In 1779 
Col Pickens, who then commanded a regiment of about three hundred 
and sixty men, pursued Col. Boyd, who had under him eight hundred 
Tories. He overtook them at Kettle Creek, where a severe battle en- 
sued. Boyd was mortally wounded, seven of his men killed, and about 
seventy-five made prisoners, the remainder scattered to the winds. This 
was the first great reverse of fortune which the Tories met with, and of 
course proved to be of great service in the cause of the patriots. Gen 
Pickens was wounded in the breast by a musket ball, while at the head 
of his men at the battle of Entaw, ^nd knocked oS his hor.se — a wound 
he carried with him in its efi'ects, to the grave, in 1817. He captured 
Augusta from the British after they had held it two years, as "Lee's 
Memoirs of the Southern Campaign" will prove. He fought at the 
siege of Ninety-six, and lost two brothers there. He fought at Gran by. 
He cut Pile's men all to pieces one night, on Haw Kiver N. C., and was 
elected in that State a brigadier-general to succeed Gen. Davidson, (who 
was killed at Cowan's Ford, on the Catawba) and was thus actually a 
brigadier-general in both the Carolinas at the same time. Gen. Pieken.'s 
with his men, stood the onset of the British at the great battle of Cow- 
pens. In fourteen days he conquered the great Cherokee nation with- 
out the loss of a man, and made the celebrated treaty of Hopewell, in 
Pendleton, by which Anderson. Pickens and Greenville were obtained. 
He also fought the great ring fight, which perfectly subdued the Indians 
ever afterwards. 

"Gen. Pickens is one of the few officers who never drew a cent of pay 
for his Revolutionary services, as the roll of the comptroller's office will 
prove. After the war. Gen. Pickens held the first county court that sat 
under the new laws, near Abbeville Courthouse, at the old Block House, 
and his son, Grovernor Pickens, then a boy of five years old, drew the 
first jury. He was appointed by President Washington, with Gen. 
Wayne, to conquer the great northwestern tribes of Indians but declined 
the honor. He ran the line between North Carolina and Tennessee, 
by an appointment from President Jefferson. He was also appointed 
to hold the Treaty of Milledgeville, likewise at Natchez, and indeed 
almost all the treaties held with the Southern Indians, and was (»n- 
stantly in service until 1794, when he was elected to Congress, which 
then sat in Philadelphia At that time there were neither railroads nor 
stage-coaches — all traveling was done on horseback. Picture then, to 
yourselves, a man who is approaching his threescore years, of martial 



298 I,1TTLE MOUNTAIN— BKADAWAY. [1810-1820. 

fifrure and dijinifled demeanor, mounted on a spirited milk-white steed, 
of pure Andalusian breed, wliip in hand and holsters filled with a brace 
of pistols, the silver mounting of which glittered in the sunlight. A 
three-cornered hat, from beneath which grows the silvery-gray hair, 
put smoothly back and tied in a queue, an undress military coat, ruffled 
shirt, and small clothes and fair top boots, with massive silver spurs. 
Following at a little distance, on a stout draft horse, is his African atten- 
dant, Pompey, in livery of blue, with scarlet facings, carrying a ponder- 
ous portmanteau with a consequential and dignified air, showing in 
every movement the pride of a body servant in his revered master. 
Paint this in your mind's eye. and you have before you a gentleman 
of the eighteenth century, with his servant, on his way to Congress. 
Such was Gen. Andrew Pickens as he passed through our village in 
1794. 

"Congress, on the 9th of February, 1781, passed a vote of thanks t > 
the officers and men who fouirht in the battle of the Cowpens, and voi,ed 
Gen. Andrew Pickens a sword. The Legislature of South Carolina, in 
i816, unanimously ofl'ered him tlie gubernatorial chair, which he re- 
spectfully declined from age and infirmities." 

Little Mountain Congregation. On the 2nd of Aprii, 
l8i I, at the 23d .stated sessions of the Second Presbytery of 
South Carolina, held at Biadaway Church, a neighborhood on 
the water ot Spur Creek in Abbeville Di.strict applied to be 
received under Presbvterial supervision and to be known un- 
der the name and address of Little Mountain Con^^regation.* 
Minutes 2nd Presbytery, p. 158. On the 7th of April, 1812, 
they called Rev. William H. Barr for one-fourth of his time, 
which call was accepted by him at the next stated meeting of 
Presb)tery, and he continued to minister to their spiritual 
wants as a portion of his pastoral charge through this period 
of our history. 

Bradaway. — We have very kw traces of this church and 
congregation in anything before us for the first two or three 
years of this decade. The Presbytery of South Carolina (down 
to that date the Second Presbytery of South Carolina) held its 
23d stated sessions at that church the 2d of April, 1811, and 

*It cannot now be ascertained whether the church had been regularly 
organized or not prior to 1811. It may be inferred that it was. Apart 
from anything authentic, the commonly accepted version states "that 
Dr Barr preached under a post-oak tree, bv the side of the General's 
Road," (which is still standing) "in the year 1806 or 1807." Notwith- 
standing it was an immoral neighborhood, and a regular "race ground" 
was kept,beginning at this tree, great crowds gathered under its branches 
to hear Dr. Barr tell "the story of the cross." It was not long, however, 
before a general desire pervaded the community to have a house of 
worship, which was built of logs and placed on the top of a very high 
hill, from which the church took its name as Little Mountain Chubch. 
[MSS. of Wesley A. Black.] 



1810-1820.] GOOD HOPE AND ROBERTS. 299 

its 33d -sessions on the Sth of April, 1816. Between these 
dates, on the 25tli of Se[>teinber, 1812, a call was presented 
to Presbytery, from Bradaway, for one half the ministerial 
labors of Mr. Thomas Dickson Baird, then a licentiate, which 
was presented to him and accepted. At Varcnnes -a pro re 
nata meeting was held for his ordination. Dr. Waddell 
preached on the occasion. Rev. Hugh Dickson preached 
the ordination sermon from Mark xvi. 15: "Go ye into all 
the world, &c." The candidate was set apart to the sacred 
office of the ministry, and a suitable charge given to the 
pastor and people. Mr. (afterwards Dr.) Baird was dismissed 
to the Presbytery of Lancaster, in the State of Ohio, at his 
own request, on the Sth of April, 1815. 

A call from Bradaway for one-half of the ministerial services 
of Mr. Richard B. Cater, then a licentiate (the time to be 
equally divided between Varennes and Bradaway) was laid 
before the Presbytery on the 1 8th of November, 181 5, and 
by him accepted. He was ordained at the regular meeting 
above mentioned, the services being held on the 6th of April, 
18 16. The ordination sermon was preached by Rev. Hugh 
Dickson. He was solemnly set apart to the work of the 
Gospel ministry by prayer and the imposition of hands, and 
the charge was given to the newly ordained minister and the 
people by Rev. William H. Barr, who presided on the occa- 
sion. In October, 18 19, Mr. Cater applied for a dismission 
from his pastoral charge, but there being no commissioners 
present from the congregations composing it, Presb)tery de- 
clined action at that time, but directed Rev' James Hillhouse 
to cite those congregations to appear by their commissioners 
before that body at its next sessions, to show cause, if an\- 
they have, why such dismission should not be granted.* 

Good Hope and Roberts.— Rev. James McElheney sup- 
plied these ciiurches until his death, on the 4th of October, 
18 1 2. The next supply was the Rev. Thos. H. Price, of 
James Island. The Rev. Thomas Dickson Baird, afterwards 
D. D., was the next. Of his earlier history we have already 
written. 

In 1809, he entered the Willington Academy, of which 
Dr. Moses VVaddell was tiie principal. " I heard this eminent 

* A discourse of Mr. Cater's before the " Varennes Eeligious Tract So- 
ciety "may be found in the Evangelical Intelligencer of January Ist 
and 15th, 1819, published by requestof the Society. 



300 THOMAS D. BAIRD, D. D. [1810-1820. 

Preceptor saj' : " says Rev. David Humphreys, also his pupil, 
that of all the students who passed through that Academy, 
but one, George McDuffie, ever made such rapid pro- 
gress — especially in the study of the languages. This was 
very complimentary when we recollect Calhoun, Craw- 
ford, Longstreet and Pettigrew, with many others from 
that Institution, who have graced the Bar, the Bench, 
the Halls of Congress, and the Cabinet of the United States 
He was licensed, ordained and installed at Bradaway, near 
Varennes, as we have already recorded, where, in connection 
with his pastoral office, he conducted a large and popular 
classical school. In 1815, he obtained a release from his 
pastoral charge and reino\'ed to Newark, in Oliio. The sup- 
ply given to Roberts and Good Hope churches, was only for 
a short time. It was about two years, that he had tiie care 
of the Bradaway church 

While Mr. Baird was a member of this Presbytery heat- 
tended the General Assembly as its delegate and became per- 
suaded that the churches of New England were exerting an 
injurious influence on Presbyterianism. At Newark, he was 
engaged for five years as pastor and teacher. In 18 17, he 
received overtures as to the presidency of the University of 
Ohio, an office wiiiclv he declined. In 1820, he became pas- 
tor of the church in Lebanon, Alleghany Co. Pa., when he was 
disabled from preaching by laryngitis. He had an impor- 
tant influence in establishing the Western Foreign Missionary 
Society. In 1831 he took the editorial charge of the Pitts- 
burg Christian Herald, He sat in the Assemblies of 1837 
and 1888, and was President of the Convention that met in 
connection with it. He removed to Cannonsburg, Pa., in 
1838 during which year on the 21st of November he left 
home on a visit to South Carolina and Georgia the scene of 
his former ministrations and trials. On his return, a cold from 
traveling in the stage coach at night, brought on an inflama- 
tion of the kidneys of which he died in Duplin County, North 
Carolina, at the house of Rev. Henry Brown, after a few days 
ol intense suffering, but in the triumph of faith, on the 7th of 
January, 1839, in the 66th year of his age. 

He was married to Esther, eldest daughter of Samuel 
Thompson, a ruling elder of the First Presbyterian Cliurch 
in Pittsburg, in 1 817, and was the father of thirteen children, 
seven by the first marriage, all of wliom died in infancy or 



1810-1820.J HOPEWELL (KEOWBE.) . 301 

early childhood ; six ijy tiie second tnarriagf, five sons and 
one daughter. Tliree of his sons Samuel J. Baird, D. D., 
Ebenezer Thompson Baiid, D. D., Secretary of the the Com- 
mittees of Education and Pubhcation of the Presbyterian 
Church, and James Henry Baird, are ministers of the Gospel. 
(Sprague's Annals, IV, p., 476.) The Rev. Richard B. Cater, 
D. D., was the next who laboured as supply or pastor in tliese 
churches. He was born in Beaufort District, South Carolina, 
in 179 1. His parents died while he was young. When he 
was sixteen years old he was placed under the instructions of 
Dr. Moses Waddell at Willington. His literary and theolog- 
ical course were both under the direction of tlie same venera- 
ble man. His licensure and ordination have been recorded 
before. His call to Good Hope for the third and from Roberts 
for the fifth of his time had preceded his call to Bradaway 
some six or seven months, and he distributed his labors be- 
tween these several congregations. Ministers were too few 
and the Churches, thought theftiselves too poor to provide 
one for each. Mr. Cater continued to minister to them till 
the close of this decade, the dismission which he asked from 
the collegiate churches which he served was not granted for 
the reason before mentioned til! the Spring Sessions of 1820. 
Of the character and labors of this excellent brother we 
shall have occasion to speak hereafter. 

We have given in our preceding pages an imperfect history 
of these churches for near thirty years, for more than half 
of which time the Rev. John Sijnpson was pastor; and the 
remainder of the time they were partially and sometimes 
irregularly sup[)lied by the Rev. Messrs. Davis, McElheiinj' 
Price, Baird and Cater. (MSS. of Rev. David Humphreys. 
Minutes of Presbytery and Annals of Dr. Sprague, Vol. IV. 
pp. 476 and 520.) 

Hopewell (Keowee). — The Presbytery of South Carolina 
(then the Second Pres. of S. C.) met at this church on the 
3d of April, 1810, on the 27th of August, 181 1, on the 6th 
of April, 1813.' At the first of these meetings the Rev. Jas. 
McElhenny was present, for he was in the land of the living 
and was pastor of the church. He possessed a strong and 
vigorous mind, and his eloquence consisted of strong reason- 
ing united with persuasive and touching tenderness. Mr. 
McElhenny was assisted in his pastoral labors by John D. 
Murphy, who was received as 3 licentiate from the Presbytery 



■302 HOPEWELL (kEOWEE.) [1810-1820. 

of Orange, on the 27th of August, i8i i, and for two-thirds 
of whose ministerial labors a call was presented by the Hope- 
well Church. Presb\'tery granted therequest, " it being under- 
stood that Mr. McElheniiy, the regular pastor of said church, 
could not labor among them more than one-third of his time." 
Dr. E.Smith and Mr. Murphy are said to have created a mill- 
pond and established rice fields for their mutual benefit, 
which originated a malarial fever in the .summer and fall of 
i<Si2. Of this fever Mr Murphy, who was the son-in-law of 
Mr. McEllienny, died, and he soon followed him to the grave. 
Mr. McElhenny died on the 4th of October, 1812. The Rev. 
Thos. H. Price, from James Island, preached a funeral ser- 
mon occasioned by their death, and it was among the remi- 
niscences of Rev. David Humphreys, so long the beloved 
pastor of Good Hope and Roberts, that Mr. Price came up to 
Rev. Andrew Brown's while he, Humphreys, Was there at 
school, to have him examine the manuscript, a copy having 
been requested for publication, and that while there he as- 
sisted Mr. Brown at a communion season at the Bethel 
Church, greatly to the edification of the people there as- 
sembled. The following is the inscription in the graveyard 
at " the Stone Church," in memory of Mr. McElhenny : 

" Sacred 

To the Memory of 

The Ebv. JAMES McELHENNY 

Senior pastor of 

the 

PEESBYTEBIAN CHURCH OF 

HoPEWBLii TN Pendleton District, 

Who died October 1st, 1812, 

Aged 44 years. 

Greatly lamented by his friends, who knew 
His generons worth. His flesh returns to dust ! 

His spirit ascends to prove religion true. 
And wait the resurrection of the just ! " 

Hopewell now became dependent upon occasional supplies 
from Presbytery. In the spring of 1813, Rev. John B. Ken- 
nedy and Hugh Dickson were appointed to administer the 
Lord's Supper the ensuing summer. In the spring of 18 16, 
Carmel and Hopewell petition that James Hillhouse may be 
permitted to officiate as a stated supply between the two con- 
gregations till the ne.xt stated sessions, and their request is 
granted. This results in a call extended to him through the 
Presbytery, in November, from Hopewell for two-thirds of 



]810-1820.] BETHLEHEM, CANE CREEK AND BETHKL. P>0 '< 

his time, which I'e acce|)ted. An intcrmcdifite session was 
held at Hopewell (Keowee) on the 23 of Apiil, at which Mr. 
Hillhouse was ordained and installed, Rev. Richard B. Cater 
preaching the sermon from 2d Tim., ii. 15, and Wm. H. Barr 
delivering the charge to the newly ordained pastor and 
Deople. During the pastorate of Mr. Hillhouse, the Female 
Religious tract Society of Pendleton sent its contributions to 
Presbytery, and received its thanks for their generous dona- 
tion. 

Carmel Church. — The history of this church has run 
parallel with that of Hopewell (Keowee) since its organization. 
During the first two or three years of this decade, Mr. James 
McElhenny was tlieir pastor,and his son-in-law, Mr. Murphy, 
the assistant pastor. They were beloved and greatly 
lamented. The Rev. James Hillhouse succeeded them here, 
as he did in Hopewell. A call was presented to him through 
Presbytery for one-third of his tin)e, on tlie 2d of October, 
1817, and he was in.stalled on the 4th of April, 1818, during 
a meeting of Presbytery held at that church, the installation 
sermon being delivered by William H. Barr, from Ezek., iii. 
17, and the charge given to the minister and people by Rev. 
Moses Waddell, D.^D. During the pastorship of Mr. Hill- 
house, William McMurray, Robert Lemon, John Dickson, 
Alexander Oliver were ordained elders. Michael Dickson 
(father of Rev. Hugh Dickson) and William Walker were 
also elected. These all died in the faith, having received the 
promises. 

Bethlehem, Cane Cheek and Bethel, still constituted the 
pastoral charge of Rev. Andrew Brown. He continued 
laboring for these churches in all faithfulness. The 31st 
stated sessions ofNpre.sbytery were held at Bethel on the 6tli 
of April, 18:5. Mr. Brown obtained leave from Presbytery 
to travel without its bounds during the summer of 1816, and 
requested that the churches which he supplied, but were not 
his regular charge, should be supplied as vacancies by that 
body. The spirit of missions was increasing in this Presby- 
tery through the entire period of which we write. It was a 
• standing rule that each member should spend at least four 
weeks in missionary work in e.ich year. In the spring of 
1819, the Rev. Andrew Brown was sent to the Alabama 
Territory by the committee of Presbytery to labor for three 
months as a missionary. At the tall meeting he reported his 



304 NAZARETH (bKAVER DAM) — AJJGUSTA. [1810-1820. 

labors to that body. His report was accompanied with an 
address to Presbytery from a number of the inhabitants west 
of the Black Warrior River, thanking them for their atten- 
tions in sending Mr. Brown among them, and requesting a 
continuance of missionary labors. 

Nazareth (Beaver Dam), was, perhaps, one of those vacant 
churches of Rev. Andrew Brown's pastoral- charge, which he 
from time to time supplied, James HilUiouse, Thos. Archi- 
bald, and Joseph Hillhouse were each appointed to visit it 
for the supply of its pulpit. 

Presbyterian Church, Augusta, Georgia. — We have 
seen, p. , that the corner-stone of the house of worship of 
this Church was laid on the 4th of July, 1809. The building 
was completed and solemnly dedicated to the public worship 
of God on Sunday, May 17th, 1812. The following account 
of the exercises of the occasion is taken from one of the 
public journals of the city : 

"On Sunday last, the newly erected Presbyterian Church 
in this place was solemnly dedicated to the service of the 
Most High. An impressive dedication sermon was prea^ched 
by the Rev. Mr. Thompson, the pastor, from tbe words of 
David in the 84th Psalm: ' How. amiable are thy tabernacles, 
O, Lord of Hosts.' About seven hundred persons attended 
this interesting solemnity, and we do not recollect ever to 
have seen a congregation more seriously attentive to a dis- 
course than they were an this occasion, which was truly 
calculated to affect every heart and excite in every bosom the 
most lively sensations. In the afternoon an excellent dis- 
course was delivered by the Rev. Dr. Keith, of Charleston, 
S. C, from the words, ' Come unto me, all ye that labor and 
are heavy laden, and I will give you rest.' 

" And, as in the morning, a prospective and affecting view 
was taken of the future situation of the church thus dedicated 
to the Almighty, and of the thousands who, under the influ- 
ence of the Holy Spirit, should be born to God within its 
consecrated walls, and united to the family of the blessed ; so 
in the afternoon was affectionately and impressively pre- 
sented to view the sure and certain rest, consolation and 
peace which all such should inevitably obtain, however weary 
and heavy laden with the burden of their sin they had previ- 
ously been. The exerci.ses of the day will no doubt be long 
and profitably remembered by many who united in them ; 



1810-1820.] REV. J. E. THOMPSON, D. D. 305 

and we trust and confidently believe that the doctrines which 
will be urged and enforced within the walls of the newly dedi- 
cated building will be made the means of extending the 
Redeemer's kingdom in this place, which we hope will in- 
crease in pie(y and holiness as it grows in consequence and 
increases in population." 

The church, at the time of its dedication, was without a 
steeple, and had no pews in the galleries. In the year 1818, 
the present beautiful spire was added, and the galleries fur- 
nished with convenient pews. 

In December, 18 16, the congregation was deprived of its 
esteemed pastor, Rev. John R. Thompson, D. D., whose 
health had gradually declined, and who, after ten years of 
faithful and useful labor among this congregation, and while 
absent for the improvement of his health, was called to enter 
upon that " rest which remaineth to the people of God." His 
memory was long precious in the hearts of his bereaved and 
affectionate people. During his ministry seventy-four per- 
sons were added to the membership of the church. 

After the death of Dr. Thompson., the pulpit of the church 
was supplied by several different minLsters, but continued 
without a regular pastor for. about four years. 

The Church of Augusta reported 54 members, 2 adult bap- 
tisms and 20 infant baptisms in 18 10, and 85 members and 
15 infant baptisms in 18 14. 



CHAPTER VI. 

* 

We enter upon a general review of this decade that we 
may give the decisions of the various judicatories on impor- 
tant matters of general interest. 

In November, 18 17, the Presbytery of South Carolina 
took up the matter of raising funds for the support of 
indigent young men coming forward to the ministry, and 
for sending forth missionaries to settlements destitute of 
the Gospel, and Doctor Waddel and Rev. William H. 
Barr were appointed a Committee to draw up a suitable 
form of subscription for these objects, and Mr. Barr was 
appointed Treasurer of Presbytery for these funds. Hiland 
Hulbert and James L. Sloss, as soon as licensed, were sent 
20 



30(i EDUCWnON FOR THE MINISTRY. []>Si;j-18-2(i. 

as missionaries to preach the gospel and congregat"e so- 
cieties in the frontiers of Georgia and the Alabama Territory. 
Their first mission was for two months, at a compensation of 
forty dollars per month, and Doctor Waddel was appointed 
to obtain a commission for them from the Board of Missions 
of the General Assembly for three months longer. They 
were ordained as Missionary Evangelists, October 3d, 1818. 
But before this they had made their first missionary journey 
and brought back an encouraging report, extracts from which 
were ordered for publication in the Weekly Recorder at 
Chilicothe, for public information. They were sent forth a 
second time, and in 18 19 the report of the ministers of the 
Presbytery of South Carolina, m the minutes of the General 
Assembly, locates James L. Sloss at Jackson, Alabama, and 
Hiland Hulbert at Claiborne, Alabama.* Thomas C. Stuart 
was licensed April 3d, 1819, and sent out oi) a four months 
mission in the bounds of the Presbytery. At the fall meeting 
he was sent on a four month's mission to the Alabama coun- 
try. These missions were not slow in being fruitful in great 
good. Daniel Humphreys, too, and John S. Wilson, licensed 
on the 9th of October, were appointed missionaries for three 
months to labor within the bounds of the Presbytery. 

Another item worthy of special notice is the care used in 
reference to- candidates for the ministry. It was " ordered 
that every candidate under our care state to Presbytery at 
every stated session, his patron for the ensuing term of study 

* At the last meeting of our Presbytery we licensed Mr. Stuart to 
preach the Gospel, and appointed him to o'fiiciate three months within 
our bounds, and also three months in the Alabama Territory. By let- 
ters we have received.latterly, from the Rev. Messrs. Sloss and Hul- 
bert, it appears that Mr. Sloss is at Jackson and Mr. Hulbert at 
Claiborne, in the Territory, They have organized Presbyterian congre- 
gations at both these places, and administered the sacrament of the 
supper. We expect it will be in our power to send one or two additional 
missionaries to the Alabama in the ensuing autumn, ."it the last meeting 
of the Synod of South Carolina and Georgia an overture was submitted 
which is to be considered at their next session, to devise some means 
by which the Indian tribes on our Southwestern frontier may be taught 
to read the word of God and have the Gospel preached unto them. 
The Abo-iigines of America certainly have as fair claim upon our be- 
nevolence as any people under heaven. They appearto be cast, by the 
Providence of God, upon our care, for who will extend their regards to 
these poor benighted tribes if we do not." (Letter of a member of the 
Presbytery of South Carolina to one of the editors of the Evangelical 
Intelligencer, of Charleston, dated Abbeville, 8th of June, 1819. Probably 
from Dr. Barr. 



1810-1820.] WM. C. DAVIS. 307 

and at the next stated session the patron be called on to state 
to Presbytery what has been the candidate's attention to the 
duties prescribed." (Minutes, Vol. i, p. 197.) "Ordered, 
that those members of Presbytery who may have candidates 
for the ministry under their care, attend particularly to these 
instructions ; should they have more than one under their 
care at the same time, it is required that at stated seasons 
they exact written discourses from their pupils on particular 
points in divinity, and that on those points the patrons deliver 
lectures. Should they have but one, then frequently to re- 
quire written discourses from that one and on those dis- 
courses make remarks. They shall direct the reading of the 
students under their care m theology and frequently examine 
them on the parts read." P. 199. These directions were 
carried out. The patrons were inquired of as to the student 
under their care. " Those members who patronized our can- 
didates in the course of the last summer were requested to 
raport to Presbytery the manner in which they discharged 
their duty towards their pupils and the way in which the 
students attended to their studies. The report was made and 
all things approved." Vol. 11, p. 33. One who was a bene- 
ficiary was discontinued on account of defect of chai-acter. 
Another, John Bull, was received under the care of Presby- 
tery, but through bodily indisposition failed of going through 
the trials requisite for licensure. The Rev. Dr. Waddel 
bore an honorable testimony to his ability and progress in 
study in his early youth. And since he was debarred from 
the ministry he had desired, by the hand of Him who rules 
the world, he strove still to be useful to the church and king- 
dom of Christ. In view of his departure, he bestowed by will 
and testament a large portion of his property to the Theolo- 
gical Seminary at Columbia, and to other benevolent enter- 
prises of the church, a portion only of which through the 
calamities and distresses of our recent war, was realized. The 
errors of Wm. C. Davis continued to give the Presbytery the 
greatest solicitude. They passed an order October 3rd, 1810, 
requiring their churches to deal with all persons under their 
jurisdiction who should advocate tliese errors, "' according to 
the discipline of our church in such case made and provided." 
They also resolved that " having used every effort in their 
power to suppress those errors of which IVIr. Davis has been 
convicted aftd to bring him to retract them, or to have in- 



•">0S PRESBYTEIiY OF HOPEWEIJ. [1810-].SL'(I. 

flicted on liim the censure wliich his conduct seems to them 
to merit, but having been foiled in all their attempts of this 
kind, and entertaining no hope of better success in future 
but still deeming it their duty to bear testimony against 
error, they have, therefore, unanimously resolved that they 
cannot conscientiously join in the approaching Synodical 
communion or take any part in the exercises relating . 
thereto." 

The action of the Synod, however, was so decisive that the 
members of this Presbytery had no occasion to carry their 
resolution as to non-commission into practice, for the Synod 
of the Carolinas at their meeting at Fairforest October 4th, 
1810, dissolved the First Presbytery and remitted Mr. Davis, 
with others, to the Presbyviry of Concord, where the required 
acts of discipline were carried out, notvvithstanding the decla- 
ration of independence on the part "of Mr. Davis, as we have 
rehearsed in the preceding pages. 

The Presbytery of Hopewell was shorn of a portion of the terri- 
tory over which it had held nominal jurisdiction when the Presbytery 
of Harmony was created, and its line was extended from Augusta, in- 
cluding that city, to the St. Mary's in Georgia. Its roll of clerical mem- 
bers consisted in 1810 of 

Rev. William Montgomery, Pastor of Newhope. 

Rev. Francis Cumniings, Pastor of Siloam and Bethany. 

Rev. Thomas Newton 

Rev. Edward Parr, Pastor of Curry's Creek. 

Rev. John Hodge. 

Rev. John R. 'Ihompson had been set off to the Presbytery of Har- 
mony, and Hopewell consisted of the same number that it had origi- 
nally when it was created in 1797. At its meeting, April 5th, Carmel 
Church, lately organized by Thomas Newton, was received under its 
care. At its meeting at Bethsaida, Sept. 13th, 1810, the Church of Per- 
gamos in Morgan County, was received under the care of Presbytery. 
At Siloam, Sept. 13. 1811, Rev. John Brown, T>. D., then President of 
Athens College and Ezia Fisk, then missionaryofHormony Presbytery 
were present as corresponding members July 31, 1812, Archibald 
Bowie was received as a licentiate from Orange Presbytery. April 1, 
1813, Rev. Dr. Brown was received as a member by dismission from 
Hjjrmony. On the 3d the Rev. Nathan S. S Beman lately a pastor in 
Portland, Maine, was received from the Cumberland Congregational 
Association Sept. 14, Rev. Francis Cummins was dismissed at his own 
request from the pastoral charge of the Bethany congregation. April 1 
1815, the Rev. Henry Reid wa,'^ received by dismission from the Pres- 
bytery of South Carolina, and at the same session Eli Smith, a graduate 
of Dartmouth College, was received as a candidate and licensed to 
preach the Wosjiel. On the 6th of May, 1816, Benjamin Gildersleeve, 
a graduate of Middlebury College, Vermont, then engaged in teaching 
in connection with Rev.N. S. S. Beman was received under the care of 
Presbytery and was licensed at the meeting at Thyatira, on the 9th of 



1810-1820.] PEESBYTERY OF HOPEWELL. 309 

September, 1815. At Washington, \Vi l;es County, on the 4th of April, 
1816, Ira Ingraham, a graduate of Middlebury and rectorof an Academy 
at Powelton ^vas reL^eived as a candidate for the ministry, and at this 
meeting Archibald Bowie, or Buie, a licentiate, was dismissed to the 
Presbytery of Fayettevi:Ie. At Washington, November 9th, David Root 
a graduate of Middlebury was received as a candidate. Mr. Buie, who 
had been remitted from the Presbytery of Fayetteville to that of Hope- 
well was suspended from the ministry, and Mr. Orson Douglas, a grad- 
uate of Middlebury College, was received as a candidate. At theii 
meeting in Pi^gah, Madison County, April, 1807, measures were adopted 
for enrolling the members of the several churches and obtaining from 
them regular contributions for evangelistic labors, and making the duty 
of the Moderator of Presbytery for the time being to see that the sacra- 
ment of the Lord's Supper should be administered in every congrega- 
tion at least once in the year. At the meeting in September, 1817, 
Alonzo Church, a graduate of Middlebury College was received as a can- 
didate. At the same meeting a project was set on foot for the establish- 
ment of a Theological School, and Drs. Cummins, Brown and Finley 
were appointed to draft a plan for the same and report it at the next 
meeting of Presbytery. The Bev Robert Finley, D. D., who succeeded 
Dr. Brown as President of the college at Athens, united with the Pres- 
bytery at this meeting on a dismission from the Presbytery of Kew 
Brunswick, New Jersey. The father of Dr. Finley emigrated from 
Scotland under the advice of Dr. Witherspoon, his personal friend, and 
settled in New Jersey. His son, Robert began the the study of Latin 
at eight and joined the Freshman class in Princeton College when he 
vvas eleven years of age. He was graduated in 1787. He was a teach- 
er for some years first of the grammar school at Princeton, then at 
Allentown, then in Charleston, South Carolina, in 1791 and 1792. From 
1793 — 17!<o, he was a tutor at Princeton College. He was settled as; 
minister at Basking Ridge, New Jersey, in 1795 where he was the inti- 
mate friend of Dr. Kollock. He was the founder of the American Col- 
onization Society in December, 1816. He was elected to the Presidency 
of the University early in 1817, embarked with his family from New 
York for Savannah early in May, presided at the commencement in 
Athens in July, founded the Presbyterian Church in that place, and. 
was now received into this Presbytery as a member. But his work on 
earth was done He returned from Presbytery to Athens, sickened and 
died on the 3rd of October, 1817. His four sons graduated at the Colle^xe 
of New jersey and all became ministers except the youngest, who was 
a student of Theology at the time of his death. Another committee was , 
appointed consisting of Drs. Cummins, Brown and Beman. This com- 
mittee reported at length at the meeting held at Siloam church in Sep- 
tember, 1819. Their report was in part considered but not adopted. 
Mount Zion and Athens were put in nomination as to the site of the 
proposed Seminary, and Athens was chosen. Here the project was 
brtiught to its termination. "To Hopewell belongs the honor of taking 
the initiative," says Dr. John S. Wilson, in his work, "The Dead of the 
Synod of Georgia ;" ''in establishing a Theological Seminary in the. 
South." Union went into operation in 1822. Columbia made its first 
beginning at Lexington, Georgia, in 1828. Mr. David Root was licensed 
as a probationer for the holy ministry at Athens on the 7th of February 
1818. Notice of the death of Rev. .John Hodge, was given at the meet- 
ing of Presbytery at Mount Zion on the 5th of April, 1819. At the same 
meeting the licentiate Eli Smith, was dismissed to the Presbytery of 



310 OKDINATION SINE TITULO. [1810-1820, 

Louisville, and Rev. Stephen Saunders of the Presbytery of New Castle 
employed as the evangelist, of Presbyter}', gave in his report. Thus 
were the infant churches in our sister State of Georgia kept alive pre- 
paratory to a wider extension in future years. 

It is proper that we now turn from the individual churches 
and the Presbyteries to the Superior judicatories whose super- 
vision extends over them. 

During the three first years of this decade the Synod of 
the Carolinas had supervision over the Presbyteries of South 
Carolina and Georgia. The first act of the Synod touching 
the proceedings of Presbyteries having jurisdiction over cur 
churches was to give its advice in the case of William C. 
Davis to the Presbytery of Concord which had acted in his 
case, that "the way is entirely open to proceed to the last 
step of discipline." The Presbytery subsequently reported 
that they had suspended him on the 3rd day of April, 
1811, from the exercise of his functions as a minister of the 
Gospel, and on the 4th day of October, deposed him from 
the ofifice of the ministry. In their review of the minutes of 
the Presbytery of Harmony they take exception to the action 
of that body in ordaining the Rev. Ezra Fisk sine titiilo. Mr. 
Fisk was to be employed as an evangelist in destitute settle- 
ments, and the Presbytery declared that "it is altogether 
inexpedient to consult the Synod in this case as has been usual 
in similar cases, and that the tight or power in all cases is 
originally inherent in the Prtsbylery, and has never been 
formally surrendered to the higher judicatories of our church." 
•The Synod disclaimed this principle "as having never been 
granted by -our discipline.'' The Presbytery of Harmony 
having proceeded in another instance to ordination sine titulo, 
i. e., without a call from any or reference to any particular 
' church, the Synod appointed Rev. James Walker, John M. 
Wilson and Joseph Caldwell to bring in a report on the same. 
In this report the committee showed that these ordinations 
were contrary to the usage of the church of Scotland "without 
permission expressly granted by a superior judicatory," that 
the Presbytery of Orange had declined to ordain without the 
permission of Synod, that in 1810 the Committee of Bills and 
Overtures in ihe General Assembly had expressed themselves 
to the same effect, that in 1795 they had granted liberty to 
the Synods of Virginia and the Carolinas "to direct their 
Presbyteries to ordain such candidates as they may judge 



1810-1820.] RIGHT OF PRIiSBYTERlES IN ORDINATION. 311 

necessary to appoint to the wirk of missions," and those alone. 
The Synod r-itused to r^-'peal the minute the)'- had passed 
before, and the censure on the Presbytery of Harmony was 
not removed. 

The Assembly in 1813, desiring to bring these differences 
to a termination and to produce uniformity of action, resolved 
that the following rule be submitted to the Presbyteries for 
their opinion and approbation, and when sanctioned by a 
majority of the Presbyteries belonging to their church, sliall 
become a Constitutional Rule, viz : "That it shall be the duty 
of Presbyteries when they shall think it necessary to ordain 
a candidate without a call to a particular pastoral charge, to 
take the advice of a Synod, or of the General Assembly be- 
fore tiiey proceed to such ordination." A committee of the 
Presbytery of Harmony after the rule had been discussed 
were appointed to bring in a report on the subject. The com- 
mittee were Dr. Kollock, Rev. Mr. Fisk and Mr. Stebbins, an 
Elder. Their report was as follows : "Since the standards of 
our church concur with the Holy Scriptures in teaching us 
tiiat the power of ordination belongs to Presbyteries; since 
these Presbyteries are better calculated to judge of the quali- 
fications and character of persons applying to them for ordi- 
nation than Synods or General Assemblies, who are less in- 
timately acquainted with the candidates, can be ; since 
the responsibility of Presbyteries is greater and their repu- 
tation more interested in the selection of proper candidates ; 
since they are' the most competent judges of the necessities 
of the districts within their bounds, and the importance of 
administering the Sacraments inthem ; since in many instances 
a delay to ordain candidates going on Missionary tours till 
the meeting of Synod or General Assembly would be attended 
with serious injury to the cause of religion, and since there 
is no article in our standards that even hints at the propriety 
of relinquishing to Synods or General Assembly a privilege 
that Christ the Great Head of the Church, has conferred on 
Presbyteries ; therefore, the Presbytery of Harmony do sol- 
emnly and unanimously oppose the Constitutional Rule pro- 
posed by the last Assembly" This repoft wa.s' adopted as 
expressing the mind of the Presbytery. 

This rule had been previously submitted to the Presby- 
teries in 1811, at which time the report was adopted by the 
Pre.sbytery of Harmony. (See MS. Min., p. 33.) It was 



312 MISSIONS. [] 810-1820. 

now reaffirmed by this body (Miii., p. 172), and again for- 
warded to the Assembly. Previous to tiiiB, however, the 
Assembly had addressed a letter to the Synod of the Caro- 
linas and to the Presbytery of Harmony, partly pacificatory 
and partly apologetic, owning that there is "a considerable 
diversity of opinion among the judicatories and ministers 
of our communion as to ordinations sine titu/o, hut sending 
down the rule anew for reception or rejection by the Presby- 
teries. The result of the whole was, that from the thirty Pres- 
byteries which took action on the subject, twenty-six decided 
against the rule, and four in the affirmative, among which 
wa.= the Presbytery of South Carolina. The great argument 
against ordinations sine titido is, that a call from some par- 
ticular congregation or congregations for the pastoral services 
of a probationer is proof of his ability to teach, and so a link 
in the evidence that he is called of God to the ministry of the 
Word. Presbyteries should be careful how, by ordinations 
sine titulo, they dispense with this proof, and though the 
necessities of evangelistic and missionary services require 
such ordinations, Presbytery should be careful le^t they create 
a class of " perpetual candidates," whom no church will have 
as pastor." 

On October the 8th, 18 ri, the Synod of the Carolinas re- 
signed the missionary business, to which they had hitherto 
attended, into the hands of the General Assembly. Yet, in 
October, 18 12, their commission reported that they had em- 
ployed Rev. James Hall D. D., as a missionary in Georgia. 
His report, which was read before the Synod, showed that 
during four months and sixteen days he had traveled 1485 
miles, and preached 58 sermons. 

By request of the Synod of the Carolinas, that body was 
divided by the General Assembly, and the Presbyteries of 
Orange, Concord and Fayetteville constituted as the Synod 
of North Carolina, which held its first meeting at Allemance 
Church, on the first Thursday of October, 1813, and the 
Presbyteries of South Carolina, Hopewell and Harmony, as 
the Synod of South Carolina and Georgia, which met at 
Upper Long Cane on the first Thursday, being the 4th day 
of November, 18 13, and was opened, in the absence of Dr. 
Kollock, who had been named by the Synod of the Carolinas, 
and appointed by the General Assembly, by Rev. Francis 
Cummins, by a sermon from Romans ii. 15. One of the first 



1810-1820.] CASES DECIDED. 313 

acts of this Synod was to pstition the President of tiie United 
States to appoint a day of general thanksgiving to God for 
his favor to us as a nation, in crowning our arms with success 
by land and water, on the Lakes, and to the confusion of our 
foes. Dr. Waddel and Messrs. Hodge arj^d Baird were the 
committee on this address. 

The overture : " Is a woman, a communicant previous to 
marriage, to be continued in communion after marrying her 
deceased sister's husband ? " was answered unaniinously in 
the negative. 

An elaborate report touching such cases, prepared by Dr. 
John Brown and Thomas J. Baird, committee, was submitted 
to the Synod on the i6th of November, 1816, adopted by 
this body, published, and distributed among the churches. 

A reference of a similar character from Bethel Church, 
South Carolina, had been made in 1810 to the General 
Assembly, who referred for answer to their decision of 1804, 
which implies that such parties, if otherwise worthy, should 
not be debarred from the privileges of the church, but leaves 
it to subordinate judicatories to act according to their best 
light. [Minutes, pp. 456, 306.] The principle which seems 
to have governed the Assembly in this and subsequent de- 
cisions, is, that the act of forming such relations is criminal, 
yet when constituted, the marriage is valid, and the parties 
are not necessarily to be permanently debarred fiom the 
privileges of the church. 

•Another case was thus decided. A man had married a 
woman not knowing that she had been guilty of unchastity. 
She had proved an adulteress after marriage, and he had left 
her, and after a lapse of years had contracted marriage with 
another woman. He had always been a man of a correct life, 
lias shown evidences of piety, and established worship in his 
own hou.se. He desires now to be united to a church. Can 
he be regularly admitted? "It was resolved" by Synod, 
" That whereas the crime of adbltery by the decision of Jesus 
Christ dissolves the marriage contract and gives the innocent 
party a right to a bill of divorcement, in all cases where civil 
redress cannot be obtained, as in the State of South Carolina, 
a subsequent marriage of the said innocent party shall not be 
a bar to communion in our church. The Synod, however, 
consider the case contemplated, solemn and critical ; and 
would insist on admitting, with great caution, such a person 
to the privileges of the church." [Minutes, p. 17.] 



314 VARIOUS DECISIONS. [1810-1820. 

The overture " what shall be done in a case where a man 
places himself under the care of a Presbytery, professes our 
doctrine and consents to our discipline, receives ordination 
and thus becomes a member. Afterwards he renounce,s our 
government, rejects our doctrines, preaches heresy and de- 
mands a regular dismission or enters a declinature," was an- 
swered by the following resolution : 

" Resolved, That the Presbytery proceed with such persons 
eis directed and authorized by the Book of Discipline of our 
Church." 

A proposition was made to divide the Synod so that there 
should be two, one in the up country and one in the low 
country. (Min. p. 49.) 

This was referred to the Presbyteries to decide. A com- 
munication was received November, 1819, from the Synod of 
North Carolina, enquiring if the Synod of South Carolina 
and Georgia would not unite with them in endowing a Pro- 
fessorship in the Seminary at Princeton. To this they re- 
turned answer bj' resolutions. 

Resolved, That is consequence of the heavy pecuniary calls 
which are expected to be made on this Synod and the 
churches under their care in aid of the contingent fund of the 
Theological Seminary, and in aid of the funds of a Missionary 
Society for the supplying the destitute parts within our 
bounds with the means of grace, and of extending the means 
of religious instruction to the Indians on our frontiers, which 
this Synod contem[)late establishing in the course of the 
present year, the further consideration be postponed till our 
next session." 

The churches within the bounds of the Synod did, however, 
contribute handsomely, especially within the Presbytery of 
Harmony, considerable sums for the Seminary, and at the 
next session entered into an agreement to raise ^15,000 
towards the endowment within the next five years. The Mis- 
sionary Society of the Synod of South Carolina and Georgia 
was duly organized, whose object was declared to be "to send 
the Gospel to the destitute parts within the bounds of the 
Synod, and to promote the civilization and religious instruc- 
tion of the Aborigines on our borders." Of this Society Rev. 



1810-1820.] MISSIONARY SOCIETY OF THE SYNOD. 315 

Wm. H. Barr wa.s President, Rev. Richard B. Cater, Rt.v. 
Benj. R. Montgomery, D. D., and Rev. Thoma.s Alexander, 
Vice-Presidents, Rev T. C. Henry, Corre.sjionding Secretary, 
Rev. Hugh Dick.son, Recording Secretary, Rev. Zebulon 
Rudolph, Treasurer. 

Directors for the Frontier. — Rev. John Brown, D. D., Rev. 
Jas. Hillhouse and Mr. John Harris. 

Directors for the Interior. — Rev. John R. Kennedy, Rev. 
Anthony W. Ross and Mr. Thomas Means. 

Managers. — Rev. Andrew Flinn, D. D., Rev. Nathan S. S. 
Beman, Rev. George Reid, Rev. John Cousar, Rev. Joseph 
Hillhouse, Rev. Thomas Archibald, Col. Thomas Tuylor, M. 
Oswald, Esq., Andrew Norris, Esq., Mr. James K. Douglass. 
Mr. Wm. Pressley, and Mr. PJugh Means. 

The address of the Society dated at Columbia, November 
27, 1 8 19, was published with the Constitution of the same, in 
the Evangelical Intelligencer of Charleston. 

The action of the General Assembly in the affairs of this 
Synod refers to only a few items. One is as to the case of 
Rev. W. C. Davis. Another, Act of the General Assembly, 
refers to a letter from the [old Scotch] Presbytery of Charles- 
ton, of both which we have written, and if further satisfaction 
is needed, the case of W. C. Davis may be found in Baird's 
Digest of the Acts of the General Assembly, pp. 634, 637, 
and in reference to the Scotch Presbytery, or otherwise tlie 
Presbytery of Charleston, in the minutes published in 1847, 
p. 188, and onward, and Baird's Digest, pp. 548, 549. 

A question was submitted to the General Assembly in 
18 14, by advice of the Presb\'tery of Harmony, in these words : 
"A person who had been baptized in infancy by Dr. Priestly, 
applied for admission to the Lord's table. Should the baptism 
administered by Dr. Priestly, then a Unitarian, be considered 
valid ?" The question was determined in the negative. " In 
the present state of our country, whilst Unitarian errors, in 
various forms, are making their insidious approaches, whilst 
the advocates of this heresy, in many cases, are practising a 
system of concealment and insinuating tliemselves into the 
confidence ot multitudes who have no suspicion of their defec- 
tion from the faith, the Assembly feel it to be their duty to 
speak without reserve. It is the deliberate and unanimous 
opinion of this Assembly that those who renounce the funda- 
mental doctrine of the Trinity and deny that Jesus Christ is 



3)6 MISSIONS. [1810-1820 

the same in substance, equnl in power and glory with the 
Father, cannot be recognized as ministers of tlie gospel, and 
that their ministrations are wholly invalid." Minutes, pp. 

546, 549- 

While the Assembly continued to appoint its missionaries 
by its own direct vote. 

The Eev. Colin Mclver was appointed a missionary for three months, 
between Baltimore and Charleston, S. C, on missionary ground, in 
1812, and John McLean was appointed missionary for four months in 
Western Georgia and the Mississippi Territory ; in 1813, Mr. William 
McDowell for six months, between Washington and St. Mary's ; in 1814, 
Mr. Francis H. Porter, in the Presbytery of Concord, for two months ; 
in 1815, Eev. Daniel Gray, for three months, commencing his mission 
in Union District, thence passing through the Cherokees to Duck River, 
thence to Elk, thence through the western part of Kentucky to Indian 
Territory ; in 1816, Mr John Covert, six months in South Carolina and 
Georgia, to be prescribed by Rev. Dr Flinn of the Presbytery of Har- 
mony ; Mr. Francis H. Porter, for two months within the bounds of the 
Presbytery of Cone rd. Though Mr. Porter was of the Presbytery of 
Concord, his missionary labors may have been performed in those con- 
gregations in South Carolina which were for a season connected with 
that Presbytery. 

The Presbytery of South Carolina was diligent -in mission- 
ary efforts. 

Its Committee of Missions sent out the Bev. Andrew Brown into the 
Alabama territory on a mission of three months, and he reported his 
fulfillment of his commission at the fall meeting, in October, 1819. His 
report was accompanied with an address from a number of inhabitants 
west of the Black Warrior River, thanking Presbytery for their atten- 
tion in sending Mr. Brown among them, and requesting a continuance 
of missionary labors. Thomas C. Stewart, who had itinerated within 
the bounds of his Presbytery for four months, was appointed at that 
meeting to itinerate as a missionary in the Alabama country, and was 
furnished with one month's pay in advance by the treasurer of Presby- 
tery. An interesting account of his tour may be found in the second 
volume of the Christian Intelligencer, published in Charleston, p. 54. 
He set out from Rev. John Harrison's, in the State of Georgia, on the 
Ist of November, 1819, through a wilderness of about 180 miles before 
reaching the territory. First preached in the upper part of Jones' 
Valley, proceeded through Roop's Valley to the town of Tuscaloosa, a 
flourishing place of about 1,300 inhabitants. A band were meeting at 
each other's houses for religious services on the Sabbath, had a house 
of worship nearly completed, and were desirous of obtaining the 
service of a Presbyterian clergyman for a part of his time. He next 
visited McKeon's Bluff, and preached on Sabbath, November 4th, in a 
Methodist Church, to a large audience. Thence to St. Stephen's, Jack- 
son Claiborne, Blakely and Mobile. At Biakely he found a very good 
church edifice occupied by Presbyterians, where some one reads a sermon, 
and performs the rest of the service in the Episcopalian mode. He 
speaks of Mobile as having a population of about 2,500, having no 



1810-1820.] BIBLE SOCIETIES. .^17 

Protestant church at that time, but as desifining to build one. On the 
23d he preached atCahawba, havinj; about 250 inhabitants, and desiring!; 
a Presbyterian preacher Then to Pleasant Valley, thickly settled 
with Presbyterians, where Rev. Mr. Porter, eighteen months before, had 
preached to the Valley Creek Church, as they had named it, and ad- 
mitted between thirty and forty to the Lord's table. His congregations 
there were crowded and attentive. Thence to the Mulberry Settlement, 
thence to the Cahawba Valley, thence to Canon Creek, where he met 
with Kev. Mr. Newton, who was quite infirm and able to do little in 
the way of ministerial duty. 

Rev. John S. Wilson and Mr. Humphreys were missionaries of the 
Presbytery during the same period. (Minutes of Presbytery, p. 69). 

South Carolina engaged early in the circulation of the 
Scriptures. The fir.st Bible Society in the United States was 
instituted in Philadelphia in 1808; the second, the Connecti- 
cut Bible Society, in 1809, and the Massachusetts and the 
New Jersey Bible Societies in the same year. In 1810 the 
New York Bible Society, and those of Beaufort and Charles- 
ton, in South Carolina, and of Savannah, in Georgia, were 
organized. The Columbia Bible Society followed in 1816, 
the same year in which the American Bible Society was 
formed in New York, to which the Columbia Bible Society 
became auxiliary in May, 1825. The first effort to benefit 
seamen in the Port of Charleston was made on the 14th of 
April, 1818, when a meeting was called through tiie columns 
of the Charleston Courier, which resulted in the formation of 
a Marine Bible Society (of which Mr. John Haslett was Presi- 
dent, and Rev. George Reid, Secretary), for the circulation of 
the Scriptures, without note or comment, among seamen. 
(Charleston Courier, 14th April, 1818 ; Hist. Sketch by Rev. 
Wm B. Yates, Charle.ston, 185 1, p. 8.) These things we 
have mentioned on preceding pages. 

There was no small amount of liberality shown within the 
bounds of the Synod of South Carolina and Georgia towards 
the beneficiary education of men for the ministry. The 
American Education Society 'acknowledges the receipt from 
the bounds of this Synod, to 1821, the sum of $18,842, within 
a period of about 10 years, for this object, some small por- 
tion only from other denominations, but the most of this 
amount from Congregational and Presbyterian congregations. 



•518 INDEPENDENT CHURCH, AECHDAI^E STKEET. [1820-1830. 

The following table exhibits the statistics, as nearly as they 
can be ascertained, of the denominations in South Carolina in 
1819 (Rel. Intelligencer, i, 190): 



Denomination. 



ORDAINKD 

MINISTERS. 



CHUKCHES. 



COMMUNICANTS. 




German Lutheran 

Congregational 

Kpiscopal 

Presbyterian 

Methodist, 

Baptist, 



600 

1,500 

1,200 

10,500 

15,000 

14,000 



The Associate Reformed and Roman Catholics are not in- 
cluded in the above estimate, the number of whose ministers 
and churches we have no means of ascertaining. A con- 
siderable portion of most of these denominations are colored 
persons. 



BOOK THIRD. 

(1820—1830.) 

CHAPTER I. 

The Independent Church in Charles'I-on was served 
during this decade by its pastor, the Rev. Benjamin Morgan 
Palmer, and after the unhappy division which resulted in the 
independent organization of the Archdale Street Church, it 
prospered greatly under his ministry. It did not attempt 
any more to establish a collegiate pastorship. The labors, 
therefore, of the one pastor were greatly increased. Under 
the former arrangement, the sermon that was preached in the 
Circular Church in Meeting Street in the morning, was 
preached to the other portion- of the congregation at the 
Church in Archdale Street in the evening. Time was thus 
saved for study or pastoral visitation to each of the ministers 
thus associated. But there were left behind active and work- 
ing members, among whom were a number of devoted female 
co-workers whose names will not soon be forgotten. 

The Congregational Church in Archdale Street. — 
Henceforth this is to be reckoned a Unitarian organization, 
and will not belong to this history. 



1820-1830.] WAPI^ETAW. 319 

The part which Mr. Parks had taken in tlie ordination of 
Mr. Oilman, drew forth from paities on both .sides a number 
of pamphlets and communications, Mr. Parks, writing also 
in his ov/n defence, yet admits that he had acted under wrong 
impressions, and without due consideration .and with imperfect 
knowledge. Brought up in early life in comparative retire- 
ment, he knew little or nothing of the Unitarianism which 
had been emerging in Massachusetts, and with a degree of 
self-reliance which he afterwards regretted, paid little heed 
for some time to the remonstrances of others. He afterwards 
spoke with regret of the course he had pursued, and admitted 
that he ought not to have laid "these (his) hands upon one 
whose acknowledged sentiments give too much reason to 
fear that he will become a Socinian." [Letter of November 
14, 1820.] He also, April 1821, in his last communication to 
the Association, says : "I regret the style and manner in 
which I preached at the opening of the Association last yeai-. 
I am sensible that I was too much under the influence of 
anger when I composed and delivered that sermon. I hope 
and believe that I will never preach another sermon of the 
same character." " I acknowledge that I erred in the ordi- 
nation of Mr. Gilman, not for the want of zeal, but from the 
imperfection of knowledge. If I had obtained, before I en- 
gaged to take part in the ordination, all the information I now 
possess, I never would have engaged in it. I would rather 
lay my hands in the fire, than lay them upon the head of a 
known Socinian. Unitarians and Socinians formerly appeared 
to me more different from each other than I now find them 
to be." These concessions should remove a portion of the 
censure which rested on Mr. Parks. And although we can- 
not recognize in Unitarianism the religion of Paul ; nor in 
their view of Christ, the Christ of the Scriptures, but regard 
it as a mere system of morahty, a religion without a Re- 
deemer, an atoning Priest, a divine Intercessor, and a Media- 
torial King, we are willing to give them credit for all those 
personal and social virtues they may possess. 

Independent or Congregational Church at Wappetaw, 
Christ's Church Parish. — Mr. Perrin disgraced his minis- 
try by irregularities of life which were reported to the Pres- 
bytery of Harmony at its meeting in Charleston in April 1820. 
He was absent from the State at that time, but he was faith- 
fully dealt with by letter, and cited to appear before the Pres- 



•320 DORCHESTER AND BEECH HIIX. [1820-1830. 

bytery. He replied by letter acknowledging his fault, and 
desiring to remove stumbling blocks out of the way, but he 
being now in a remote part of the United States, and not 
within the jurisdiction of any local Presbytery, he was deposed 
from this sacred office on the 19th of April, 1821. Informa- 
tion concerning this church is exceeding scanty during this 
period. It was probably dependent on such occasional sup- 
plies as they could receive from missionary labors or the kind 
offices of brethren in Charleston. The Rev. Alfred Wright 
who had been in the employ of the Congregational and Presby- 
terian Missionary Society of South Carolina, and was not yet 
ready to proceed on his mission to the Choctaws, spent 
several months in faithful and acceptable labors among this 
people in the winter of 1820. [So. Evang. Intelligencer, Vol. 
II, p. 61.] Tiie church wa.; served from about 1820 to 1828 
by a Mr. Reid, probably Rev. George Reid. On the 21st of 
December, 1822, the Legislature incorporated this church, as 
follows : " That those persons who now are, or hereafter shall 
be, members of the Independent or Congregational Church 
at Wappetaw, in the Parish of Christ Churcii, be, and the 
same are hereby, declared a body politic and corporate, by 
the style and title of ' The congregation of Wappetaw, in the 
Parish of Christ Church ' " [Statutes at Large, Vol. VIII, 

P' 325] 

The Congregational Church of Dorchester and Beech 
Hill. The Rev. Wm. States Lee continued in the service of 
this Church until the 23d of April, 182 1. They then called 
a Mr. Luke Lyons and on the 24th of May, 1822, there is an 
order for the payment of a quarter's salary. His service 
must have been a short one. On the 5th of May, 1823, hav- 
ing no pa.stor, they invited Mr. Jones to serve them in that 
capacity. Yet on the 8th of October, in the same year, the 
death of their esteemed pastor and chairman is mentioned. 
At this same time they call Mr. Luke Lyons on a salary of 
;^6oo, but are unsuccessful. On the 19th of November, 1824, 
they extended a call to the Rev. Edward Palmer, who had 
been received by the Charleston Union Presbytery, after for- 
mally adopting the Confession of Faith and the Form of 
Government of the Presbyterian Church. He was installed 
as pastor the 3rd of February, 1825. To assist in the sup- 
port of his family he is permitted to take a few young ladies 
as pupils during the summer months. The church received 



1820-1830.] STONY CREEK — BEAUFOET. 321 

some aid also from the Missionary Society towards this same 
end. In April, 1827, he received a call from the Church of 
Bethel, Pon Pon, which the Presbytery advised him to accept. 
The Church was now dependent, it is believed, for a length of 
time, on occasional supplies. 

Stony Creek Independent Presbyterian Church. Mr. 
L. D. Parks continued to preach to this Church as pastor, or 
asstatedsupply, it is not clear which, until the 8th of May, i82[, 
when any regular and stated connection with the Church 
•ceased. There are entries in the account books to show that 
he preached as an occasional supply after this date. Occa- 
sional supplies were obtained also from the North during the 
winter months from 1821101824. Among these was Joseph 
Brown, then a licentiate, who visited Stony Creek early in 
December, 1830. He reports about 15 communicants (white ?) 
and a fund of ^8000 belong to the Church. First Report of 
the Young. Men's Domestic Missionary Society, 1821. In 
April, 1824, Richard H. Jones, a licentiate, commenced 
preaching to this congregation. He was ordained and install- 
ed their pastor on the 13th of January, 1825. He resigned 
in November, 1826, and the church became again dependent 
on occasional supplies, among whom Mr. A. Greenwood is 
mentioned in 1829. [MSofWm. F. Hutson. Minutes of 
Charleston Union Presbytery.] 

Beaufort. This church was visited by Joseph Brown, then 
a licentiate, in December, 1820. He had been recommended 
to the Young Men's Missionary Society and at its request he 
was ordained by the Congregational Association of South 
Carolina, in the Circular Church, Charleston, on the 3rd of 
January, 1821. The occasion was one of interest, Messrs. 
Elipha White, Epaphras Goodman, and Rev. Charles B. Storrs 
employed by the Congregational Missionary Society, and 
Reynolds Bascom were ordained at the same time. In the 
act of consecration by prayer with the laying on of hands, the 
prayers for the candidates were offered in succession by the 
Rev. Mr. Floyd, the Rev. Dr. Palmer, the Rev. Mr. Reid, the 
Rev. Mr. Lee, and the Rev. Mr. Boies. The Rev. Dr. Leland 
was present also as a delegate from the Presbytery of Har- 
mony. The Beaufort congregation must have been depen- 
dent on occasional supplies henceforth. 

Waynesboro, Burke County, Georgia. We are not inform- 
ed how this congregation was situated as to a permanent min- 
21 



3'2"2 WHITE BLUFF — MIDWAY. []820-lg:'.0. 

istry during this decade. The Savannah Missionary Society 
liad appointed Mr. Cephas Washburn to labor at this place and 
its vicinity. But how long he served them we are not in- 
formed. Rev. Frances McFarland labored in Burke County 
in the winter of 1822. On his arrival in this county he se- 
lected four places where he preached regularly on the Sab- 
bath, dispensing the word the remainder of the week wher- 
ever a door was opened for that purpose. In the latter 
part of this period Lawson Clinton was the stated supply of 
this church. 

White Bluff, near Savannah. The Rev. Thomas Gould- 
ing continued the pastor of this church till 1822, when he re- 
signed his charge and removed to Lexington, Oglethorpe 
County, Georgia, Here he remained during this decade. It 
was while there that he was elected on the 15th of December, 
1828, Professor in the Theological Seminary of the Synod of 
South Carolina and Georgia. He was honoured with the de- 
gree of Doctor of Divinity from the University of North Car- 
olina in 1829. 

Congregational Church, Midway, Georgia. The Rev. 
Robert Quarterman officiated as pastor of this church during 
this decade to the great satisfaction of that people. A church 
of which it was said in 1849 that although it was a Congrega- 
tional Church in its origin, and still continued so, it had fur- 
nished more Presbyterian Ministers for the State of Georgia 
than all the other ninety -two counties united. 

Changes took place in the boundaries of Presbyteries during 
this decade which it may not be amiss here to mention. In 
the formation of Harmony Presbytery by the Synod of the 
Carol mas at Poplar Tent in 1809, its western boundary was 
defined to be a line running nearly south from Augusta, Geor- 
gia, including St. Mary's, to the sea coast. At a meeting of 
the Synod of South Carolina and Georgia, held at Washing- 
ton, Wilkes County, Georgia, November 7, 1821, a petition 
came up from the Presbytery of Harmony, proposing that the 
Savannah River which divides the two States should be the 
dividing line between the Presbyteries. This was acceded to, 
and the members of the Presbytery of Harmony who resided 
in Georgia were constituted a new Presbytery to be known 
as The Presbytery of Georgia. The line between this Pres- 
bytery of Georgia and the Presbytery of Hopewell was like- 
wise adjusted. The Presbytery of Harmony, therefore, hence- 



1820-1830.] CHARLKSTON UNION PEESBYTESY. 323 

forth performed no presbyterial acts and had no jurisdiction 
beyond the Savannah. 

The Congregational Association of South Carolina. 
in November, 1819, made a proposal to the Presbytery of 
Harmony " of a corresponding union by delegates." This 
was cordially acceded to by the Presbytery of Harmony at 
its meeting in the Second Presbyterian Church, Charleston, 
April 14, 1820, and Rev. A. W. Leland, D. D., and Rev. 
George Reid were elected as delegates to the Association. 
Dr. Palmer attended subsequently the meeting of the Presby- 
tery of Harmony as a delegate from the Association. At a 
meeting of this Presbytery, held in Camden, April 17, 1822, 
a committee composed of Messrs. John Cousar and T. C. 
Henry were appointed to confer with the Congregational 
Association of South Carolina and others on the subject of 
their uniting with that Presbytery, with a view to a division 
of the same if it should appear expedient. 

The proposition was laid before that body on the loth of 
November, 1822, by Dr. Henry, and, after due consideration, 
the Association agreed to " dissolve for the purpose of 
liniting with Harmony Presbytery, and with the view of 
having that body divided, and a Presbytery formed in the 
vicinity of Charleston." But, " in case such division does 
not take place, the resolution to be null and void." In pur- 
suance of this, the Rev. Dr. Palmer, who had been appointed 
for this purpose, made application in behalf of the Associa- 
tion that its members be received into the Presbytery. This 
was accordingly done, and the Rev. Benjamin M. Palmer, 
D. D., Joseph Brown, Reynolds Bascom, Epaphras Goodman, 
Charles B. Storrs, and John Wheeler, with the licentiate. Dr. 
Lyman Strong, and the candidates. Dr. Jones and James 
Campbell, were received. A committee was appointed to 
confer with the members of the Synod of North Carolina 
resident in this State to unite also with the Presbytery with 
a view to its subsequent division and reorganization. 

At the meeting of the Synod held in Columbia jn Novem- 
ber, 1822, in pursuance of a petition from the Presbytery of 
Harmony, the members of that body living in the lower parts 
of the State, south of the Congaree and Santee Rivers, viz: 
Thos. Read, George Reid, Benj. M. Palmer, D. D., Aaron W. 
Leland, D. D., Artemas Boies, Arthur Buist, P^lipha White, 
Joseph Brown, Reynolds Bascom, Epaphras Goodman, and 



o24 BBTHBI. PKESBYTEEV. [1820-l.S:iO. 

Charles B. Storrs, were set off as a new Presl-ytery, to be 
known by the name of Charleston Union Presbytery, the 
licentiate, Dr. Lyman Strong, and the candidates, John Dick- 
son, Dr. Jones, and Mr. James Campbell, to be considered 
under their care. Said Presbytery was to meet in Charleston 
on the second Wednesday of April, 1823, Dr. Palmer or the 
senior member present to preside and open the Presbytery 
with a sermon. 

Bethel Presbytery was organized during this decade by the 
following charter, granted by the Synod of North Carolina at 
its eleve.nth session, held at Statesville, Iredell Co., October 
9. 1824. 

" Resolved, Thaf so much of the Presbytery heretafore 
known by the name of the Presbytery of Concord as lies in 
York and Chester Districts, in South Carolina, in Ruiherford 
County, North Carolina, and in that part of Lincoln County, 
in the said State, not included in the boundaries assigned to 
the Presbyteries of Concord and Mecklenburg, including the 
Rev. Robert B. Walker, James S. Adams, John B. Davies, 
Henry M. Kerr, Adam Williams, James B. Stafford, and 
Josiah Harris be, and hereby are, constituted a Presbytery, 
to be known by the- name of the Presbytery of Bethel; that 
they hold their first meeting at Beersheba Church on the 
Friday preceding the first Sabbath in November ensuing ; 
that the Rev. Robert Walker, or, in case of his absence, the 
senior minister present, preach a sermon on the occasion, and 
preside until a Moderator be chosen." 

These with further specifications entered into the act of 
the Synod of North Carolina constituting this Presbytery. 
By consent of the Synod of North' Carolina, that portion of 
Bethel Presbytery which was in South 'Carolina was trans- 
terred to the Synod of South Carolina and Georgia, by an act 
of the General Assembly in May, 1828. By this transfer, 
Lancaster District and — by a subsequent act of the Synod — 
Union District and Catholic Congregation were made a part 
of Bethel Presbytery. (Semi-Centennial Sermon of Jan-.es 
H. Saye, April 2, 1875.) 

These changes having been made in Presb3'terial boun- 
daries during this decade, we proceed with the history of the 
particular churches, those, namely, which adopt the polity of 
the Presbyterian order. 



1820-]830.1 FRENCH CIUTRCH. -"325 



CHAPTER 11. 

French 'Protestant Church, Charleston. — From the brief 
memoranda furnished us by Mr Ravenel, we judge that Rev. 
Mr. Courlat continued to .serve this churcli as its pastor from 
1819 to 1823. After the failure of the effort to revive the 
former French service, measures were adopted to reopen the 
church with its proper liturgies rendered into Engh'sh. This 
measure was adopted Jn 1828, when a committee was a ;- 
pointed to prepare, or cause to be prepared under their 
supervision, a translation of the Book of Liturgies which had 
been used in the church, and to adapt it io public service in 
our country, with authority to employ persons to make, or 
aid in making the translations. (MSS. of" Daniel Ravenel.)* 

The services of the Church had been discontinued from the 
year 1S26. They had previously been interrupted from vari- 
ous causes. " The members, who were then not numerous, 
united with the other Christian Churches in the city — for the 
most part with the Episcopalians." (Southern Literary 
Gazette, June 19, 1852.) 

* The most important, of these documents was the " Confession of 
Faith " made by common consent of the Reformed Churches of the 
Kingdom of France We are informed by Beza (Historie des Eglises 
Reformee's au Royaurne de France, Tome Premier, 108) that G-od, by 
His singular grace, inspired all the Christian churches in France to 
assemble and to agree in unity of doctrine and discipline,' in conformity 
w.ith the Word of God. Pursuant to this, on the 26th of May, 1.5.5U, 
deputies of all the churches hitherto establish-ed in France assembled 
at Paris, and there, by common consent, was written the Confession of 
Faith, and was drawn up a forpi of ecclesiastical discipline, as near to 
the institutions of the Apostles as their circumstances would then allow. 
Infinite ditEculties were surmounted, and it was concluded that the 
Synod should be held at Paris, not to attribute any superior dignity or 
eminence to that city, but because it c ould better accommodate a large 
number of ministers and elders, and more secretly than any other 
place. The confession was there drawn up in forty articles A brief 
system of discipline, as founded upon the writings of the Apo.stles, was 
appended, under forty heads. Done at Paris on the 28th of May, 1559, 
in the t3th year of Henry, the King. 

The first of these documents was translated by a committee of 
the French Protestant Church, of Charleston, and presented to the cor- 
poration in print, tVie original French and the English in parallel 
columns, in October, 1828. 

"It seemed to be demonstrated, during the ministry of Rev. Mr. 
Courlat," says Rev. Charles S. Vedder, D. D., writing in July, 1873, " that 
the continuance of the services In the French language, or in alternate 
French' and English, was not feasible, and in 1828 a committee was ap- 



326 FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. [1820-1830. 

The translation having been made with great care and ap- 
proved, the church entered upon its regular use, the Rev, 
Daniel DuPre, a Methodist minister of Huguenot descent 
having been called- to the temporary charge of the con- 
gregation. 

The First Presbyterian Church in the City of 
Charleston. — A deputation from this church waited upon 
the Presbytery of Harmony at its twenty-fourth sessions held 
in the Second Presbyterian Church, Charleston, on the 5th of 
May, 1 82 1, praying that Mr. Arthur Buist, son of their 
former pastor. Dr. George Buist, be received under the care 
of that Presbytery, and for this purpose an extract from the 
minutes of the Dysart Presbytery of the Relief Church of 
Scotland, stating that he was regularly examined and duly 
licensed by that body, was presented. It was 

Resolved, That he be received and that trials be appointed 
preparatory to his ordination and installation in the First 
Presbyterian Church, Charleston, which the deputation stated 
would be requested at the next sessions of Presbytery in 
Augusta, Georgia. ' 

During the meeting in Augusta, in November, 1821, 
a call from the First Presbyterian Church was preferred 
through the Presbytery, to Mr. Arthur Buist, who declared 
his acceptance of it. An adjourned meeting was appointed to 
be held on the 4th day of January, 1822, for the examination 
of Mr. Buist in the Hebrew language and for his ordination 
and installation, and for the further trials of John Dickson, a 
graduate of Yale College and a member of the Columbia 
Church, who had been received under the care of Presbytery 
as a candidate for licensure, at the same time at which 
Mr. Buist had been received. The Presbytery accordingly 
met on the 4th of January, 1822, in the city of Charleston, for 
the object specified. The examinations and the trials both of 
Mr. Buist and Mr. Dickson were had and sustained; further 
trials were appointed for the latter, and on the 5th of January 
"the Presbytery met in the First Presbyterian Church for the 

pointed to translate the Liturgy into English. This committee con- 
sisted of the Hon. Elias Horry, Chairman, and Messrs Josepli Manigault, 
William Mazyck, Sr., George W. Cross, Daniel Ravenel, Thos.S. Grimke-r 
and William M. Fraser. 



1820-1830.] SECOND PRESBYTERIAN C1IUE(.;H. 327 

purpose ofattendin<^ to the exercises connected with the or- 
dination and installation of Mr. Arthur Buist, when a sermon 
was preached on the occasion by the Rev. George Reid, from 
Mark i6, xv ; " And he said unto them, go ye into all the 
world and preach the Gospel to every creature." After which 
the Rev. Mr. Buist having assented to the questions appointed 
to be put to candidates for ord'nation, was ordained by prayer 
and laying on of tJie hands of Presbytery to the whole of the 
gospel ministry, and the congregation having also assented 
to the questions proposed to them, he was installed as the 
pastor thereof according to the discipline of the Presbyterian 
Church in the United States. And a suitable address was 
delivered both to minister and people by the Rev. T. Charlton 
Henry. Mr. Buist was invited to his seat as a member of 
Presbytery." Minutes of the Presbytery of Harmony, pp. 
352. 353, 357, 366, 377. 

The Second Presbyterian Church and Congregation 
IN THE City of Charleston. — Of Dr. Flinn, the much loved 
and eloquent pastor of this church, who died on the 2$th of 
February, 1820, we have previously spoken. Dr. Henry was 
devoted to the ministry by his father from his birth. He sent 
him to Middlebury College intliehope that in those revivals of 
religion with which this college was so often visitea, he would 
meet with renewing grace. In one of- these seasons he was 
numbered among the converts and forthwith commenced his 
preparation for the ministry, finishing his education at Prince- 
ton. In January, 1824, he accepted a call to Charleston, 
where his ministrj' was eminently successful. 

It was at the close of his fifth year of labor in Columbia 
that Dr. Henry received the unanimous call of this church to 
become their pastor. Here in the stated services of the pul- 
pit, and the lecture room, in the bible class and Sunday 
school^ his soul was poured forth in earnest instruction and 
fervent supplication. In the first and second years of his 
ministry considerable additions were made to the church ; 
but in the third, a blessed effusion of the Holy Spirit was en- 
joyed. His indefatigable labors daring this season rendered 
a period of relaxation indispensable, and he therefore em- 
barked for Liverpool in April, 1826. During the four or five 
months of his stay in Europe, he travelled through the prin- 
cipal parts of Great Britain and Ireland, and visited the con- 
tinent. Several months were spent both in Paris and London. 



328 DE. HENRY. [1820-1830. 

In October he took leave of his Engiisli friends, and after pay- 
ing a short visit to his venerable father and numerous relations 
in Philadelphia, he returned early in December to his congre- 
gation. With redoubled vigor he entered upon his labors 
among his people and upon the prosecution of his studies. 
The latter indeed had known no interruption. 

On the first of October, 1827, when in the enjoyment of 
perfect health, he was suddenly seized with the Stranger's 
Fever, then prevalent in the city, which in four days termi- 
nated his valuable life, at the early age of thirty-seven, leav- 
ing a bereaved widow and three children to lament his loss. 
Amid the alarm and consternation occasioned by his fatal 
illness, he alone w^as calm and unappalled. While around 
him stood his afflicted relatives and friends, his expiring voice 
was employed in rejoicing and praise. And while a " horror 
of great darkness" fell upon others, at his sudden and prema- 
ture departure, he viewed it with rapture, ^s the bright and 
cloudless dawning of immortal glory. 

Dr. Henry has left behind him several published sermons : 
an " Inquiry into the consistency ot popular amusements 
with a profession of Christianity;" his "Etchings," and his 
" Letters to an anxious inquirer." The two last were posthu- 
mous works. His " Letters to an anxious inquirer," have 
been twice published in America, the second edition under 
the auspices, and with a recommendatory preface of the late 
Rev. Dr. Bedell, and also in London, with an introduction 
by Dr. Pye Smith. The account of his death is also pub- 
lished in a volume of the London Tract Society, as an emi- 
nent exhibition of the triumphs of divine grace. 

After the melancholy death of Dr. Henry, the church 
remained two years without a pastor, though faithfully sup- 
plied by the Rev. Benjamin Gildersleeve and the Rev. Dr. 
Leland. 

In February, 1829, the Rev. Wiiliam Ashmead, being in 
Charleston, on account of his health, received a call. In 
March he accepted of his appointment, and was in May, 
installed Pastor. On June /tli, he obtained leave of' absence 
for the summer, with the intention of bringing his family, but 
died on his return, in Philadelphia, December 2d, 1829, 
having been connected with this church but little more 
than six months, of which he was absent more than four. 

Mr. Ashmead has left behind him a few published sermons. 



1820-1830.] THE THIRD CHURCH. 329 

I 

Since his death a volume of hi.s sermons has been i.'-'sued 
Irom the press, to which is prefixed an interesting memoir by 
the lamented Grimke, who was his warm friend and held him 
in the highest estimation. 

After the death of Mr. Ashmead, the church sat in her 
widowhood for several years, receiving her food from occa- 
sional supplies, especially from her tried friend the Rev. Mr. 
Gildersleeve. 

The Third or Central Presbyterian Church in thecity 
OF Charleston. The congregation comprising the Third 
Presbyterian Church which was organized in 1823, worshipped 
from that time in the building situated at the northwest cor- 
ner of Archdale and West Streets, which was originally erect- 
ed in 1814, by a congregation styled, " The St. Andrew's 
Presbyterian Church, of the City of Charleston," who were 
seceders from "The Presbyterian Church of the City of Charles- 
ton," better Icnown as "The Scotch Church," and whose 
first pastor was tiie Rev. John Buchan. After the lapse 
<if nine years this congregation being without a pastor and 
burdened by debt, resolved to dispose of their premises on 
the conditions,' that the church should be held sacred as a 
place of public Christian worship, and the ground attached 
thereto be continued as a cemetery. They were accordingly 
purchased by Messrs. Thomas Napier and Thomas Fleming 
two of the original members and founders of the Third Pres- 
byterian Church,* whose first pastor was the Rev. William 
Anderson McDowell, and who was installed over tliis con- 
gregation by the Charleston Union Presbytery on the 3rd of 
December, 1823. He already had experience in the minis- 
try. He was licensed by the Presbytery of New Brunswick 
on the 28th of April, 1813, and was ordamed and installed as 
pastor of the church at Bound Brook, New Jersey, on the 22d 
of December following. His connection with this church was 
a brief one. On the 15th of the next December he was in- 

*The church was organized July 13, 1823, as "The Third Presbyterian 
Church." In the Sermon at the organization, the Eev. Dr. Leland 
says : 'The plan was formed in faith and prayer, and all the steps 
have been manifestly taken with a single eye to the glory of God and 
the promotion of the Redeemer's Kingdom. The history of the under- 
taking is brief and pleasing. Its origin has been eminently peaceful and 
harmonious, wholly undebased by schism or contention. A number of 
professing Christians, not connected with any church in the city, with 
others who were members of several churches, were led to consider it. 
their duty to form a new church." 



330 JAMES AND JOHN'S ISLAND. [1820-1830. 

stalled pastor of the church at Morristovvn where he spent 
tlie next eight or niae years in useful and acceptable labor. 
He had never possessed robust health since the years of child- 
hood. An attack of small-pox at the age of twelve had im- 
paired the vigor of his constitution. While engaged in his 
preparation for the ministry he felt obliged to try the effects 
of a Southern climate and in the winter of 1811 and 12 he 
sailed for Savannah where his brother-in-law, Dr. Henry Kol- 
locU resided, and continued his study of theology under thi-^ 
able and eloquent divine. Being threatened now again with 
pulmonary difificulties, he traveled as far as South Carolina 
and passed the winter in Charleston with the most favorable 
results to his health. In the Spring he resumed his labors 
at Morristown with his accu.stomed energy, but soon sunk 
again into the feeble state from which he had emerged. A 
call came to him from this church in Charleston just at that 
juncture which it seemed to be the will of Providence that he 
should accept. His pastoral relation to the church at Mor- 
ristown was dissolved on the 8th of October, 1823, and the 
new relation with the Third Presbyterian Church in Charles- 
ton constituted as we have described. ThJs church com- 
menced its existence therefore with a pastor in whom all had 
confidence, and with elders and officers whose character and 
energy commanded the respect of the entire congregation and 
the community around. 

During this decade we find the names of Robert B. Edwards 
and Jasper Corning as elders, the-date of whose ordination is 
not recorded, and of Thomas Fleming and John Maxton, or- 
dained in July, 1824. The following were Presidents of the 
Corporation : Thomas Fleming, in 1824 and 1825 ; William 
Bell, in 1826, 1827 ; Thomas Napier, in 1828, 1829. 

James Island. This ciiurch enjoyed the labors of the Rev. 
A. W. Leland, D. D.. lately pastor of the First Presbyterian 
Church in Charleston. There are two eloquent discourses of 
his published in 'The Southern Preacher" edited by the Rev. 
Colin Mclver, the copyright of which is dated in 1823, and 
the title page dates in 1824, in which he is spoken of as pas- 
tor of the church of James Island. 

John's Islanb and Wadmalaw. — 'This church was vacant, 
it is believed, at the beginning of this decade. It was soon 
visited by Elipha Wliite, who was a native of East Randolph, 
Mass., a graduate of Brown University in 1 8 17, and of Andover 



1820-1830. J JOHN'S ISLAND. 331 

Seminary, in 1820. He was licensed to preach tlie gospel by 
the Union Association of Boston, and was ordained by the 
Congregational Association of South Carolina, on tiie 3d of 
January, 1821. At a meeting of the Association held at the 
Rev. Dr. Palmer's, in the city of Charleston, on the ist of 
January, 1 82 1, a letter was read bearing date December 6th, 

1820, from H. C. McLeod, Chairman of the Committee of 
the Young Men's Missionary Society of South Carolina, re- 
questing the ordination of Mr. Joseph Brown, whom they had 
employed as a missionary, " to labor in the region of Edge- 
field, Newberry, and Beech Island, which is said to be very 
destitute." At the same time was received a communication 
from Joseph Tyler, Secretary /ro /?7«; embracing the following: 
"By direction of the Board of Managers of the Congregational 
Missionary Society of South Carolina, I present you with the 
following resolution : 

Resolved, That the Recording Secretary be directed to 
request of the Congregational Association of South Car- 
olina the ordination of the Missionaries employed by 
them, on the first day of January next, dated December 
19, 1820. The Missionaries of this Society were Mr. Elipha 
White, Epaphrus Goodman, Charles Backus Storrs, the latter 
a graduate of the college of New Jersey, and of the Andover 
Seminary in the class of 1820. To them was added Mr. Ray- 
nolds Bascom, a native of Massachusetts, a graduate of Wil- 
liams College in 1813, and a tutor in the same from 1815, 
1817. These gentlemen passed through the usual trials and 
were ordained in the Circular Church on the 3d of January, 

182 1, in the way and under the circumstances we have before 
described. 

Mr. White did not long retain his connection with the 
Congregational Association. On the 20th of December, 1821, 
he obtained a dismission from that body and became a mem- 
ber of Harmony Pre.sbytery. On the 20th of April, 1822, " a 
call from the Presbyterian Congregation of John's Island for 
the ministerial labours of the Rev. Mr. White was laid before 
Presbytery and proposed to him, who accepted it." On the 
8th of May the Presbytery met at the John's Island Church, 
and installed him as its pastor. His labours among them 
through the years of which we write, were faithful and highly 
appreciated by his flock. 



332 EDISTO ISLAND. [1820-1830. 

In this same yeir (1822) the present church building was 
erected. " Tiiis was done by funds contributed for this pur- 
pose by members of the various denominations, Episcopal, 
and Methodists, and Baptists, joining with heart and purse to 
assist these Presbyterians." The ampunc contributed from 
these sources was ;^3,645. The church came also into the 
possession of about ;^4,000, from the old John's Island So- 
ciety, a charitable as=^ociation, which had been in existence 
for some time, and employed its fjnds for various charitable 
purposes, among others for maintaining 3 seminary of learn- 
ing, and relieving the indigent. It was incorporated Decem- 
ber 9, 1799, and becoming nearly extinct, its funds were di- 
vided among the churches by the surviving members, By his 
deed of gift of July 6, 1820, Thomas Hunscome, who was 
not a member of any church, conveyed to James Legare, Sen. 
Thomas Legare, Sen., and Hugh Wilson, Jun., Trustees of the 
John's sland Presbyterian Church, fifty-six acres of land on the 
Island, and by his will gave and bequeathed to the Presby- 
terian Church of John's Island, whatever may be its corporate 
name or title in law the sum of $6,ooo. 

The Presbyterian Church on Edisto Island enjoyed but 
a little longer the labors of their able pastor, the Rev. Donald 
McLeod. He died on the 30th of January, 182 1. The mural 
monument dedicated to his memory speaks of him as a native 
of North Britain, and states that he had been for twenty-nine 
years their pastor. Dr. Leland, in describing him, said that 
" he wrote elegan-tly, but that his Scotch pronunciation was 
very broad. He was tall, elegant, polished, and graceful. 
Dr. McLeod was a fine specimen of a Scotchman." " In the 
year 1821," says the Rev. Wm, States Lee, from whose man- 
uscript we quote, " the present pastor," meaning himself, 
■' took the pastoral charge of the Presbyterian Church of 
Edisto Island. The elders then in ofifice were Daniel Town- 
send, William Seabrook, William Edings, and Ephraim Mi- 
kell. Previous to the year 1 821, the church had been connected 
with the fold) " Charleston Presbyteryr, but in consequence of 
some cause (unknown to the writer) it had not been repre- 
•sented in the Presbytery for several years. Before, or about 
182!, the Presbytt'ry hud become extinct, by the death or 
removal of its clerical members, and this church, therefore, 
liecame unconnected with any Presbytery, in which state (in 
1858, the date of this writing) it still continues to exist. The 



1820-1830.] KDISTO ISJ.AND. SSS 

government in every other respect has been iind is Presb)'- 
terian. At the time the present pastor took the charge of the 
church there were no sessional records in existence, by which 
it could be determined who were communing members, or 
when those claiming to be such were admitted to the church. 
Aided by the most reliable testimony that could be obtained, 
a list of members was made. The number at that time was 
sixteen whites and seven colored members. In the spring of 
1822, the Lord's Supper was administered. The custom of 
the church had limited the administration of that ordinance 
to two periods in the year, viz: the commencement of the 
spring and of the winter. There are now (1858), and have 
been for many years past, four seasons of communion annu- 
ally. There .was but one public service on the Sabbath during 
the winter and spring months at that time, and during the 
summer and autumn, when the inhabitants of the Island 
resorted to the sea-shore, as a residence, for health, the Epis- 
copal and Presbyterian congregations worshipped together in 
an old building which had been used as an academy. The 
pastors performed the services, sanctioned by their respective 
churches, alternately. Much harmony and kind feeling pre- 
vailed between the two congregations. In the year 1824, in 
consequence of the building (used by them) becoming incon- 
venient and even unsafe, the two congregations united in 
erecting a building which was to be occupied by them jointly, 
as the academy had been. 

This new building was erected and opened for divine 
worship, but in consequence of some difficulty that arose 
respecting the internal arrangement of the building, which 
could not be satisfactorily adjusted, the two congregations 
separated. The Presbyterians relinquished the building to the 
Episcopalians, and before the next summer they had erected 
a place of worship for themselves. This building has from 
time to timS received improvements, rendering it a neater and 
more commodious place of worship. 

From this period the public services have been observed 
during the summer and autumn, in the morning, afternoon 
and evening of each Sabbath. About the year 1824 an even- 
ing lecture was commenced during the week, in a private 
house, and in a very short time was conducted in almost every 
house in the congregation in turn, at the request of the fami- 
lies. The number of persons who attended or expressed a 



834 EDISTO ISLAND. [1820-1830. 

desire to attend, having become too large to be accommo- 
dated in this manner, this lecture and the service on Sabbath 
evening (which had also been conducted in private houses) 
were removed into the church, where the attendance became, 
and continued to be, large and interesting, particularly on the 
evenings of the Sabbath. About the year 1823 or 1824, a 
Sabbath-school was organized and the exercises attended to, 
during the sumitier months and autumn, when the inhabitants 
were collected together in the village on the sea-shore. This 
valuable institution has been continued. A library of 700 or 
800 volumes, presented by the members of the congregation 
to the Sabbath-school, has been an unfailing source of interest 
and instruction to the children. The population of the Island 
not being large, the number of children in the Sabbath-school 
has always been comparatively small, and varying from time 
to time. 

About the year 1826, a bible class for ladies was formed. 
The studies belonging to it was attended to with interest, and 
it is hoped with profit. Various causes arising from changes 
in families, Or change of residence by the members, would at 
times interrupt or suspend its exercises, but the class was 
kept up for many years. A bible class for males was also 
attempted for a few years, but did not continue long. 

From the year 1821 regular attention had been paid to the 
religious instruction of the colored persons in services ap- 
pointed and performed for them, apart from the white portion 
of the congregation. At the close of the service on the 
morning of the Lord's day, throughout the year, they re- 
mained in the church, and with prayerand praise, preaching 
was united in an extempore form, supposed to be better 
adapted to their comprehension. The attendance on this ser- 
vice has been uniformly good, sometimes large, and attention 
during the services appeared to have been given with deep in- 
terest. All of the colored persons who offered themselves for 
membership in the church have been regularly catechised and 
instructed on each Sabbath, before the morning service, and 
this course has been pursued with them for twelve months or 
longer (if the cases seemed to need it) before they were pro- 
posed to the se-ssion for admission to sealing ordinances." 

Thus wrote this admirable man and model pastor in 1858. 
In the limited population to which he ministered there were 
added in the first ten years ten white members and thirty- 



] 820-1830.] WILTON. 335 

seven colored, a number which in other places less circum- 
scribed and of an ampler population is often exceeded. 

Wilton Presbyterian Church. — Our notice of tliis ancient 
church must again be brief. Good men lived here before us 
and worshipped the God of their fathers and mini-sters^of the 
Gospel have preached, and the organizations which still exist 
and which they have handed down show that such men have 
been, though they may have been careless in transmitting 
their names and perpetuating their memories. The Rev. 
Loammi Floyd still preached to this congregation. His in- 
troduction to our notice is connected with the Congregational 
Association of South Carolina, a.s we have mentioned on pre- 
ceding pages. On the 30th of April, 1820, a meeting of the 
Board of Trustees was held at the church and the minutes 
state that their house of worship had been newly erected. It 
is situated about a mile from the village of Adams' Run, and 
at the intersection of the Wiltown (or Charleston roads) and 
was finished about April, 1820. It was dedicated April 30, 
1820. Mr. Floyd preached a dedication sermon from Exod. 
XX., 24, and Dr. Palmer followed with an address. (Ch. Intel., 
vol. II, p. 42.) 

The Rev. Mr. Floyd continued to preach on alternate Sab- 
baths until 1822, when it seems that the congregation, having 
a new house of worship, became dissatisfied with the existing 
arrangement and desired to have the ministrations of the 
Gospel on every Sabbath. To this end they took action, dis- 
missing Rev. Mr. Floyd from further connection with the 
church and called Rev. Henry T. Jones, the editor of " The 
Southern Intelligencer," a religious paper then published in 
Charleston. They effected an arrangement with him by which 
he should, while retaining the editorial charge of the paper, 
come np and preach every Sabbath. Mr. Jones continued to 
serve the congregation with great acceptance until some time 
in the year 1823. In a paper dated i6th March, 1824, an al- 
lusion is made to his death. Several members of the congre- 
gation still remember him and speak of him as having been 
a useful and devoted minister. It was his habit to take a p.irt 
of the week to visit the poor in the neighborhood by whom 
he was greatly beloved. It is related of him as an instance of 
his delicate regard for the poor, that on a sacramental occa- 
sion a woman in poor and iiumble circumstances being 
present, kept her seat through diffidence when the commu- 



336 WILTOK. [1820-1830. 

nicants had taken their usual places. Mr. Jones noticing her 
embarrassment, left the table and going to her offered her his 
arm and handed her to a seat among the members of tiie 
church. 

There exists among the Records, a letter from Col. Wil- 
liam Oswald to Mr. James D. Mitchell an active member of 
the Wilton Church, dated Sept. 23rd, 1833, which commences 
with these words : "Having heard of the death of your late 
minister, Rev. Mr. Jones,'' There is also a letter from Mr. 
Jones to Mr. Mitchell, dated Feb. loth, 1823. So that Mr. 
Jones died between February and September of that year. 
The letter of Col- Oswald a member of the Bethel Church in 
St. Bartholomew's Parish, contains a proposal to unite the 
Bethel Church at Pon Pon over Jacksoiiborough and the 
Wilton Church under the same pa.stor, specifying that he 
should preach alternately every other Sabbath at each church. 
He mentioned the Rev. Mr. Latkrop, who was then employed 
by the Missionary Society of Charleston as one whom the 
Bethel congregation desired to call. It appears that this pro- 
posal was declined, as Rev. Mr. Moses Chase was not long 
after this invited to take charge of the Wilton Church. In a 
paper dated May 13th, 1824, mention is made of Mr. Chase 
as preaching statedly to the congregation.* He did not con- 
tinue long in connection with the church as in November of 
the same year Rev. Zabdiel Rogers was invited to preach. 

Mr. Rogers was born at Stonington, Cormecticut, Oct, id, 
1793. He became a subject of renewing grace and connected 
himself with the church in the year 1817. In the fall ensu- 
ing, he commenced fitting for college with a view to entering 
the ministry, in Coventry, Connecticut, with the Rev. Mr. 
Woodrufif; was admitted to Yale College in the fall of 1816 ; 
was graduated in 1820; was engaged in teaching one year 
and then entered the Theological Seminary at Andover. 
Here he spent three years d.nd having completed his theolog- 
ical course, he was ordained with one or two other fellow- 
students. He came to Charleston, September 30, 1824, and in 
November of that year was invited to preach to the Wilton 
Church and continued with it for more than twenty-three 
years. He was received into the Charleston Union Presby- 
tery at his own request in November, 1828. 

*He was a licentiate. 



1820-1830.] BETHEL, PON PON. SALTOATCHER. 337 

Bethel, Pon Pon, St. Bartholomew's Parish, Colleton. 
The Rev. Loammi Floyd continued the pastor of this church 
till his death, which occurred in April, 1822. But during the 
years 1821 and 1822 he preached on alternate Sabbaths to 
the church at Wilton, St. Paul's Parish. The Rev. Lycan D. 
Parks, who was resident in tlie Parish, occupied the pulpit on 
the other alternate days. In the year 1821 the branch church 
at Walterboro was erected, tnost of the congregation being 
located there during the summer, or sickly months. Mr. 
Floyd was the Moderator and oldest member of the Congre- 
gational Association at his death, and as an affectionate trib- 
ute to his memory, Dr. Palmer was requested by that body to 
preach a suitable discourse in the church their deceased 
brother had occupied. From the death of Mr. Floyd in 1822 
until 1827, the church was supplied by the following minis- 
ters, none of whom were settled as pastors, viz.: by Rev. 
Joseph Brown, Rev. George P. King, Rev. Eleazer Lathrop, 
and Rev. Henry B. Hooker (afterwards D. D.*) These gen- 
tlemen were missionaries, employed by different Societies 
organized in this State. In the year 1827 the Rev. Edward 
Palmer became pastor of this church. 

Saltcatcher. We find no notice of this church till 1826, 
when Charleston Union Presbytery appointed Dr. Palmer and 
W. A. McDowell to inquire into its condition, and if found 
expedient and practicable, to furnish it with supplies. They 
reported that it had been taken under the care of the Presby- 
tery of Harmony in 181 1, and wished that it might be taken 
under the care of Charleston Union. Their wishes were grat- 
ified and Dr. Palmer was appointed to visit the Church and 
administer to it the Lord's Supper. Drs. Palmer and Mc- 
Dowell were appointed to devise a scheme for furnishing it 
with supplies. This was accordingly done. Yet it was 
found at a subsequent meeting that the appointments had all 
failed. 

The Independent Presbyterian Church in the City of 
Savannah. After the lamented death of Dr. Kollock this 
church was supplied by Rev. Dr. Snodgrass, then by the Rev. 
Dr. Samuel B. Howe, and then by the Rev. Daniel Baker. 
He writes to his friend Mr. Handy in Washington, D. C, and 
to the members of the Second Presbyterian Church in that 



*See Memoir of H. B Hooker, p. 3, 4, 5. 
22 



328 SAVANNAH — BKECH ISLAND. [1820-1830. 

c\ty, of which he had been tlic pastor, under date of May 13th, 
1828, showinc; that his predecessors who immediately .suc- 
ceeded Dr. Kollock, could not have served the church more 
than eight years. No record' of this church is said to be in 
existence until March, 1828, under the ministry of Dr. Baker. 
He remained in connection with it till the year 1 831 during 
which a considerable religious interest was manifested in the 
town in the various denominations, and twenty persons were 
added to the Independent Presbyterian church at one com- 
munion. It was about this time that the church in Wash- 
ington, D. C, extended to him a pressing call, to resume his 
pastorate among them. John Quincy Adams, who had at- 
tended his ministry in Washington City wrote to Mr. Handy 
of Washington, from Quincy, Massachusetts, October 16, 1836 
as did also the President, Andrew Jackson, favoring his re- 
call. Life and Labors of Rev. Daniel Baker, D. D., Chap. 
VI., pp. 125-154. 

The Second Presbyterian Church in Savannah had 
already come into existence. At the XVIth Session of the 
Synod of .South Carolina and Georgia, held in Charleston in 
1827 it was represented by Dr. Edward Coppie as Ruling 
Elder. 

Beech Island. — The first mention of this locality which has 
met our eyes is in the first report of the Young Men's Mis- 
sionary Society of South Carolina, which was formed the first 
of the year 1820. In September of that year an attempt was 
made to secure the services of the Rev. Mr. Nettleson, which 
was unsuccessful. On the 25th of September, a letter was 
received from Rev. Di. Porter, of Andover, whose services 
had been engaged to.secure them a missionary, informing them 
of the choice he had made of the Rev. Joseph Brown. On 
the 3d of December, the Society authorized the call to Mr. 
Brown, which on the 8th he accepted, and measures were, 
taken to procure his ordination, His engagement commenced 
on the first of December, 1820, and previous to his ordina- 
tion he visited, as a licentiate, Beaufort and Stony Creek, and 
returning, was ordained on the 3d of January, 1821, and com- 
menced preaching in Edgefield District which had been 
assigned him, in connection with Newberry, as the field of 
his labours. In the course of his ministry, he visited Beech 
Island, " which," says he, " is not an island, but a part of 
Edgefield District, surrounded by a kind of swamp or bog. 



1820-1830.] BEECH ISLAND. 339 

He speaks of it as a large and wealthy settlement with an 
Academy of about fifty scholars and a promising field of use- 
fulness if regular and constant preaching could be afforded 
them.* 

Samuel Mosely a native of Vermont, a graduate of Middle- 
bury College in 1818, and of the Andover Seminary in 1821, 
preached amongst them as a licentiate for some four months, 
during which he was an inmate of the family of Mr. Samuel 
Clark. He was afterwards an agent of the A. B. C, F. M., then a 
missionary to the Choctaws, and died at Mayhew on the i ith of 
September, 1824, aged 33. The Rev. Henry Safford, who 
graduated at Dartmouth College in 18 17, and at the Prince- 
town Seminary in 1820, followed soon after. He remained 
twelve months as a teacher and a preacher, receiving about 
;?i,200 from the church and school. Rev. S. S. Davis, (after- 
wards D. D.), who supplied the church in Augusta, in con- 
nection with the Rev. Dr. Talmage for nearly a year, also 
rendered essential service before or subsequently to the de- 
parture of Mr. Safford. By his agency the Rev. Nathan 
Hoyt, (afterwards D. D.), was introduced to their notice, 
whose labours were exceedingly blessed, as is recorded in a 
tract, entitled " History of a Church in the South" written by 
himself and full of interesting details of his ministry here, 
and well worthy of perusal. The result was the organization 
of a church, in which organization Dr. Davis assisted. Dr. 
Thomas S. Mills was ordained a Ruling Elder on tlie 1st of 
March, 1828. Dr. Hoyt resigned this charge amid the re- 
grets of the people and took charge of the church in Wash- 
ington, Wilkes Co. Ga. 

On the 25th of May, 1828, baptism and the L<^rd's supper 
were administered by William Moderwell. The church then 
remained vacant until December, 1829, when it was served by 
Rev. Dennis M. Winston, for the term of six months. 

At the session of the Presbytery of Harmony at Beaver 
Creek on the 5th of December, 1828, Dr. Thomas S. Mills, 
an elder of the church of Beech Island, appeared before that 
body, presenting a request fiom the church to be taken under 
its care. The prayer of the petition was granted, and Dr. 
Mills took his seat as a member of Presbytery. 

*First Report of the Young Men's Missionary Society of South Caro- 
lina, May, 1821. 



.140 ST. AUGusTiuE. [1 820-1 8:;o. 

St. Augustine. — "On the lOth day of Jul)', 1821, the 
-Standard of Spain, which had been raised two hundred and 
fifty years before over St. Augustine, wa.s finally lowered for^ 
ever from the wall's over which it had so long fluttered, and 
the stars and stripes of the youngest of nations rose where, 
sooner or later, the hand of destiny would assuredly have 
placed them. [Geo. R. Fairbank's History and Antiquities 
of the City of St. Augustine, p. 1S4.] The first mention of 
St. Augustine on our ecclesiastical records is in the Minutes 
of the Synod of South Carolina and Georgia, pp. 92, 93, No- 
vember 21, 1823, where it is recorded that Mr. Lathrop, " an 
agent of the St. Augustine Presbyterian Society, appeared 
before the Synod and presented his credentials. Whereupon 
it was unanimously 

Resolved, That the Synod view with deep and affecting in- 
terest the moral and religious condition of Florida. They 
feel the powerful claims of this newly-acquired territory to 
the sympathy and charities of the Christian public, and that 
present circumstances demand immediate and energetic exer- 
tions in its behalf They therefore regard the agency of Mr. 
Lathrop as intimately connected with the interests of Zion 
and the dearest hopes of humanity ; and as such do cordially 
and earnestly recommend it to the particular attention of the 
churches and their care ; and to all the charitable, the pious 
and patriotic throughout the United States. 

They appointed also Drs. Brown and Palmer a committee 
to prepare a letter to the religious community in recommen- 
dation of the subject. [Minutes, pp. 92, 93. j This letter 
appears on pp. 100, lOl, of the records of Synod, as signed, 
by order of Synod, by Aaron W. Leland, Moderator; Rich- 
ard B. Cater, C\erk, pro tevi. At the same meeting, the Mod- 
erator was directed to furnish Mr. (afterwards Dr.) McWhir, 
of Liberty County, Ga., who proposed to visit St. Augustine, 
with proper testimonials. The doctor at that time wa.s in his 
6ist year. He there gathered and constituted a Presbyterian 
Church and ordained elders; and was for several years un- 
tiring in his efforts to raise the funds requisite for the erection 
of a church edifice. He first founded a church at Mandarin, 
which was the first Presbyterian Church founded in Florida 
since the days when the French Huguenots, under Laudo- 
niere and Ribault, were so cruelly cut off by Menende?. (See 



1820-1830.] PRESBYTERY OF GEORGIA. 341 

Vol. I of thi.s Hi.story, p. 25.) St. Augustine was occupied in 
1 825-1 826 by Rev. Eleazar Lathrop, before mentioned, who 
had been received as a licentiate from the Presbytery of 
Oneida by Charlest<Mi Union Presbytery, and was ordained 
by them as an Evangelist and Missionary for St. Augustine, 
on the 20th of March, 1825.* Ebenezer H. Snowden was 
stated supply at St. Augustine in 1828. 

The Synod's efforts in behalf of this church are shown in 
its earnest exhortations to the churches, its appointment of 
agents, and its quasi assessAient upon Presbyteries. (Min- 
utes, pp. 172, 199, 203, 334, 337; Minutes of Presbytery of 
Harmony, pp. 464, 468.) Yet this Presbytery felt more and 
more the inconvenience of its extensive territory, and peti- 
tioned the Synod of South 'Carolina and Georgia, at its meet- 
ing at Washington, Ga., in November, 1821, that such of its 
members as reside in Georgia should be connected with the 
Presbytery of Hopewell. This led to the forming of a new 
Presbytery " The Presbytery of Georgia." So that henceforth 
Harmony Presbytery had no jurisdiction beyond the Savannah. 

The Presbytery of Georgia had at that time nine ministers 
connected with it, one of whom, S. S. Davis, was stated 
supply at Camden, S. C. 

In the statistical tables of the General Assembly for 1829 
the following information is given respecting the Presbytery 
of Georgia : 

The number of ministers, 8. 

St. Maiiy's has a pastor, Horace S. Pratt, a membership of 
96.- 

Darien has a pastor, Nathaniel A. Pratt, a total member- 
ship of 89. 

Congregational Church, Waynesboro', in 1827, Lawson 
Clinton, stated supply ; membership, 19, of whom five were 
recent additions. 

St. Augustine, vacant ; Ebenezar H. Snowden had been 
stated supply; members, 21, 5 of whom were added during 
the year ; Rev. Thomas Alexander was residing at St. Augus- 
tine, without charge, in 1828. 

*Mr. Lathrop was a native of New York, a graduate of Hamilton Col- 
lege in 1817 ; had studied two years at Andover ; was, after his residence 
at St. Augiistine, a stated supply at Elmira, N. Y. ; was without pastoral 
charge at Painted Post, N. Y., afterwards at P'/lmira, then at Geneva. 
He died in 1834, at the age of 40. 



342 WILLIAMSBURG BETHEL AND INDIAN TOWN. [i820-1830. 

Dawfuskie, Herman M. Blodget, stated supply. 

Savannah, John Boggs, pastor; inembeis, 22. 

Wm. McWhirr, D. D., Sunbury, Liberty Co., W. C. 
Robt. Quarterman, pastor of the Congregational Church, 
Liberty Co., 550 members, a large proportion of whom were 
colored people. 



CHAPTER IIL 

The ancient church of Williamsburg was still enjoying 
the labors of the Rev. John Covert and had done so from the 
time he ceased to preach in the Bethel and Indian Town 
Church until his death, which occurred, says Mr. Wallace, on 
the night of the great Storm which swept over that part of the 
country, September 20th, 1822. " His body was borne to its 
lowly resting place on the shoulders of men, the trees pros- 
trated by the tornado having so blocked up the roads as to 
render the passage of vehicles impracticable." " He was cut 
down in the vigor of life,.being in bis 34th year," Wallace, 
p. 92. 

The two churches of Bethel and Indian Town remained 
united under the pastoral care of Rev. Robt. W. James, for a 
period of nine years, until 1827, when he was relieved from 
this charge by the Presbytery of Harmony and removed to 
Salem Church, in Sumter District. The licentiate Josiah W. 
Powers, who was a native of New Hampshire, a graduate of 
the University of Vermont, and in 1827, of the Theological 
Seminary at Andover, and who was sent as a home mis- 
sionary into this State, preached to these churches from De- 
cember, 1827, to May, 1828. The faithful labors of Mr, 
Covert and Mr, James had tended to remove old asperities 
and to unite the old Presbyterian Church, which claimed to 
represent the Williamsburg Church of former days and Bethel 
into one. Meanwhile there had arisen in the Bethel congre- 
gation a young man, William J. Wilson, (son of Mr. William 
Wilson,) who was graduated at the South Carolina College 
in 1822, and had spent a year at Princeton, feeling himself 
called to the ministry, he had first placed himself under the 
care of the Presbytery of New Brunswick, then under the 
care of the Presbytery of Harmony, and was licensed by the 
same on the 1st of April, 1825, at its meeting in Winnsboro', 



1820-1830'.] UNION OF THE CHURCHES. 348 

The life of the young man was a short one, but by his pious 
hibors and kind deportment while yet living with his father, 
and by his faithful pieachiiig in the old church, he was 
greatly instrumental in drawing the divided congregations 
into one, that which claimed to be the old church and Bethel. 
They united under the old name of '' The Williamsburg 
Church." 

But before this, and immediately subsequent to the termina- 
tion of the engagement with Mr. Powers, the churches of 
Bethel and Indiantown had united in a call to Rev. John M. 
Ervin, of Mecklenburg County, N. C, which they were per- 
mitted by the Presbytery of Harmony to prosecute before the 
Presbytery of Concord, He commenced his ministry on the 
4th of December, 1828. "On the 15th of June, Mr. Ervin 
performed divine service in Bethel Church, and a sermon was 
preached in the old church by Mr. Nixon, a Baptist minister. 
On the morning of that day, the session of Bethel Church 
met and resolved to propose terms of union to the other 
congregation. 

Mr. John McClary, who seems to have been a patriarch in 
both these branches of the house of Israel, was judiciously 
selected to bear the olive branch of peace to the body wor- 
shipping in the old church. Both congregations were now 
prepared to sheath the sword forever, and the time was come 
when Judah should no more vex Ephraim, nor Ephraim envy 
Judah. The white banner was as joyfully hailed on the one 
side, as proffered on the other, and the venerable bearer was 
authorized to carry back a favorable response. Mr. Ervin 
was requested to preach in the old church on the Tuesday 
(the i/thj following, and the Bethel congregation invited to 
attend for the purpose of deliberating on the subject of the 
proposed union. After divine service, on that day, Mr. John 
McClary was called to the chair, and stated the object of the 
meeting. The first question propounded was, " Shall the two 
churches be now united in one body?" which was responded 
to by a unanimous vote in the affirmative. After some delib- 
eration regarding the location of the house of worship, it was 
decided to erect a new building; the same, says Mr. Wal- 
lace, in which we are now assembled. Mr. Ervin was 
unanimously elected pastor of the united church, and a com- 
mittee appointed to inform him of the election. The call was 
accepted, and Mr. E. entered upon his labors here in the Fall 



344 AIMWBLL HOPEWELL (p. D.) — CONCORD. [1820-1830. 

of that year, which he continued faithfully to discharge, 
greatly beloved by his people, till his return to North Caro- 
lina in 1832. After ministering there some years, he removed 
to Arkansas, vi'here, after a short term of service, he fell asleep 
and his mortal part there awaits the better resurrection. 

The ecclesiastical connection of the Williamsburg Church 
was originally with the Presbytery of Edinburgh. It was after- 
wards transferred (it is believed) to the old Presbytery of 
Charleston, which was never in connection with our General 
Assembly, and which has been for years extinct. As the 
records of that body are lost, the date of the transfer cannot 
now be ascertained. The Bethel Church was connected from 
its organization with the Presbytery of South Carolina, and 
in its subsequeht divisions, fell into that portion of it now 
embraced in the Presbytery of Harmony." (History, by Rev. 
J. W. Wallace.) 

Hopewell (Pee Dee) and Aimwell. — Aimwell became 
extinct in 1820. Some of the heads of families had died 
and others moved up more convenient to Hopewell and be- 
came members of that Church. In 1821 Rev. John Harring- 
ton, of Fayetteville Presbytery, was elected pastor of Hopewell 
Church. This church obtained leave from the Presbytery of 
Harmony (Minutes, p. 350) to make their returns to the Pres- 
bytery of Fayetteville as long as they enjoyed the labors of 
one of its members. He remained in the service of this 
church until 1827, when he removed to Mt. Zion Church, 
Sumter District. After this the Rev. Nicholas R. Morgan 
became their supply in connection with the Church of Dar- 
lington. He was received on the 7th of December, 1827, by 
the Presbytery of Harmony on his letter of dismission from 
the Presbytery of Mecklenburg, N. C. In the same year 
Saml. Bigham, Alex. Gregg, John Gregg, David Bigham and 
John Cooper were elected elders. 

Black River (Winyah), in Georgetown District, is no 
longer mentioned on the roll of existing churches, and the 
same is true of Black Mingo. 

Concord Church, Sumter District. — It is very difficult 
for us to trace the history of this church, being personally 
unacquainted with its surroundings. The church records 
as contained in- the minutes of Presbytery, furnishes us with 
little information, and when none is offered from the church 
itself, its officers or ministers, little can be said worthy of 



1820-1830.] SUMTERVILLE. 345 

record. It appears after the removal of it.s founder, Rev. 
Geo-rge G. McWhorter, wlio was dismissed at his own re- 
quest to the Presbytery of Georgia on the 19th of April, 1822, 
to have been dependent on various supplies, or temporary 
pastors, as Rev. Mr. Harrington, Mr. Alexander, and some 
others. It was visited, too, by Rev. Mr. Barbour, in 1822, 
who will be more particularly mentioned in the history of the 
Sumterville Church, of which he may be said to be the 
founder. To the latter church, Concord bore a kind of ma- 
ternal relation. It contributed some of its members to the 
Sumterville Church at its formation, and the first meeting of 
the session of that church was held at Concord. It shared 
also in the ministerial labors of the Rev. Isaac Barbour men- 
tioned in the following pages: 

Sumterville. — The early sessional record of this church 
is very imperfect, giving few dates, and suffering years to 
elapse between the minutes of sessional meetings. The gen- 
tlemen whose names appear at the organization of the church, 
and who for years were its main sources of support, removed 
to this district from Georgetown, where they were either 
members of the Episcopal Church, or of families belonging 
to that communion. For several years after settling here, 
they were members of the Concord Church, in the County of 
Sumter. In December 1822, Rev. Isaac R. Barbour, of Mas- 
sachusetts, came to Sumterville, and commenced preaching, 
being partly employed by the congregation and partly by 
the Young Men's Missionary Society of South Carolina. On 
the 29th of May, 1823, Harmony Presbytery met here. Rev. 
Thomas Alexan'der, Moderator, and org.mized the church, 
with five members — Jas. B. White, Henry Britton, Mrs. J. B. 
Morse and Mrs. I. R, Barbour, on certificate, and John Knox, 
son of Rev. William Knox, of Williamsburg, on profession 
of his faith. J. B. White and Henry Britton were ordained 
Ruling Elders. In the following November Mr. Knox was 
elected an elder. One of the earliest additions to the mem- 
bership was Mills, a slave. As an incident, showing the ad- 
vantages of the present over that generation, it is related that 
Mr. Barbour made the trip from his New England home to 
this place in an old-fashioned one-horse gig.* [MS. of A. W. 
White.] 

* We can record a similar instance- In the fall of 1812, the Rev. 
Francis Brown, D. D., the venerated President of Dartmouth Collesjfi, 



346 EEV. ISAAC R. BAKBOUR. [3820-1830. 

Isaac Richmond Barbour was originally from Vermont, was 
graduated at Middlebury College in 1819, spent two years at 
the Andover Seminary, was licensed by the Suffolk Associa- 
tion, was received as a licentiate by Harmony Presbytery at 
its meeting in Sumterville on the 29th of May, 1823, and on 
a petition from the Young Men',s Missionary Society, signed 
by Rev. Artemas Boies, he was ordained to the holy office of 
the gospel ministry as an Evangelist, Rev. Robert W. Jame.s 
preaching the sermon from 2 Tim. 3 : 5, Rev. John Cousar 
presiding and proposing the constitutional questions and 
giving the charge. The Presbytery then proceeded to consti- 
tute the church as above mentioned. 

The first meeting of the session was held at Concord Church 
in June 1823, when the first applicant was " recommended to 
delay her connection with the church, to give herself the 
opportunity further to examine the subject of infant baptism." 
She afterwards joined the Baptist Church. The first person 
admitted on examination was Miliy, a colored servant, in De- 
cember 1828. In the fall of this year it was 

Resolved, " That this church use the courthouse as a place 
of worship." 

This resolution, with the reasons for it, were communicated 
to the Baptist brethren, with an expression " of the gratitude 
of the church for the use of their house of worsliip and the 
assurance of our cordial Christian affection " — to which the 
Baptists replied, " that they would not have any religious 
meetings in the church on the Sundays the Presbyterians 
regularly preached at the courthouse, other than on our 
days." Responding to this feeling the Presbyterians retained 
their pews in the Baptist Church, and continued to worship 
there and at the courthouse alternately, holding their com- 
munion meetings in the church, until they built their own 
house of worship, about seven years afterwards. 

The sessional records have no entries for the years 1824 
and 1825 ; but from other sources it is gathered that Mr. 
Barbour, having lost, his wife, returned to the North in the 

having fallen into a state of great exhaustion from pulmonary disease, 
was driven in a similar way from Hanover, N. H., the seat of the college, 
by his wife, a woman of fine intellectual culture, adorning every station 
in which she was placed, to South Carolina and Georgia. He returned 
to Hanover in the month of June, disposing of his horse, a noble animal, 
to Dr. Wells, of Columbia. 



1820-1830.] REV. JOHN HAKItlNGTON. 347 

year 1824, after which the church was without a she|)herd for 
two years, during which time they retained tin-ir pews and 
worsliipped with the Baptists, and, in conjunction with them, 
opened the first Sabbatli -school in the village, and a prayei- 
meeting on the Saturday before the first Sabbath in each 
month. 

Mr. Barbour was appointed commissioner to the General 
Assembly on the and of April, 1824, and made his report by 
letter to Presbytery on November 13th, making application 
at the same time for a dismission from the Presbytery of Har- 
mony to the Presbytery of Londonderry. T'.ii.s request was 
granted, and he was "affectionately recommended as a brother 
in good and regular standing with this Presbytery." Mr. Bar- 
bour subsequently occupied several positions at the North, 
and died at Galesburg, HI., February, 1869, aged 75. 

In 1825, (A. W,). In the summer or fall ot 1826, (J. D. B.) 
Rev. John Harrington accepted the pastorate for half his time, 
giving the other half to Mt. Zion Church. At the beginning 
of his stewardship four members were added to the churcli, 
among them Capt. James Caldwell, the father of the late 
James M. Caldwell, so well known as one of the founders of 
Mt. Zion (Glebe Street) Church of Charleston, and up to his 
death one of its most active and efficient elders. Rev. J. 
Harrington continued as pastor till the summer of 1829, 
during which time twenty-seven persons were added to the 
membership. He served the people most earnestly and 
acceptably, and was greatly beloved. 

In May 1829, Rev. John McEwen accepted an invitation to 
preach for the Sumterville Church. (He had been licensed 
by the Presbytery at Beaver Creek, December 6, 1828.) 

Mount Zion Church, Sumter District. — Rev. Thomas 
Alexander continued to minister to this church in connection 
with Salem (B R.) until 1825, when his health failed, and he 
gave up both charges. 

The first elders were Messrs. John Fleming, Wm. Carter 
and Robert Wilson. After a few years Capt. Willian Ervin 
was added to these. In January 1826 Rev. John Harrington 
took charge as stated supply for half his time, and preached 
with great acceptance.. In August 1827 a roost gracious 
work of the Holy Spirit commenced, and at the communion 
in September of the same year sixty-seven members were 
added to the church on one Sabbath Mr. Harrington's 



348 MOUNT ZION, SUMTER — SALEM,(B. R.) [1820-1830, 

preaching was more apostolic than many had ever heard 
here. Probably no minister ever did as much for tiie glory 
of God, and the good of the churches in Harmony Presby- 
tery in the same space of time. It is still in the recollection 
of some of the now (1877) olde.s't members how low was the 
condition of the church in all the region of Black River, and 
how loose and careless, sometimes, were the lives even of 
many officers of the Church. This good work commencing 
here spread from church to church until all the churches on 
Black River were revived, and an entire change took place, 
and has so continued. 

After the additions in 1827 the church building became too 
small for the congregation, and it was decided by a large 
majority to build a more commodious house of worship about 
three miles down the same road so as to be more accessible 
to the larger body of worshippers. Unfortunately this gave 
offence to a few families in the upper portion of the congre- 
gation, who drew off and were formed by Presbytery into 
another church, called after the old Newhope Church. In fact 
it consisted of the original members of that church. This was 
soon, however, merged into the Bishopville Church. 

Salem, Blac Rivek. — Their former minister, Rev. Robert 
Anderson, obliged to travel for his health, occasionally visited 
his former flock. In 1820 on one of these visits he preached 
to them twice, although his state of health and bodily suffer- 
ings, if consulted, would not have admitted it. Again, in his 
continued travels for his continually increasing maladies, he, 
for the last time, visited them, but his lips as a public ambas- 
sador, were scaled, although on his, as it were, dying couch, 
when permitted by a most distressing cough, he ceased not 
to speak in behalf of his Heavenly Master, to the few that 
visited him. In the Spring of 1821 he left them, returned 
home and was happily released from all his mortal sufferings. 
The Rev. Thomas Alexander continued to minister to this 
church, in connection with Mount Zion, until the 23d of 
March, 1826. The Presbytery of Harmony held its sessions 
at the church at that time. Letters were received from the 
Rev. Thomas Alexander and the congregation of Salem and 
Mount Zion, expressing their mutual desire to have the pas- 
toral relation between them dissolved. The prayer of the 
petition was granted and the congregations were declared 
vacant. A call from Salem for the ministerial labors of Wil- 



1820-1830.] MIDAVAY AND BliUTXGTON. 3-J9 

liam J. Wilson, probationer, was received, read, presented lo 
him and accepted. On Sabbath morning Mr. Wilson was 
ordained in connection with Wm. Brearle)', whose ordination 
had been called for by Zion Church, Winnsboro'. John 
Harrington preached from i Tim. 4, 6. " Take heed unto 
thyself and unto the doctrine, continue in them, for in doing 
this thou shalt both save thyself and them that hear thee." 
The Rev. John Joice iiiade the ordination prayer and de- 
livered the charge from Ephes. 3, 8. "Unto me also, who are 
less than the least of all Saints, is'this grace given, that I 
should preach among the Gentiles the unsearchable riches of 
Christ." Mr. Wilson was installed pastor of the church of 
Salem B. R, after which the sacrament of ths Lord's Sup- 
per was administered. The ministry of this worthy young 
man of whom we have spoken before was a brief one. Ho 
died on the 23d of June, 1826. Application was made to 
Presbytery for a supply in November, and the Rev. John 
Bascom of the Cayuga Presbytery, being present, consented 
to serve the church for the following winter. The Rev. R. 
W. James had been released from the pastoral charge of the 
ciiurches of Bethel and Indian Town, and was installed in due 
form pastor of this church at an extra meeting of Presbytery 
on the i6th of July, 1828. 

The names of the Ruling Elders in 1825, were William 
Mills, John McFadden, George Cooper, William Wilson, 
William Bradley and John ShaW. 

The whole number of white communicants, 44; of black, 
45 Total, 89. 

Midway and Bruington. — The Rev. John Cousar who 
commenced his pastoral labors in the Midway Church early 
in 1809, continued to serve the churches in connection 

*In the cemeter.v of Salem Church is found the following inscription 
which marks the resting place of a young minister who came here 
early in the history of our country fr^m the North of Ireland. He was 
first buried near the former church edifice, but about forty years ago his 
ashes were removed to their present location. 

" Sacred to the memory of the Rev. James McClelland, a licentiate of 
the Presbyterian Church, who, in the providence of God was called to 
preach his last sermon in this place." 

A respect for the Christian Ministry and the ashes, of a stranger 
induced Salem congregation to erect this monument to his remem- 
brance. 

" The dead shall be raised incorruptible." 
1829. 



350 CHESTERFIELD COURTHOUSE. [1820-1830. 

through this period. Midway Churcli is represented to have 
been in a flourishing condition for many years. About the 
year 1827 some twenty members of this church went off and 
formed Harmony Church, under the pastoral care of Rev. 
John McEwen. 

Midway reported 86 communicants in 1826, 13 of whom 
were received within the preceding year, and 108 members in 

1828, 22 of whom were received within-the year; in 1829, 141 
members. 60 of whom had been received on examination. 
Bruington reported 52 members in 1826, and 61 in 1828, 12 
of whoni had been added the last year ; in 1 829, 1 14 members, 
40 of whom had been added on examination. 

Chesterfield Courthouse. — The following churches, 
Chesterfield, Pine Tree and Sandy Run, appear in the statis- 
tical tables in the Assembly's minutes to be connected some- 
times with the Presbytery of Harmony and sometimes with 
the Presbytery of Fayetteville. This was by a mutual agree- 
ment between the two Presbyteries. The church being an- 
swerable to the Presbyter/ of ics pastor. Chesterfield and 
Pine Tree, are reckoned to the Presbytery of Harmony 
in 1819, among its vacant churches, whereas Chesterville, 
Pine Tree and Sandy Run had been reckoned to Fayetteville 
in 1818, as they also are in 1820. PineTreeand Sandy Run 
was with the Presbytery of Fayetteville in 1822, as is also 
Hopewell in South Carolina. Pine Tree and Sandy Run are 
with Fayetteville in 1825. PineTreeis withFayetteville in 1828, 
John McFarland the supply. Soalsoin 1829. In i83oJohn Mc- 
Fariand, S. S.. of Pine Tree and Chesterfield, are assigned to 
Harmony, and Chesterfield Courthouse is his postofifice. In 
1 83 1 it is the same. The probability is that the churches in 
Chesterfield District and those in corresponding localities are 
very much one in race, and that it has often been easier to 
obtain an acceptable supply from the Presbytery of Fayette- 
ville than from the Presbytery of South Carolina. 

The Rev. John McFarland appeared before the Presbytery 
of Harmony at its meeting at Mount Zion Church in October, 

1829, and was received into this body by a dismission and 
recommendation from the Presbytery of Fayetteville. At 
the same meeting he sought the opinion and advice of Pres- 
bytery in a certain case of difificulty which had presented 
itself in his pastoral labors. The- postoffice address of Mr. 
Jno. McFarland was Chesterfield Courlhome, anJ this pro- 
bably was the central point of his labors. 



1820-1S30.] PINE TREE LITTLE PEE DEE 351 

Pine Tkee. — This church associated with Sandy Run, 
continued to report to- the Presbytery of Fayetteville from 
1814, as is shown by the preceding pages. Their united 
membership in 1826, 1827, is stated to be 100; in 1829, 125. 
They were under the pastoral care of the Rev. John B, 
McFarland as the successor of Rev. CoUn Mclver. Tradi- 
tion says this took place in 18 14, but probably it m.ay have 
been somewhat later. His name is not recorded as among 
the ministers of Fayetteville Presbytery in 18 14. In the 
roll in the minutes of 18 19, he is set down as the minister ot 
Chesterfield, Pine Tree and Sandy Run. Many of his hearers 
could only understand the Gaelic, which was still spoken in 
their families, and he was accustomed to preach in both lan- 
guages, the Gaelic and the English, when ministering among 
his people. He continued to serve the Pine Tree Church 
throufih this decade. 

Little Pee Dee — In the year 1821, Duncan Mclntire, 
Senr., came from Scotland to this community and having 
obtained a partial education in Scotland, pursued his studies 
in the country with a view to the sacred ministry. He was 
received under the care of the Fayetteville Presbytery, and 
was licensed about the year 1826. He preached in the com- 
munity, at the house of Mr Alexander Campbell, about two 
years, and organized the church, now bearing the name of 
Little Pee Dee, consisting of forty or fifty members and one 
elder, Malcom Carmichael, Sr. He preached for a year or 
more to this church, then removed to Moore Co. N. C, to 
take charge ot a small church to which he was invited. Mr. 
Mclntire was greatly esteemed, and his preaching was charac- 
terized by great fervour and point. He preached also in 
Gaelic for the benefit of -that part of the fllock who used only 
that language. Mr.- Mclntire and the: late Archibald 
McQueen were associated in the ministry over several 
churches at that time, and on Mr. Mclntire's departure he re- 
quested Mr. McQueen to supply this church as often as pos- 
sible. Mr. McQueen then preached to this church once a 
month, on a week day for about nine months. Thus this in- 
fant church was not cared for during this decade. 

Red Bluff .and Shakon Churches. — We have spoken of 
these on preceding pages. Rev. Malcom McNair.of Fay- 
etteville Presbytery, was officiating as pastor of Red Bluff, in 
connection with Center, Ashpole and Laurel Hill. He died 



352 DARLINGTON, [1820-1830. 

August 4, 1822, when tliese churches became vacant and 
continued so until August 2d, 1828, when Duncan Mclntire 
was installed as their pastor. He preached for them but a 
short time — the relation was dissolved December 25th, 1829; 
[MSS. of Rev. J. A. Cousar.] 

Darlington. — The Presbyterian Church of Darlington was 
organized by a Committee of Harmony Presbytery on the 
17th of November, 1827. The church, when constituted, 
consisted of eighteen members. Four Ruling Elders were 
elected, viz: Mr. Gavin Witherspoon, who had served in the 
capacity of elder in Aimwell Church, Marion District ; Messrs. 
Samuel Wilson, Murdock McLean and Daniel Dubose. 

The Rev. John Harrington was the first Presbyterian min- 
ister who occasionally preached in the courthouse at Dar- 
lington, and prepared the way tor the religious society which 
afterwards was formed into a church. 

Through his instrumentality a church edifice was erected 
seven miles east of the village of Darlington. This enterprise 
was subsequently abandoned, and tlie Presbyterian interests 
concentrated in the village where the church now stands — 
the only church at present (1853) of the Presbyterian denom- 
ination in the district. 

The present commodious building was erected by the libe- 
rality of the few Presbj'terians in the place, aided by members 
of the Methodist and Baptist churches, with sundiy other 
citizens. Subsequently, by the agency of Rev. R. W. Bailey, 
contributions were made in some of the churches of Black 
River for the full completion of the church edifice. 

The original members were principally from Hopewell 
Church, in Marion District, and were regarded as a colony or 
branch of that church; and for several years there existed 
much intercommunion between its members, some of whom 
contributed to the support of the ministry in Darlington. 
For many years the two churches were supplied by the same 
ministers. 

The names re:)resenting the principal families which com- 
posed the church are the following : Gavin Witherspoon, 
Samuel Wilson, Daniel DuBose, Murdock McLean, Abner 
Wilson, Robert Killin, John Jackson, Elizabeth Ervin, Jamc-s 
Ervin, John DuBose, Rebecca DuBose, Mary Law, Jane 
Alexander. 

The greater part of the original members were descendants 



1820-1830.] OIIERAW. 353 

of Scotch and Irish Presbyterians, and of the French Hugue- 
nots, who loved the church of their fathers in its purest forms 
of doctrine, discipline and government, 

The session held its first meeting on the igth of November, 
1827, w.hen Dr. McLean was chosen clerk of the session. 
Rev. N. R. Morgan, a member of Harmony Presbytery, was 
chosen their minister, to serve them as a stated supply, in 
connection with the Hopewell Church, which relation con- 
tinued until the close of the year 1832, when he removed to 
the State of Alabama. [MSS. of Rev. Wm. Bearley.] 

The Presbyterian Church in Cheraw. — In the year 18 19 
some enterprising individuals, mostly from the Northern 
States, Scotland and Ireland, were induced to settle at the 
head of navigation on Pee Dee River, with the view of build- 
ing a city. A company of some eight persons purchased the 
tract of land which is now the site of the Town of Cheraw. 

In 1823 or 1824 the new settlers, mostlj' young and un- 
married men, made a subscription of $600 and employed the 
Rev. N. R. Morgan, of North Carolina, a Pre.sbyterian, to 
become the clergyman of the new settlement. It is believed 
that not one of the persons who were engaged in this move- 
ment was a professor of religion. 

Mr. Morgan officiated at first in the old " King's Church" — 
St. David's — that trad been built by royal bounty in Colonial 
times. Among the old settlers there were a few Episcopalians 
on the east side of the river, in Marlborough District, and 
perhaps a scattered few in Chesterfield. 

As the prospects of the town brightened the Episcopalians 
claimed the church building as " heirs presumptive," and after 
some ineffectual struggles the Presbyterians withdrew, as did 
also the Baptists, who had for many years used the church as 
a preaching station. 

Mr. Morgan's adherents were called Presbyterians, a.nd went 
to considerable expense in repairing the old church edifice, 
which they found in a very dilapidated and ruinous condition. 

From their citizenship, and disbursements upon the church, 
they considered their title to the building paramount to all 
others, and were disposed t»o exclude traveling preachers, 
especially the Baptists, who regarded their prescriptive rights 
as better than the claims of the new comers. 

The contention at times resulted in scenes that were obnox- 
ious to the charge of indecorum, at least on the Sabbath day. 



854 REV. N. li. MORGAN— BOILING SPKINGS. [182CI-]8;ifl. 

On one Sabbath a, public appointmej)t was made for a Bap- 
tist preacher, without the consent or knowledge of Mr. Mor- 
gan, and when his friends were apprised of it, they determined 
to have a struggle for the pulpit. 

In the morning one of Morgan's men was stationed on an 
eminence at some distance from the church, by the camton of 
the town, with a lighted match in his hand ready to make a 
quick and loud report if the Morgan party were victorious. 
The hour for preaching found Morgan's men in possession of 
the avenues to the pulpit, and when they opened their column 
to let him pass up, the white handkerchief was waived — the 
concerted signal — and bang went the gun 1 

After the Presbyterians withdrew from Episcopal founda- 
tions and Baptist invasions, they had more peaceable times. 

Mr. Morgan then conducted his public religious service.s 
on Sabbath in the "upper room" of the Male Academy,, a 
spacious building that had been erected by the proprietors 
and citizens of the place. 

After Mr. Morgan's removal, say in 1826, the Rev. Urias 
Powers, a missionary from a Presbyterian Society in Charles- 
ton, succeeded him. Mr. Powers continued to officiate in the 
'' npper room " till the present church edifice of the Presby- 
terians was so far finished as to afford a shelter tohis little flock. 

Qn the iQth of March, 1828, he organized a Presbyterian 
Qiurch, consisting of twenty members, most of whom aie 
now (1853) dead, and the few survivors have emigrated, every 
one to the West and South, The loth day of April, 183,0; is 
the earliest date of Qur regular church records. [MSSi of J. 
C. Coit.] 

BoiUNG Springs (Barnwell District.) — It is the testimony- 
of Dr. Hagood, elder of the church at Barnwell C. H.„that: 
a Mr. Weeks preached in a church built by a Mrs. Stoine im 
Pr. Hagood's youth, befpre the church at Boiling Springs. 
was built. This last church was built in 1824. The other 
church was given by Mrg. Stone to the Baptists. But the 
religious condition of this community will be better under- 
stood from the following extract from a letter of the Rev. 
Samuel H. Hay to the author ; 

Camden, Septpmlier I7th, 1878. 
Mil dear Dr Howe : 

I received your letter yesterday evening, and hasten to give you 
whatever information I have with reference to the organization of the 
Presbyteriap Chuj-ch at Boiling Springs, apd thp tiuil^iflg of 3, JiPB.^e of 
worship at Barpwell C. If- 



1820-1830.] COLUMBIA. 355 

Boilins; S^.rings was a little village, consisting of a few families, which 
owed, whatever importance it had, to its healthfulness, and to its hav- 
ing been, for rjiany years, the seat of a flourishing academy. My father 
began its settlement by making it his place of abode about the year 
1820. I remember that" ministers from New England visited the place, 
from time to time, when I was a child, and were my father's guests, 
They preached in the academy. Ab'out 1827 or 1828, Mr. Samuel V. 
Mar.jhall a Kentuckiaii, a graduate of Princeton, a licentiate, laoourgd 
for some time at Boiling Springs. His preaching was blest and several 
were hopefully converted. Dr. Talmage ithen pastor of the church at 
Augusta, Ga , visited the place, received some into the church upon pro- 
fesson of faith and administered the sacrament of the Lord's supper, 
A comfortable house of worship was erected a short time after this, 
and was irregularly supplied by ministers from abroad. Kev. Edward 
Palmer, pastor of Stony Creek Church for several years, visited Boil- 
ing Springs and preached and administered the sacrament there. He 
received me as a member of the Presbyterian Church. This was done 
by a kind of evangelistic authority, as is the case when no organized 
church as yet exists. 



CHAPTER IV. 

Columbia. — The affairs of this church moved on with re- 
gularity till the beginning of this decade. The session being 
much reduced by the death of its members, it was r-esolved 
to nominate V, D. V. Jamieson, M. P., and Mr. William Law 
as candidates to fill the office of Rulin,g Elder. This nomin- 
ation made by the still existing s;ession, being confirmed by a 
vote of the members, they were solemnly set apart by ordina- 
tion on the 8th of July, 182a _Dr. Jamieson had been, elec- 
ted in 1804 to the legislature from Orange Parish. He was 
returned again in 1818, his cansent being first obtained, he 
was inducted into the eldership. He resided at one time in, 
the neighborhood of Orangeburg, again in St. Mathews Parish, 
but had been a member of th,e Presbyterian Church in Col- 
umbia since 1805. The term far which Dr. Henry was elec- 
ted was to expire on the 1st of Niwember, t82i. On the 
:28th January it was, unanimausly agreed to ren;ew the enr 
gagement for a second term, to begin with, the first of the next. 
November. 

About this period the plan began ta be formed 0/ builHing 
a parsonage. The lot immediately in front of the church was. 
secured at a cost of ;^;i,ooo> contracts were entered into for 
erecting a suiita-ble building of brick upon it, the whole cost 
of the building and lot was considerably over ;^8,OOOi andi 
after all th^tc.ojuldi he ra,ised by subscription, an incuhu.s, of 



35<) COLUMBIA. [] 820-1830 

debt was left resting upon the congregation which was a vex- 
atious trouble for a considerable time. 

As Mr. Henry's second term of service drew near its close, 
a meeting of the members and pewholders was called to enter 
into an election of a pastor. This meeting was moderated by 
the Rev. Robert Means. Mr. Henry was renominated for a 
third triennial period and was elected by a majority of twenty- 
eight votes. His salary was reduced to ^1,500 with the use 
of the parsonage. Mr. Henry saw fit for various reasons to 
decline the call, and accordingly sent his letter of resigna- 
tion to a meeting of the congregation held on the 9th of De- 
cember, 1823, which resignation was accepted by the con- 
gregation, In connection with this resignation, Mr. Law re- 
signed the office which he held as Ruling Elder, and with- 
drew from active duties until invited to resume them in the 
year 1831. On the i6th of December, 1823 the Rev Robt. 
Means was chosen as a temporary supply for the pulpit. 

Thus terminated the connection of Dr. Henry with this 
church, which had continued (or a period of five years and 
two months. Notwithstanding some notes of opposition in the 
latter part of his stay which resulted in his separation from 
the church, it cannot be questioned that his labours were 
much b]essed, and the church much enlarged through his in- 
strumentality. Seventy members had been admitted during 
the period of his ministry for the larger number of whom 
were received upon profession of their faith. 

On the 5th of January, '1824, Mr. Means consented to 
serve as a temporary supply, and on the 3d of March, was 
elected pastor for the term of three years. The following 
persons, Thomas Wells, M. D., James Young, and Robert 
Mills, were elected and ordained as elders, and took their 
seats in session for the first time on the I2lh of June, 1824. 

The debt incurred in building the parsonage had never 
been liquidated. It was sold to the Rev. Mr. Means and has 
passed as private property into other hands. 

The division of the burial ground into lots and the sale of 
them was the occasion of animosities not soon' allayed, but it 
has prevailed, except to those unable to pay, till the present 
day. It gave rise to a suit in law against the church, which 
by the decision of C. J. Colcock, judge, was decided in its 
favor. 

On the third of June, 1825, letters of dismission were given 



18.'M-1830.] BETHESDA, CAMDEN. 357 

by the Session to Zebulon Rudolph, one of the Ruling El- 
ders, to connect himself with the Baptist Church. The term 
for which Mr. Means was elected expiring in March, 1827, a 
meeting was held of the members and pew holders on the 
29th of May, 1826, in anticipation of it. By the nomination 
of the Session, Mr. Means was duly re-elected for a second 
term. The salary was fixed at ^1,500 with what the pew 
rents should yield beyond, provided it should not exceed 
jS2,ooo. This call Mr. Means saw fit to decline. The Session 
were instructed to obtain temporary supplies, and the Rev. 
John Rennie was invited by them and took charge in this 
capacity on the first Sabbath in June, 1827. Mr. Rennie was 
elected pastor on the 2Sth of October following, at a salary 
of $1,500. 

On the 8th of November, 1828, a deed of gift of a lot of 
land was executed by Col. Abraham Blanding, for the pur- 
pose of erecting a Lecture and Sabbath School Room. A 
brick building forty feet by twenty-three feet and one story 
in height was erected thereon at a cost of ;^8oo, which was 
completed and occupied in the early part of 1829. 

At the annual meeting on May 11, 1829, the Sabbath 
school was taken under the care of. the Corporation and a 
committee of five was appointed to direct it and to report 
annually.* 

Bethesda Church (Camden.) — This church had been for 
some time vacant. At a meeting held on the 20th of Janu- 
ary, 1820, it was resolved to employ the Rev. Austin Dickin- 
son, who was born in Massachusetts, a graduate of Dartmouth 
College in 181 3, who was educated partly at Princeton in 
1818, and at Andover, to supply the pulpit for the winter. 
He labored with great acceptance to the congregation, and 
his services were followed by the divine blessing. He after- 
wards established himself in New York where he conducted, 
as its editor, the National Preacher. In 1831 he visited 
England, chiefly for the recovery of his health, and as the 
companion of Rev. Mr. Nettleson, and preached nearly every 
Sabbath. His last enterprise was an endeavor to enlist the 

secular press in communicating religious intelligence and 
» 

*The Female's Auxiliary Missionary Society of this church contribu- 
ted to the Synodical Missionary Society in 1829, $100. The whole con- 
tributions of the church to that Society during this year was $615.59. 
Third Annual Report of said Society, January, 1823., 



358 BETHES]>A, CAMDEN. [1820-1830, 

exerting its influence in favor of truth, virtue and true happi- 
ness. He was not ordained until 1826. He therefore was 
but a licentiate when he preached in Camden. In the midst 
of his efforts, through the secular press, which attracted at- 
tention by the direct, graphic and impressive style in which he 
clothed his thoughts, he was smitten by death on the 14th 
of August, 1849, in the 59th year of his age. He was ear- 
nestly entreated to settle in Camden, but ill health prevented 
any stated service in the ministry. His " life was one long 
disease." 

During the spring of 1820, the church \yas visited by Rev. 
John Joyce, who entered into a temporary engagement to 
supply the pulpit. 

After some months the congregation increased so rapidly 
that it was deemed necessary to build a larger church in a 
more central situation. On the 20th of July, 1820, Messrs, 
William Ancrum, Jas. K. Douglas and Alex. Young were 
elected a building committee. At a meeting held on the 
1 2th of February, 1821, the Rev. John Joyce was unanimously 
invited to take the pastoral charge of this congregation for 
three years, at a salary of ^I200. Mr. Joyce accepted the in- 
vitation on' condition that he should be allowed to travel dur- 
ing the months of July,' August and September. 

At a meeting held on the 15th of December, 1822, Mr. 
Joyce resigned his cliarge, in accepting which resignation 
the church tendered to him their thanks for the able, elo- 
quent and faithful discharge of his pastoral duties while resi- 
dent witli them. 

About this time the church 'was finished and a neat edifice 
it was, costing |1 14,000. All the arrangements were made to 
meet the peculiar views of Mr. Joyce, and great was the dis- 
appointment when he changed his purposes and did not re- 
turn to occupy the building expressly erected to suit his 
notions. His remark that a handsome church in any town, 
village or city, gives character to its citizens, however true it 
may be, did not seem enough to justify him in withdrawing 
his services and leave the unoccupied edifice to speak for 
itself 

In the month of October, 1822, thechurchvas dedicated ta. 
the service and worship of Almighty God, by the Rev. Wil- 
liam D. Snodgrass and the Rev. S. S. Davis. Mr. Davis con - 
tinued to preach for some months, and on the I2th of January, 



1820-1830.] BETHBSDA, CAMDEN. SoD 

1823, he was invited to take the pastoral charge of the con- 
gregation for one year, and on the 23d of September, if^23, 
he tendered his resignation, to take effect on the 1st of Janu- 
ary, 1824. 

On the 22d of June, 1823, Wiih'am Ancrum was duly elect- 
ed a Ruling Elder of this church. After other unavailing 
efforts had been made, the services of the Rev. R. B. McLeod, 
of New York, were obtained for one year, beginning with Feb- 
ruary, 1824. On the 29th of March, 1825, Rev. John Joyce was 
again invited. He entered on his labors on the 24th of April in 
that year, and remained until January 1827. The Rev. Sam'l 
S. Davis was again elected as pastor on the 4th of February 
in the same year, but, on account of previous engagements, 
was not able to accept at that time. During the interval the 
pulpit was supplied by the Rev. Reynolds Bascom, who had 
charge of the female school in Camden. On the 4th of No- 
vember, 1827, '^hs Rev. S. S. Davis was again unanimously 
elected, and at the same time Daniel L. DeSaussure, William 
Vernon and Dr. Geo. Reynolds were duly elected as Ruling 
Elders to occupy the places of Mr. Murray, removed, and Dr» 
Alexander and Wm. Lang, Esq , deceased. 

The Rev. S. S. Davis accepted the call to the pastoral 
charge of the church, entered upon his duties in the month 
of January 1828, and continued in discharge of them accepta- 
bly to the church and the community at large. 

In all this history which we have now rehearsed we do not 
see the usages and order of the Presbyterian Church. The 
ministers in all these instances were hut temporary supplies. 
They were invited by the people, accepted the invitation or 
declined it, entered upon their charge or resigned that charge, 
without any intervention of Presbytery, on the principle of 
independency, as if there were no Presbytery to which con- 
gregation, minister, and session were in subjection, and with- 
out whose intervention no pastoral relation can be ecclesias- 
tically constituted or terminated. A principle vital to true 
ecclesiastical government, and contained in that form of gov- 
ernment which the Westminster standards, and indeed those 
of all true Presbyterian Churches of other countries, set forth; 

The largest membership in this church according to the 
statistical tables found in the General Assembly's minutes, 
during this decade, was sixty-one, in the years 1824-1825 ; 
the smallest forty^ m the year 1828. The average member- 
ship was a fraction under fifty. 



360 ZION, WINNSBOEO. [1820-1830. 

ZiON Church (VVinnsboro'.) — In the excitement and inter- 
ruption occasioned by the psalmody question, Mr. Ross 
thought it his duty to relinquish his charge of the congre- 
gation. The relation was dissolved in the fall of 1822. The 
churcli was destitute of the regular means of grace until sup- 
plied by the Missionary Society of the Synod of South Caro- 
lina and Georgia, which authorized \he Rev. John McKinney, 
a licentiate of Carlisle Presbytery, Pennsylvania, to minister 
to them. This was in November 1824. After having served 
them the short term of nine months he returned to the North. 
The congregation was again vacant. Application was then 
made to the Princeton Seminary for a supply. In compliance 
with this request, the Rev. William Brearly came, and began 
to preach December i, 182.5. At that time the church num- 
beied fifty members, with two elders. In April 1826 Rev. 
William Brearly was unanimously elected pastor. The two 
eiders were Col. Wm. McCreight and Wm. Robinson. On 
the 23d of March, 1826, a called meeting of the Presbytery 
of Harmony was held at Salem Church, Black River, which, 
by request of the Moderator, Rev. John Joyce, was opened 
by Mr. Brearly by a sermon from John 16 : 9 At this meet- 
ing he was received from the care of the Presbytery of New 
Brunswick, N. J., as a probationer under the care of Presby- 
tery. '' A petition was presented in behalf of the churches 
of Zion, Salem, L. R., and Aimwell, praying Presbytery to 
ordain Mr. William Brearly as a supply among them." 'After 
taking into serious consideration the destitute situation of the 
above churches for several years past, and their declining 
state for want of the regular administration of the ordinances 
of the gospel, it was resolved that the prayer of the petition 
be granted, and that Presbytery proceed to the examination 
of Mr. Brearly with a view to his ordination. Ordered that 
Mr. Brearly deliver a sermon from Matthew 6 • 10, to-morrow 
afternoon." [Minutes of Harmony Presbytery, Vol. I, p. 427.] 
A call from the congregation of Salem, L. R., for the rtiinis- 
terial labors of William J. Wilson was presented to Presby- 
tery at the same meeting. The candidates were examined 
together and were ordained on Sabbath morning, March 26, 
1826. 

On the 2nd of November, 1828, James McCreight was 
elected an elder of Zion Church. It is worthy of mention 
also that Rev. John McKinney, Missionary »f the Synodical 



1820-1830 ] SAI.EM (L. H.) — LEBANON AND MT. OLIVET. 361 

Missionary Spciety, had filled appointments at Winnsboro', 
Salem, L. R., and Aimwell. Mr. William J. Wilson had be- 
stowed all hfs appointments, six in number, upon Catholic, 
Horeb, and Beckhamsville. [Minutes, pp. 425, 426.] 

The statistical tables of the General Assembly indicate fifty- 
nine as the largest number of communicants in Zion (Winns- 
boro') Church during this decade, and fifty- four as the average. 

Salem (Little River) shared with Zion Church in the 
labors of Rev. Mr. Ross till 1822, and afterwards in those of 
Rev. Mr. Brearly till 1829, when Robert Means became its 
stated supply. It is noted in the Assembly's Minutes as 
vacant in 1826, 1827, and as having thirty members. Its 
membership in 1829 was thirty-three. 

Aimwell Church, on Cedar Creek. — About 1822, Mr. 
Ross removed to Pendleton. This Church remained desti- 
tute for some considerable time, after which it was supplied 
Dy Rev. Mr. McKinney for nearly a year, who was immedi- 
ately succeded by Rev. Mr. Brearley, who began preaching 
towards the close of December, 1825, or early in 1826, and 
gave to the church one-fourth of his time. Its membership 
was thirty-three in 1829. 

Horeb or Mt. HoREB.^On Crooked River, Fairfield. 
From a memorandum found in the hands of one of the elders 
we learn that there was an election of elders on the 20th of 
September, 1820, that John Elliott and John Brown were 
ordained, and that John Hamilton, who was also elected had 
been before ordained in another branch of the church. The 
last record of baptism.-; by Dr. Montgomery was on the 13th 
of August, 1820. The Rev. Wm. Wilson, a Missionary of 
Harmony Presbytery, began to preach as a supply in the 
summer of 1825, and Rev. John McKinney also. During 
the year 1826, the Rev. Mr. Brearley commenced preaching 
once a month. On the 27th of September, 1828, John Elliott 
was the only elder; James Brown had removed to the West. 
John Turnipseed was ordained to this office ; about this time 
the members in full communion were about twenty. In the 
statistic tables appended to the assembly's minutes, the largest 
membership is thirty. 

Lebanon and Mt. Olivet, continued under the same pas- 
torate, that, namely, of the Rev. Samuel W. Yongue, until 
1828. In 1829, they are represented in the Assembly's 
tables as vacant, and no longer associated as one pastoral 



362 CONCORD CHUKCH. [1820-1830. 

charge. Their statistics are not given. On the I2th of 
April, 1829, tiie Presbytery of Harmonv met at Mt. Olivet 
church, and the next day ordained Mr. Charles LeRoy Boyd 
(who had been preaching to Jthree churches since his hcen- 
ture on the l6th of July, 1828. by the order of Presbytery, 
and at the request of the churches), as pastor of the united 
churches of Lebanon, (Jacksons Creek) and IVft. Olivet. 

Rouse's version of the Psalms was used in the worship of 
God. Infants were baptised when offered by their parents, 
whether their parents were in full communion or not. But 
little is known of the internal aifairs of the church for the 
first forty years of its existence. The traditional account is 
that it had heretofore experienced no extensive revivals of re- 
ligion, a few members were occasionally added ; the plan of 
instruction on the sabbath was the simple preaching of the 
gospel. There was occasional examination of the young at 
private houses, with but little pastoral visitation ; there were 
no meetings for social prayer, except what was implied in the 
usual public worship, either at the church or at private houses. 
When Mr. Younge commenced his pa.storal labours he or- 
dained Messrs. John Turner, David Weir, Joseph Wiley, 
John Dickey and John Harvey as Ruling Elders. The 
number of communicants at this time was about seventy-five. 
David Weir was succeded by his son of the same name. 
Joseph Wiley by Walter Aiken, John Dickey by James Mc- 
Crorey. After the removal of John Harvey from the bounds 
of the congregation, Messrs. James Harvey and Samuel Gam- 
ble were elected Ruling Elders. Mr. Yongue ministered to 
this congregation from 1795 to 1829, a period of some thirty- 
four years. He died on the 8th of November, 1830. 

Concord Church. — (Fairfield.) This church enjoyed the 
pastoral labour of Rev. Robert McCollough in connection 
with the Horeb Church for one-half his time until his death 
which occured on the 7th of August, 1824, in th the sixty- 
fifth year of his age. His remains are interred in the burial 
ground of Catholic Church, Chester District. During his 
connection with the church, there were added to the elder- 
ship, Samuel Penney, James Douglas, Samuel Banks, Hugh 
Thompson, and Samuel McCollough. In 1825, Concord in 
connection tvith Purity Church, preferred a call to Rev. Jas. B. 
Stafford, a licentiate of the Presbytery -of Hanover in Virginia, 
but a native of North Carolina. Upon his acceptance of their 



] 820-1830.] BEAVER CREEK. 363 

call, the way for which had been thus prepared he was 
ordained and installed pastor of Concord and Purity Churches. 
In June 7th, 1825, soon after his connection with the church, 
a division occured in consequence of his introducing and sub- 
stituting Watt's Psalms and Hymns, in the place of Rouse's 
version of David's Psalms. This division diminished its 
members and weakened its strength for some time.* 

Beaver Creek. — The name of the Rev. Geo. McWhorter 
who was the pastor of the churches of Beaver Creek and Con- 
cord, appears no more on the records of Harmony Presbytery 
after April 19, 1822. He was dismissed to the Presbytery of 
Georgia. The congregation of Beaver Creek preferred a call 
for the ministerial labors of Rev. Horace Belknap, which call 
being presented to him, he accepted. A committee was ap- 
pointed to install him, but the committee failed to perform 
their office, of which failure the congregation complained. A 
letter of apology Wris addressed by the Presbytery to the con- 
gregation. Mr. Belknap seems, however, never to have oc- 
cupied their pulpit as pastor, for supplies were appointed for 
it while he should be absentas acommissioner to the General 
Assembly, which, however, he failed to attend, and offered 
no reason therefor which satisfied the Presbytery. His instal- 
ment never occurred, but in No\^ember, 1823, he obtained 
from Presbytery letters Commendatory with the view of trav- 
eling beyond their bounds.* Durmg the Session of the 
Presbytery at Columbia in November, 1826, the Rev. Robt. B. 
Campbell was received as a licentiate from the Presbytery of 

* We find this record in the proceedings of Harmony Presbytery 
March 31, 182-5 : " A letter from a special commiUee of the con- 
gregation of Concord praying to be transferred to the Presbytery of 
Bethel, was received and read. Whereupon, after due consideration, 
it was 

Resolved, That the prayer of the petitioners be granted, and that the 
congregation of Concord, be transferred to the Presbytery of Bethel, so 
far as to present a call to Mr. Stafford, a member of that Presbytery, for 
a part of his ministerial labors, and to make their report to said Pres- 
bytery and to be under their care, so long as they may continue to en- 
joy the labors of Mr. Stafford as their pastor, or he continue to be a 
member of said Presbytery." Minutes, vol. 1, p. 420. 

*Presbytery afterwards became exceedingly dissatisfied with him for 
his neglect of ministerial and religious duties, and sought to reach him 
with their fraternal counsels and reproofs in his distant wanderings in 
the West. He is said to have abandoned the clerical profession and to 
have assumed that of medicine. 



364 CATHOLIC CHUfiCH. [1820-1830. 

South Carolina. He was ordained at Winnsboro' on the 19th 
of December, 1826, was .sent, as others also were, as a supply 
to Beaver Creek, and Mr. Campbell, from December, 1828, 
for half his time. The forty-first regular session of the Pres- 
bytery of Harmony was held at Beaver Creek, beginning the 
5th of December, 1828. 

We have recorded, in the earlier portion of the history of 
this decade, the creation of the Presbytery of Bethel, of the 
restoration of the churches which, for a season had been con- 
nected with the Presbytery of Concord and the Synod of 
North Carolina, of subsequently making the line between 
North and South Carolina the Northern boundary of the 
Presbytery, of adding to it the districts of Lancaster and 
Union, and the Catholic congregation in Chester, and we now 
proceed to give some account of the several churches which 
were included in the Presbytery of Bethel after these changes 
were effected. 

Catholic Church. — This church is fourteen or fifteen 
miles from Chester Courthouse, in the direction of Rocky 
Mount, and between Rocky Creek and Little Rocky Creek. 
The Rev. Robt. McCulloch continued to preach to this people 
until his death, on the 7th of August, 1824, in the 65th year 
of his age. Of his general character we have spoken in the 
first volume of this history, pp. 508, 600, 601, 602. He was 
for a short time suspended from the ministry, viz, in the year 
1800, but by a petition from the church he was restored to 
his office, and enjoyed, in a remarkable degree, their confi- 
dence. He had nine children — six daughters and three sons. 
One of these was graduated at South Carolina College in 
r83i,,bcame a lawyer, and removed to the Northwest. After 
Mr. McCulloch's death, the church was for sometime without 
a pastor. It was visited by the Rev. Reynold Bascom, who 
was a native of Massachusetts, a graduate of William's Col- 
'lege in i8r 3, and afterwards tutor. He received his educa- 
tion at the Theological Seminary at Andover, and was a 
missionary employed by the Missionary Society of the Synod 
of South Carolina and Georgia. They were next visited by 
Rev. Wm. J. Wilson, a native of Salem, Black River, who, on 
his being licensed on the 1st of April, 1825, by the Presbytery 
of Harmony, was directed to visit various destitutions. 
Mr. Wilson labored here for a few Sabbaths with great 
acceptance. He was a young man, of anient, humble piety, 



1820-1830.] ELIEZER BRAINAED. 86& 

but of a delicate constitution. He .soon returned to the place 
of his nativity, was ordained and settled in the ministry, but 
soon after died. He was succeeded in the year 1826 by the 
Rev. Eliezer Brainard, a native of Connecticut, a graduate of 
Yale in i8i8,'and of Andover in 1822. He was sent as a 
missionary, and for this service he was well qualified. . He 
preached at this church and Bethlehem alternately. He 
taught the negroes by oral instruction in the intervals of 
worship, and organized a large Bible Class among the whites. 
He held communion twice in the year in both churches. All 
denominations attended his worship, and would gladly have 
retained him; but he was under the direction of the Society 
that sent him. He eventually removed to Ohio, where he 
died in 1854, aged 61. This year, George Brown, Robert 
Dunn, James Harbison (son of the former elder of that name), 
were ordained to the eldership. He was succeeded as a mis- 
sionary by the Rev. John LeRoy Davies, a native of Chester 
District, who received ordination as an evangelist on the /tli 
of June, 1827. In due time he received a regular call as the 
pastor of this churph, and was installed as such on the 3d of 
October, 1827. He was a graduate of the University of 
North Carolina, and, also, of the Princeton Tiieological 
Seminary. The Entire bench of elders at this time consisted 
of James Harbison, John Brown, John Bailey, John Brown, Jr., 
James Ferguson, George Brown and Robert Dunn. 

Hopewell Church, originally a part of Catholic, is set 
down in the statistical tables as vacant in 1825 ; in 1826, 
1827, 1828 as having a stated supply, with ten members; 
and in 1829 as vacant, with twelve members. 

Purity. — This church had been destitute of the care and 
labors of a pastor for some two years, and had received only 
occasional supplies. In the fall of 1821 they were visited by 
James Biggers Stafford, a licentiate of the Presbytery of 
Hanover, Va. They entered into arrangements with him to 
supply them, which he did for two years, in connection with 
a congregation near Beckhamville, in the southeastern part of 
the district, some twenty-four miles from the Courthouse, 
where, also, Wm. J. Wilson, in his missionary tour, had 
visited and preached. In the fall of 1823 this church, in con- 
nection with Concord, united in a call to the Presbytery of 
Concord, N. C, at that time holding jurisdiction over these 
churches, for the pastoral services of Mr. Stafford. Presby- 



366 BECKHAMVILLE — FISHING CREEK. [1820-1830. 

tery met at Purity Church on the 7th of June, 1824, when 
Mr. Stafford was ordained and installed the joint pastor of 
these churches. He was soon after united in marriage with 
the daughter of Robert Hanna, an elder in Bethesda Church, 
York District, and became thus identified with our people. 
He was bom in Rocky River congregation, in North Caro- 
lina. He entered Hampden Sidney College, Va., in i8i2, was 
converted there in the revival of 1814, studied theology under 
the direction of Mr. Kilpatrick, and was licensed as a proba- 
tioner, in 1 818 or 1819, by the Presbytery of Hanover. The 
church enjoyed great harmony and moved on prosperously 
through the remainder of thiaperiod. 

On the 1st of June, 1822, Robert Walker, one of the ruling 
elders, departed this life, at the age of 76. In the year 1828, 
James McClintock and Abraham White were ordained as 
elders in this church and congregation. (History of Purity 
Church, by Rev. John' Douglas, 1865 ; J. B. Davies' History 
of Bethel Presbytery, November, 1837.) In 1825, Purity 
Church had sixty-nine communicants, of whom ten were 
received that year. In 1828 the united membership of Purity 
and Concord was 120. 

Beckhamvillk. — This is a postofifice village in the south- 
eastern portion of Chester District, a station often visited by 
our missionaries and neighboring ministers, but we do not 
learn that it was the seat of an organized Presbyterian 
Church. 

Fishing Creek. — This church still enjoyed the faithful 
labors of the Rev. John B. Davies. In the even tenor of his 
days (here are naturally but a few incidents which the pen of 
history can record. He was active and diligent in his work. 
He was blameless in his life, and enjoyed largely the con- 
fidence of his people. The eldership of this church embraced 
the names of Hugh Gaston, Charles Boyd, Samuel Lewis, 
James E. McFadden, John Boyd, Wm. Bradford, Edward 
Crawford, Dr. Alexander Rosborough, and John Neely. Jn 
June, 1827, the eldership were Charles Boyd, Samuel Lewis, 
John Boyd, John Neely, Edward Crawford, William String- 
fellow, Robt. Miller, Alexander Gaston, John H. Gill. Three 
of the former names have disappeared, and three new names 
occupy their places. Fishing Creek and Richardson together 
in 1825 had 202 communicants. The membership of Fishing 
Creek in 1820 was 162; in 1822 it was 170; in 1830, 135. 



1820-1830.] RICHARDSON — BULLOCK'S CREEK. 367 

During the ten year.s from 1820 to 1830, 67 members had 
been added to tlie church on examination, and 12 by cer- 
tificate. 

RiCHARDSQN, or LowER FiSHiNG Creek, embracing in the 
circuit of its congregation the northeast corner of Chester 
District, still remained a part of Mr. Davies' charge. Its 
elders, in 1820, were Alexander Crawford, Isaac McFadden, 
Jr.. and Robt. White. Its membership in 1828 was thirty-three. 

Bullock's Creek. — Rev. Aaron Williams.-whohad become 
pastor of this church in 1819, continued to serve it in this 
capacity through the remainder of the period of which we 
now write. He continued also to minister to the Salem 
Church, on the other side of Broad River, in York District, 
which .had been so long associated with Bullock's Creek. 
These two churches combined under one pastorate, reported, 
in 1825, 170 communicants, eleven of whom were received 
within the twelve months; in 1826, 173, seven of whom were 
newly received; in 1828, 180, nineteen of whom had been 
received during the year preceding. 

Bethesda (York). — In 1820 its present house of worship 
was erected at a cost of $5,000. This was the third in "order 
of their places of assemblage (see Vol. I, p. 515). The 
original tract of land on which the church stands was donated 
by John Fouderon, who lived east of the church 200 yards. 
To these seven acres have been added five bought of Richard 
Straight, five bought of John Swann, five donated by Dr. J. 
R. Bratton, and five donated by John M. Lindsay; total, 
twenty-seven acres. John Swann, Sr., father of tiie above- 
named, was architect of the first building on the present site. 
Abner Straight and Nathan Moore were contractors for the 
building constructed in 1820, whilst Dr. John S. Bratton, 
Robt. Cooper, Jno. Starr, Samuel Ramsey and Samuel Moore 
were Congregational Committee on Building. The primeval 
forests on every side, two excellent springs near at hand, a 
large cemetery enclosed with iron railing and densely popu- 
lated with the dead ; a dozen or mor tents for the annual 
encampment, as practiced for sixty years, and a large, neat 
and substantial arbor, having capacities for two thousand 
persons, all combined to declare that Bethesda Church was 
happily locaied for its purposes, has many and unusual 
facilities for accommodating its worshippers, and that around 
it must hang precious and sacred memories and associations." 



368 BETHESDA (YOEK). [1820-1830. 

The Rev. Robert. B. Walker was then pastor during this 
decade. He had passed the meridian of his days, but he was 
in the full vigour of all his faculties, the beloved and revered 
pastor of this large and growing church. 

" Of the elders of this church the following were appointed 
during the period of which we write. John M. Lindsay was 
a man of great energy of character, and an earnest minded 
Christian, and so a very prominent and efficient elder, to 
which office he was admitted in 1824, the same year in which 
he professed religion. Having spent his hfe of fiftj'-seven years 
within a few miles of his birth place, he entered into his hea- 
venly rest December 4th, 1847. One of his sons was a dea- 
con in the church. 

" Samuel McNeel served only four years in the eldership, 
being elected-in 1824, and being released by death, April 4th 
1828, at the age of fifty-two, 

•' James S. Williamson, son of a former elder, was enrolled 
among the eldership in 1826; with much earnestness did he 
discharge the duties of his station until his removal to Panola 
Co., Miss, in 1846." 

" William Wallace was appointed to this office in 1826, 
but removed to Mississippi about 1830. He was a firm and 
zealous Christian, and is remembered for his official fidelity." 

This chureh and community has throughout its history 
shown gi-eat steadfastness in its adherence to the gospel. 
Allusion has been made to this on a preceding page. " The 
advent of John L. Davis, a disguised follower of Barton W. 
Stone, who came about 1818 and remained until 1825, made 
no permanent impression ; although he made many laborious 
and insidious efforts to instil his tenets, which were only ex- 
ploded errors of Socinianism, into tho minds of the people, he 
gained none to become his followers. They had been too ,well 
indoctrinated and had too much affection for the pure gospel 
of the son of God, to be seduced to deny the ' Divinity of 
Christ,' his 'vicarious atonement,' the personality of the Holy 
Spirit and ' original sin.' The impressions he made on the 
minds of the people vanished with his own disgraceful flight 
from the community from which he was driven by popular 
indignation against his corrupt character and vicious habits 
which time and circumstances had unmasked and exposed. 

Of the ministers of the gospel who entered in their office 
during this decade we may mention the " Rev. Lossing Clin- 



1820-1830.] EBENEZER — BEEESHEBA. 369 

ton, son of William Clinton, who completed his course at 
South Carolina College in 1821. In the outset of liis. minis- 
try he went to Georgia where he laboured and died. He has 
two brothers who are prominent lawyers, but from them the 
writer (Rev, John L, Harris) could elicit no Information. 
His ministry was short but we have reason to believe very 
affective. MS. history of Bethesda church by Rev. John 
L. Harris prepared by order of the Synod of South Carolina. 

Bethesda had in 1825, one hundred and ninety-three com- 
municants of whom 12 had been received on examination in 
the last year. In 1826 one hundred and ninety-eight commu- 
nicants, nine of whom had been received in the last year. In 
1829, one hundred and ninety-four communicants, thirteen of 
of whom had been received during the year. 

Ebenezer Church and Unity were united under the 
pastoral care of Rev. Josiah Harris, at the organization of 
Bethel Presbytery in 1824. The average membership of 
these two churches during this decade was ninety-seven 
communicants, and the average addition of new members was 
from four to five. "In September, 1827, the church peti- 
tioned Presbytery for a release from the pastoral charge of 
their minister, he consenting, the relation was dissolved. He 
withdrew from the Presbyterian Church probably with a view 
to a connection with the Associate Reformed Presbytery. 
" I have no knowledge of his character as a preacher, but as a 
teacher I have heard him spoken of in terms of commenda- 
tion. (Rev. James H. Saj^e's semi-centennial sermon.) One 
third of the time of Rev. S. L,- Watson was devoted to 
this church in 1828. Rev. John Douglas' history of Steel 
Creek. 

Beersheba. — The Rev. J. S. Adams was the stated supply 
to this church in connection with Bethel, until about 1823, 
duiin<.' which year Rev. Samuel Williamson was its supply. 
The ruling elders at this time were Wm. Brown, Sr., Jas. 
Dickey, Jas. Wallace, Wm. Caldwell, Robt. Allison and John 
S. Moore. The first session of the Presbyteay of Bethel was 
held at this church on the 5th of November, 1824. Cyrus 
Johnston had accepted a call from this church and Yorkville 
while yet they were under the Presbytery of Concord. The 
Presbytery of Bethel adjourned therefore to meet at six 
o'clock on the evening of the same day at Yorkville, where 
Mr. Johnstou passed the usual trials for ordination and was 
24 



370 YOEKVILLE BETHEL (YORK). [1S20-1830. 

ordained and installed at Beersheba Church as pastor of the 
congregation of Beersheba and Yorkville on the 6th of 
November, 1824. 

Yorkville. — Cyrus Johnston, pastor of these churches, 
now united under One pastoral charge, was brought up in the 
Poplar Tent congregation, Cabarras County, N. C, was edu- 
cated at Hampden, Sydney College, and was licensed by 
Concord Presbytery. This connection continued till near the 
close of this period. The churches under his charge in- 
creased in numbers from 87 communicants in 1825, to 145 in 
1829, the largest increase being in 1828, when 23 were added 
to the church. 

Shiloh. — How long the depressed condition of this church 
continued we cannot say. But in the year 1826, the Rev. 
Mr. Payson, a Missionary, spent some months in the bounds 
of Shiloh which was not left entirely unblessed of the Lord. 
He was instrumental in organizing a Sabbath school which 
has been the means of doing much good. In the year 1827, 
Rev. G. Johnson labored in the congregation three months, 
whose labors were owned and blessed. During this year 
they erected a new house of worship, the remaining commu- 
nicants scattered through the bounds of the congregation 
were gathered together, the Lord's supper was administered 
and between twenty-five and thirty members were received 
for the first time into the communion of the church. Elders 
were elected and ordained, the church re-organized and 'in 
1828 enjoyed a stated supply from R-. C. Johnston, which 
continued to the close of this decade. MS. of J. B. Davies 
The statistical tables give in the year 1828, 46 communing 
members, 23 of whom had been received within the years 
1827, 1828. 

Bethel (York). This large and influential church, which 
has given its name to the Presbytery, so called, enjoyed, 
through these ten years, the services of the Rev. James S. 
Adams, the greatly beloved and eminently successful min- 
ister. He is spoken of as pa.stor of Bethel and supply of New 
Hope. The latter church, we suppose, was in North Caro- 
lina. The united membership was represented in the year 
1825 to be 530 communicants, twenty of whom were received 
within twelve months; in 1826. 539; in 1828, 560. 

" This region of country was first settled by Scotch-Irish, 
who reached it by way of Pennsylvania. In religion they 



1820-1830.] WAXHAW CHURCH. 371 

were rigid calvinists, and Republicans in politics. Two of her 
elders bore commissions as colonels .during the Revolution. 
Colonel Neil commanded under Williamson in the ex- 
pedition against the Cherokee.s in 1776. Two of his sons, 
both officers, were slain in battle." (S. L. W., May. 185 i.) 
But while her people were inspired by the spirit of patriotism, 
they have been attentive to the duties of religion; and this 
attention to their spiritual interests has not been unfruitful in 
good to others. The ministers who have come from the 
Bethel congregation are not few in number. Among them 
are the names of Gilliland, the brothers R. G. and S. B. Wil- 
son, Thomas Price, Jdmes S^ Adams, Henry M. Kerr and his 
brother, who was a licentiate, S. L. Watson, J. M. H. Adams, 
A. M. Watson and J. F. Watson. About 1823 or '24, Josiah 
Patrick, of this vicinity, was licensed, and removed to the 
West, where he soon after died. He commenced his educa- 
tion when over thirty, graduated at South Carolina College, 
making the money needed as a mechanic before entering on 
his studies at the Bethel Academy. At this academy P. J. 
Sparrow, D. D., was educated, and was boarded by tiie 
neighborhood gratuitously. He was born in Lincoln County, 
N. C. Lawson Clinton lived for some time in Bethel, and 
also in other places, being an orphan. He settled in Georgia, 
where he died. Whether a native of Bethel or Lancaster, we 
are not informed. He had relatives in each place. The Wil- 
sons were born in what is now Lincoln County. Their 
parents were members of Bethel. But at that time all this 
section and the greater part of this District was considered a 
part of North Carolina, and called Tryon County. The 
change was made soon after the Revolution. Bethel con- 
gregation then extended into North Carolina some five 
miles beyond the present line, and still covers a small portion. 
Beersheba, Olney and New Hope were cut off from Bethel, 
to say nothing of an independent church or two. Olney was 
set off to gratify the fridnds of W. C. Davis, who once essayed 
to become pastor of Bethel, but failed." (Letter of Rev. S. L. 
W., Oct. 16, 1869. 

Waxhaw Chukch. — The last minister of this church men- 
tioned by us was John Williamson. After Mr. Williamson 
came W. S. Pharr, who was with them several years, and was 
ordained November l8th, 1820. Mr. Pharr married Jane, 
the daughter of the Rev. Samuel Caldwell, of Sugar Creek, 



372 LITTLE BRITAIN, DUNCAN'S CREEK, ETC. [lR20-]83(). 

SO tliat the grand-niece of Mrs. Richardson, wife of the sec- 
ond pastor, was, after the lapse of seventy-five years, wife of 
the then present pastor of Waxhaw. Mr. Pharr, being- 
attacked with hemorrhage, ceased to preach for several years, 
but on his recovery resumed the labors of the ministry in 
Mccklenburg.'N. C. About 1825, Robert B. Campbell was 
engaged to preach as a licentiate, and he continued to do so 
"mtil 1830, when he was regularly installed as pastor of the 
churches of Waxhaw and Beaver Creek. 

The elders that were ordained during this period were 
Robert Stinson and John Foster, about in the year 1825. 
The Waxhaw Church seems to have been connected with the 
Presbytery of Mecklenburg, North Carolina, until 1829. In 
the Statistical tables of that year it is reported among the 
churches of Bethel Presbytery, with a membership of loi. 

Beth Shiloh was one of the churches of Wm. C. Davis. 
Its first house of worship was built in 1829. 

Little Britain, Duncan's Creek and Amity Churches. — 
We find that Rev. Henry M. Kerr is noted as the pastor of 
these churches in 1825, and that they have a united member- 
ship of 143 communicants. We suppose that some of these 
churches were in North Carolina. Little Britain being in 
Rutherford County, Amity in North Carolina. We find 
Williamson, Johnston, W. B. Davis, P. J. Sparnerand Adams 
appointed variously to supply at Olney, Long Creek, Wash- 
ington, Hebron, Bethlehem. We suppose that these were 
localities in North Carolina which disappear gradually from 
the records of Bethel, the State line becoming its northern 
boundary in 182S. 

We have now gone through with the history of the 
churches of the Presbytery of Bethel as far as the materials 
before us have enabled us. 



CHAPTER V. 

I 

Indian Creek, the place of Mr. McClintock's ministry in 
the olden times. (See vol. i, pp. 414, 522, 524, 528, 617), 
no longer appears in our ecclesiastical documents. The same 
is the case with Mount Bethel Academy, which seems to 
have been but a temporary place of Presbyterian preaching. 



1820-1830.] INDIAN CKEBK GILDER'S CHEEK. 373 

Indian Creek had applied to the original Presbytery of South 
Carolina, which was set off from the Presbytery of Orange in 
1785, for supplies as early as October ii, 1786, and Francis 
Cummins was appointed to supply it. So in 17^7 was Rev. 
Thomas H. McCauIe. Francis Cummins was appointed again 
in 1789. It was reported among the vacancies unable to sup- 
port a pastor in 1799 when this Presbytery was divided into 
the first and second Presbyteries. We have no further notice 
of it in our regular minutes. As it had been served by Rev. 
Robt. McClintock, and he was a member of the Old Scotch 
Presbytery of Charleston, it may have been regarded as dis- 
connected with us and so not mentioned longer on our eccle- 
siastical records. Gilder's Creek is its probable successor. 
The Rev. John Renwick, of Associated Reformed Presbyterian 
Church once preached in the church now known as Gilder's 
Creek. It was convenient for him to do so, as he was teach- 
ing in its immediate viciriity. But his son, Esquire Ren- 
wick, who, in his lifetime, was regarded as an excellent 
authority in matters of history, is remembered to have said 
that this church was first known by the name of McClintocks 
Church. The original site of Gilder's Creek was quite near to 
the stream so called, and at some distance from the stream 
of Indian Creek, perhaps half a mile from the former and a 
mile and a half from the latter. But the building has of late 
years been moved over upon the stream of Indian Creek. 
But there was a reason why the church should have in the 
entire time borne the name of the larger stream than of its 
affluent. And it would natr.rally follow the name by which 
the neighborhood was popularly known. 

Gilder's Creek and Little River sent up a contribution by 
the hand of Rev. J. B. Kennedy, to the Presbytery of South 
Carolina of five dollars on the 6th of April, 1822, and again in 
1826, by the same, in connection with Little River and Rocky 
Spring, five dollars. The people at present living in the 
vicinity of Gilder's Creek have no recollection of any one 
preaching there earlier than the second decade of this cen- 
tury and the preacher then was the same John B. Kennedy 
whom we have mentioned. There is a tradition that a Mr. 
Zachariah Wright assisted at the organization of a Sunday- 
school at this church in 182 1. This was something new and 
was much talked of in the community. And that when the 
leaders went to Columbia to buy books for the school, the 



374 gilder's creek. [1820-1830. 

people of Columbia did not know what was meant by a Sun- 
day-school. 

This is doubtless true of some people in Columbia. Never- 
theless " The Columbia Sunday-school Union" embracing the 
several denominations and a number of schools, dated back to 
A. D. 1820. 

Gilder's Creek appears in the statistical tables of the Gen- 
eral Assembly of 1825 with a membership of sixty-seven. 
Baptisms sixteen, fourteen of which were of infants. In 1826 
as being under a pastoral charge, with seventy communicants, 
two of whom were added in the preceding twelve month. No 
report was rendered in 1827. In 1828 it was under pastoral 
care, with a membership of seventy-five, five of whom were 
added since the last year, and seven adults baptized. 

From the following letter of Rev. H. P. Sloan, of Abbeville, 
S. C, addressed to the Rev. T. C. Ligon, Gilder's Creek 
would seem to have had some connection at one time with 
the Associate Reformed. He writes : 

" Since the receipt of your last I have been presented by 
Mrs. Wideman with two copies of the minutes of The General 
Associate Reformed Synod {qx 1811 and 1812, which settles the 
question of the ecclesiastical connection of Gilder's Creek 
Church at that time. At that time Indian Creek {perhaps the 
same as Kin^^'s Creek), Cimnon's Creek and Prosperity be- 
longed to our First Presbytery, and for a number of years 
were under the pastoral care of Rev. James Rogers. They 
are so marked in the statistical table of said Presbytery. But 
Gilder's Creek, Newbeirry, is put down as belonging to the 
Second Presbytery, and Rev. John Renwick as pastor or 
preacher, and Warrior's Creek, Laurens, was also on our roll. 
Then in the report of Second Presbytery to the same General 
Synod, 1812, the next year this passage occurs (page 14) a.s 
an item of information ; ' That Warrior Creek vacancy was 
on the tenth of March last united with Gilder's Creek as a 
part of Mr. Renwick's charge, and, in other respects, our set- 
tled congregations are nearly as they were. That our vacan- 
cies are languishing ; one of them has left us, and more will 
do so unless we can obtain ministerial aid.' Preachers were 
then very scarce, and our vacancies could only be supplied 
by the settled pastors, and an occasional missionary from the 
North. Coupling the above facts together you will probably 
find the reason of the change of both Gilder's Creek and 



1820-1830.] GRASSY SPRING DUNCAN'S CREEK. 375 

Warrior's Creek Churches from the Associate Reformed 
Presbyterian Church to the Presbyterian. I think you will 
find by tracing up the history that after Rev. Mr. Renwick 
gave up said churches, and they could not get a supply of 
preaching from us, that they received it from Rev. JVlr. Ken- 
nedy (John B.) and other Presbyterian ministers. Hence the 
change of connection. 

" Another item showing the strength of Gilder's Creek in 
1812 ; it is put down as having seventy-five families and five 
additions during the year. * * * This is all the additional 
information which I have obtained. By a reference to our 
minutes and reports of Second Presbytery you will probably 
obtain all the information desired. Recorded minutes, as a 
.Synod, are in the hands of Rev. D. G. Phillips, D. D., Louis- 
ville, Ga. He can probably furnish you some items " 

Grassy Spring. — We cease to find this church in the eccle- 
siastical records any more. We therefore conclude that its 
members had moved away, or had joined other organizations 
in their neighborhood. 

Little River — We have been wholly unable to obtain 
any information concerning this church during the time of 
which we now write Tiie qnly items are the mention of it 
in the statistical tables connected with the minutes of the 
General Assembly, In 1826 and 1829 the statement is that 
it had forty-eight communing members. Who ministered to 
it we do not know. Its records previous to 1842 have been 
all destroyed. It is situated near the boundary line between 
Newberry and Laurens Districts, more noted in the period of 
the Revolution than since. (Sec Vol. I, pp. 428, 526, 527, 
528,617.) Its present members and sessions have not enabled 
us to trace its history down with any particularity of detail. 
The Rev. Jolin B. Kennedy, who became its pastor in 1793 
or 1794, continued in that office until his death, through this 
decade. 

Duncan's Creek. — The Rev. John B. Kennedy continued 
to preach in this church regularly in connection with his 
charge at Little Riv(?r till about the year 1823. By this time 
dissensions and difficulties had arisen ; the love of many 
had grown cold, and religion declined. We find it petition- 
ing Presbytery for supplies in 1827, 1828, and 1829. Among 
these supplies the names of Rev. Messrs. Aaron Foster, John 
L. Kennedy, and others. 



376 ROCKY SPRING — LIBERTY SPRING. [1820-1830. 

The two churches of Duncan's Creek and Little River are 
put together in the reports of 1825, with an united member- 
ship of seventy-six; twenty-one baptisms, two of which were 
adults. In 1828 Little River is represented as vacant; Dun- 
can's Creek as vacant, with a membership of fifty. 

Rocky Spring. — Rev. Thos. Archibald who had been in- 
stalled pastor of this church in November, 1817, was released 
from that charge on the 8th of April, i8iO, and dismissed to 
the Presbytery of Concord. He, however, returned his dis- 
mission on the 5th of April, 1821, and was continued as a 
member till October 9, 1824, when he obtained a dismission 
to the Presbytery of Alabama. How this church was next 
supplied we are not fully informed. Mr. Kennedy returned 
in 1826. It had 45 members in May, 1828, 7 of whom had 
been received during the preceding year. It was under the 
care of John B. Kennedy as stated supply in May, 1829, in 
connection with Gilder's Creek. John B. Kennedy's post- 
office is given as Laurens C. H., S. C. 

Liberty Spring. — The Rev. Alexander Kirkpatrick con- 
tinued the pastor of this church until the 29th o^ November, 
1823, when, with the consent of the congregation, their pas- 
toral relations with him were dissolved by the act of the 
Presbytery of South Carolina, and he was dismissed to join 
the Presbytery of Hopewell, in Georgia. Rev. John Rennie 
was then obtained by this people as their regular preacher 
and continued to serve them until the Summer of 1827, 
when he went to Columbia and took charge of the Presby- 
terian Church there. Mr. Rennie was a native of Ireland, a 
graduate of the University of Glasgow in 1817, of Andover 
in 1822, was licensed by the Presbytery of Londondery and 
was ordained by the Presbytery of South Carolina at z. pro re 
nata meeting held at Cambridge Church on the 9th of Au- 
gust, 1823. The Church at Liberty Spring then wrote to 
their old pastor, Mr. Kirkpatrick, then in Georgia, to return, 
which he did in the latter part of 1827 or 1828, and continued 
to preach to this church till he died. He was born in Antrim 
County, Ireland, and died near Cross «Hill, December 30th, 
1832. He was buried in the Cemetery connected with the 
church, and his tombstone states that he was pastor here for 
ten years. 

The church reports 112 members in May, 1825 ; 1 14 in 
1826. It was set down as vacant in 1828, with no mem- 



J 820-1830.] WARRIOR CREEK — FRIENDSHIP. 377 

bers, as served by a .stated .supply, (referring t(5 the facts pro- 
bably that Mr. Kirkpatrick was not regularly installed] and 
as having 119 members. Mr. Kirkpatrick was by nature 
possessed of an amiable disposition, his mind was well de- 
veloped, and was a good and instructive preacher. (MSS. of 
Dr. Campbell, and of E. F. Hyde.) 

Warkior Creek's. — We judge that this church continued 
for some time under the care of Alexander Kirkpatrick, as a 
part of his charge. The united contribution of Liberty Spring 
and Warrior's Creek for some time came through his hands. 
His postofBce was Laurens Courthouse, and his connection 
with Liberty Spring was but for half his time. In 1827, 1828, 
1829, Warrior's Creek petitions Presbytery for supplies. Its 
membership, June 1825, was 51; 10 baptisms, one of which 
was an adult. In 1826 the membership was 58 ; in 1828 it was 
56, and is represented as vacant ; in 1829 its membership is the 
same, but it has the services of a stated supply. 

Friendship Church. — We have not found the name of 
Rabourn's Creek repeated during this period as the name of 
a religious organization. We find, however, Friendship Church 
in a locality not very distant from the other. It is in Laurens 
District, not far from the Saluda River, between it and Reedy 
River, on a beautiful and fertile ridge, -and quite near the 
dividing line which separates Laurens from Greenville District. 
It was first organized in the year 1823, the fifth in order of 
establishment of the churches in Laurens County. The country 
around was first settled, probably, about 1750, mostl)' by Irish 
emigrants and their descendants. Some of them bore the name 
of Cunningham, some of Dorroh, or Boyd, Nickly, HoUidy. 
" A petition," says the Presbtyerial Record, " was pres^ted 
from a congregation in Laurens District desiring to be received 
under the care of Presbytery, and to be known by the name of 
Friendship. They having stated to Presbytery that they had 
adopted the Confession of Faith of the Presbyterian Church ; 
On motion, 

'^Resolved, That this church be received under the care of 
Presbytery, and that elder James Dorroh be invited to take a 
seat in Presbytery." (Minutes, Vol I, p. 115.) 

The church building may have been erected as early as 
1819, by the Presbyterians, Baptists and Methodists in com- 
mon, but the Presbyterians alone held a permanent organiza- 
tion, and this church edifice remained in their hands. 



,378 UNION — CANE CREEK — FAIRrOEEST. [1820-1830. 

This was on the 2d of April, 1824, The Rev. Eleazar 
Brainard supph'ed the church for two years at first. Aaron 
Foster, in 1827, Archibald Craig in 1828. and Arthur Mooney 
in 182^, and, occasionally a Rev. Mr. Quillen. The fir.st 
elders acting in the church v/erS Robert Nickles, James 
Dorroh and John Cunningham. (Letter of David R. Dorroh, 
March 22, 1854.) Communicants in 1825, 32; in 1826, 28; 
in 1828, 35 ; in 1829, 47. " 

Union. — This church is represented in the statistical tables 
of 1825, 1826, 1828 and 1829 as vacant, and as consisting of 
twenty members. The condition of this church and that of 
Cane Creek attracted the notice of the Presbytery of South 
Carolina, March 20; 1826, and, on motion, it was 

"Resolved, That a committee be appointed to address a 
letter to the churches of Unionville and Cane Creek on the 
subject of their neglect in not reporting their situation to 
Presbytery for years, either by a written communication or a 
representative, and requesting to know their present situa- 
tion, their prospect of supplies of the word of life for time to 
come, &c., and that the committee consist of the Rev. Francis 
H. Porter and Benjamin D. Du Pree, with Mr. Barry, elder." 
(Minutes of Presbytery of South Carolina, p. 142.) 

October 4, 1828, Presbytery made arrangements to have 
the sacrament of the Lord's Supper administered in some of 
their vacant congregations, Among them was Cane Creek 
and Unionville. Rev. John B. Kennedy, with Mr. Daniel L. 
Gray, were to attend at Cane Creek Church on the second 
Sabbath in November, and Rev. Aaron Foster, with Mr. Gray, 
at Unionville on the second Sabbath in December. (Minutes, 
p. 178, 179.) 

Cane Creek — In 1820 the Rev. Daniel Johnson, a mis- 
sionary of a society in Charleston, served this church a part 
of the time for a term of six months. After him, occasional 
supplies from Presbytery were their only reliance till' 1825, 
when the church secured the services of Mr. James Chestney, 
a licentiate of the Presbytery of Albany, for one-half his time 
for one year. From 1826 till January, 1830, there was no 
stated preaching. (J. H. Saye.) This James Chestney aban- 
doned the ministry for the legal profession. 

Fairforest Church was favored with the pastoral labors 
of Rev. Mr. Hillhouse until 1823. The Rev. Lsaac Hadden, 



1820-1830.] FAISFOREST CHUECH. 379 

who was educated by Dr. Waddell, and who was from Abbe- 
ville District, then supplied the church for a short time. He 
was succeeded in 1824 by Rev. Francis Porter, who was en- 
gaged in teaching at Cedar Springs, a few miles distant, and 
who continued as stated supply for some four years. He 
preached his farewell sermon from 2d Corinthians, 13th chap- 
ter and nth verse on the second Sabbath of February, 1828. 
During his ministry, Samuel Archibald, John McDowell, 
Moses White and Matthew Mayes were added to the session. 
He was succeeded in the latter part of 1828 by Rev. Daniel 
L. Gray, a nephew of the former pastor, Daniel Gray, a native 
of Abbeville District, a graduate of Miami University, and 
a licentiate of the Presbytery of South Carolina. He was 
ordained and installed pastor of this church by Bethel Pres- 
bytery in June 1829. He supplied Cane Creek and perhaps 
other places in connection with Fairforcst. He also had 
received his preparatory education under Dr. Waddell. His 
ministry here continued some four or five years, when he 
removed to the Western District of Tennessee. Some four- 
teen families went with him or followed him to his new home. 
His labors in Union District were attended with a consid- 
erable amount of success, and some share of opposition. He 
was probably one of the first advocates of Temperance Socie- 
ties in that region. What he did he did with his might. 
Some of his other measures were regarded as innovations by 
a part of his congregation, and hence he was opposed on 
several grounds. His intluence, however, was attended with 
some desirable changes in tlie social customs of the country. 
These remarks have carried us into the next decade. 

The Rev. Mr. Hillhouse, before mentioned, left tjie con- 
gregation in circumstances of great apparent prosperity. After 
leaving Fairforest he returned to Anderson, where he died. 
He was the uncle of the late Rev. James Hillhouse, of Ala- 
bama, and of Rev. Dr. J. S. Wilson, of Georgia, and the father 
of the Rev. J. B. Hillhouse. The Rev. Francis Porter was 
brought up in the Bethesda congregation in York District, 
and probably acquired his classical education in the school 
of Rev. R. B. Walker. He was engaged in teaching in the 
most of his ministerial life. He taught at Asheville, N. C. ; 
at Cedar Springs, S. C. Among his pupils were some dis- 
tinguished names. He afterwards removed to Alabama, where 
he died. [MSS. of J. H. Saye, A. A. James, and letter of 



380 NAZARETH — FAIKVIEW — SMYRNA. [1820-1830. 

Jephtliah Harrison.] The statistics of Fairfore-st Ciiurch, as 
given in the minutes of the Assembly, are : communicants in 
1825, 99; in 1828, vacant; communicants, 90 ; communicants 
in 1829. 100. 

Nazareth Church. — Rev. Michael Dickson was licensed 
by the Presbytery of South Carolina on the 8th of April, 
1820, and was directed by the Presbyterial Committee of 
Missions to supply the congregations of Fairview, Nazareth, 
and North Pacolet. At the fall meeting a call for his services 
was brought to Presbytery by the two congregations of Naz- 
areth and Fairview, each for one-half of his time. Presbytery 
held its regular sessions on the 5th of April, 1 821, at Nazareth 
Church, when Mr. Dickson, John S. Wilson, and Solomon 
Ward were ordained, and Mr. Dickson was installed Pastor 
of the united congregations of Nazareth and Fairview. The 
Rev. William H. Barr presided on the occasion, and the Rev. 
Henry Reid preached the ordination sermon from 2(1 Timothy 
3 : 17. Mr. Dickson was a faithful pa:stor, and accomplished 
much in this church and congregation for the interests of true 
religion. Nazareth and Fairview together had 191 com- 
muning members in 1825 ; Nazareth had 94 in 1826, 90 in 
1828, and 121 in 1829. 

Faikview. — The history of this church was parallel with 
that of Nazareth. They were collegiate churches under the 
same pastor. Mr. Dickson, however, was released from Fair- 
view in 1827, and Messrs. Watson and Craig were appointed 
to supply them at discretion. The church is marked as vacant 
in 1828. The number of communicants belonging to F*air- 
view separately was 79 in 1826 and 1828. In 1829 it was 94. 
James Alexander and David Morton were elected elders in 
September 1822. 

North Pacolet. — The only record we can make of this 
church is that it is twice mentioned during these ten years. 
In 1825 as having 30 members and as vacant, as vacant in 
1828. In 1822 they were served by F. Porter. 

Smyrna Church (Abbeville District) still continued an 
integral part of the charge of Rev. Hugh Dickson, at least 
until 1829. "The singular mortality among the candidates for 
the eldership was noticed elsewhere. Robert Redd held the 
office, as was there said, through the whole of this period, 
but the old members were passing away, and the church 
approaching apparent dissolution, preparatory, perhaps, to a 



1820-1830.] GREENVILLE ROCKY CREEK. 3^1 

future resurrection. The membership was twenty-tliree in 
1826, twenty-two in 1828. It is represented as vacant in 1829. 

Greenville Church (Abbeville), formerly Sahida, was 
still served by the Rev. Hugh Dickson, in connection with 
the preceding. The eldership being reduced by the death of 
John Weatherall and the withdrawal of Samuel Agnew, about 
the year 1829 or 1830, John Donnald, William Means, A. C. 
Hawthorn, with Abraham Haddbri.were elected and ordained 
elders. Greenville Church had eighty communicants in 1826, 
eighty-nine in 1828, eighty-five in 1829. 

Rocky Creek. — This is the Church -which, since 1845, 
has been known as " The Rock Church." The first record 
in the Sessions Book of the Rocky Creek Church is in the 
handwriting of elder John Blake, dated May ist, 1823. For 
many years previous to this date the church at Rocky Creek 
had been altogether destitute of the stated ordinances of the 
Gospel. Preaching was seldom enjoyed; the number of 
church members had been gradually diminishing for some 
time. There were no ruling elders ; they were either dead or 
had removed to other parts of the country ; and a general 
apathj' and indifference as to the public means of grace had 
taken possession of the few professors who remained. Under 
these circumstances the church was visited in May, 1823, by 
the Rev. John Rennie, who took charge of it, or rather sup- 
plied it for part of the time, till May, 1827, which was four 
years. 

In 1827, after the departure of Mr. Rennie, the church was 
supplied for a few months by Rev. John McKinnie. In 1828 
it was supplied by Rev. Eli Adams for one-half the time. In 
October, 1829, the Rev. Hugh Dickson began to supply it 
half the time. 

The following are the names of the ruling elders of this 
church down to the year 1830, as far as known to the session 
in 1850: 

In 1801, John Irwin. 

In 1804, John Sample, George Heard. 

In 1818, Thomas Weir, John Blake, John Caldwell. 

In 1825, Carr McGehee, Jesse Beasley, Robert Boyd, Jas. 
Scott. 

The statistical tables give the communing members of this 
church as 36 in 1825, the same in 1826,* 41 in 1828, and 40 in 
1829. 



382 CAMBRIDGE. [1820-1830. 

Cambridge. — Tliis church had been organized by Dr. Barr 
and Rev. Hugh Dickson in 1821. The Rev. Charles B. 
Storrs, afterwards President of the Western Reserve College, 
Ohio, preached here as a missionary through the winter, and 
left in June, 1821. The next missionary was Mr. Alfred 
Chester, from Connecticut, a graduate of Yale in 1818, who 
had spent a year at Andover in 1820-21, and came as a 
Hcensed preacher to Cambridge in the fall or winter of 1821. 
Then Mr. John Rennie, as missionary, came to this place, 
sent out, it is said, by the suggestion of Rev. John Dickson. 
Presbytery, too, had directed Joseph Y. Alexander, whom they 
were employing as an evangelist, to spend one month between 
Cambridge and Edgefield Courthouse, one month in New- 
berry District, and one in Pendleton. Presbytery held its 
regular meeting in Cambridge in April, 1823, and held a pro 
re nata meeting at Cambridge Church on the 8th of August, 
1823. At this meeting Mr. Rennie was received as a licen- 
tiate from the Presbytery of Londonderry, passed through 
the required trials, and was ordained to the full work of the 
Gospel ministry, the Rev. Richard B. Cater preaching the 
ordination sermon, and Rev. Wm. H. Barr presiding and 
giving the charge. The church was organized with sixteen 
members. It rose to thirty-six, but its existence as an or- 
ganization was but brief Mr. Rennie's continuance there 
was brief The two elders were Robert Redd and John 
McBryde. The church was dissolved, Mr. McBryde removed 
to Hamburg, and Mr. Rennie found a home with Capt. John 
Cunningham. Planters had been extravagant, and suffered 
the consequences. F"our of the chief merchants went to 
Hamburg as a more inviting place of business. The church 
members united with other churches, principally with the Rock 
Church, and the church edifice in the next decade, perhaps 
in 1833-34 belonged to the Baptists. Such is the account 
we have received from one of the elders of the church, Mr. 
McBryde. The planters of the neighborhood had borrowed 
largely from the Bank of the State, popularly regarded as the 
planters' friend. They thought that so long as they paid 
their interest, all was right. The bank was obliged, at length, 
to sell them out. Many gathered up the little residue, re- 
solved to seek their fortunes elsewhere, deserted their native 
State, and removed to Alabama. 



1820-1830.] HOPEWELL (ABBEVILLE) ROCKY RIVER. 3S3 

Hopewell (Abbeville). — A.s'tbe meeting of the Presbytery 
of South Caiolina at the Varennes Church, October 5th, 1820, 
" Hopewell ;irid Willington congregations each presented a 
call for one-half of the n\inisterial labors of the Rev. Richard 
B. Cater. After some consideration, their calls were handed 
to Mr. Cater for his consideration." (Minutes, p. 72.) On 
the 6th of October, Mr. Cater accepted the call from Willing- 
ton, but did not feel at liberty to accept that from Hopewell 
because it was informal. Our friend, Mrs. M, E. D., to whom 
we have been so much indebted, .speaks of Mr. Cater as 
having been installed as pastor of the two churches. Not so 
the Presbyterial record. She speaks of his being re-elected 
to Hopewell two years after his resignation in 1826, and of 
his being driven away by an unhappy division in the session. 
Tliere is nothing in the minutes of Presbytery to assist us to 
determine how Hopewell was supplied. It is not till 1825 
that full statistics are appended to the minutes of the Assem- 
bly fi om our Synod. In that year it is represented as having 
161 communing members ; adult baptisms, 25 ; infant, 29. 
In 1826, as having a pastor and 91 communicants. In 1827 
the Presbytery made no report. In 1828 it had a pastor and 
130 members, " 28 of whom were added in the preceding 
year," perhaps in the preceding two years. In 1829 Henry 
Reid is named as its stated supply, and its membership 130, 
as in the year before. 

A statement somewhat different from this is, made by another con- 
tributor, E. Payson Davis, who says, " the time between 1813 and 1823 
marks a transition period. There was ns regular pastor. The pulpit 
was supplied for a short time by the Eev. Mr. Gamble ; then by an 
Ohio preacher by the name of Boyle, and for a short time by Mr. Cater. 
In 1823, Mr. Reid was called to occupy the vacant pulpit Upon enter- 
ing upon his duties, he found but fifty names upon the roll of church 
members. By earnest and diligent labor this condition of the church 
was greatly changed for the better. He visited families, inquired into 
the spiritual condition of every member. He catechised the children, 
organized and conducted camp meetings, preached at school-houses, 
private houses and by the road side. He resigned his charge in 1829, 
having served the church for six years. In that time twenty-seven had 
died, forty had been dismissed, and the roll had exhibited 177 names, 
a considerable number of which were of colored persons. 

Rocky River Church. — The Rev. James Gamble con- 
tinued the pastor ot this church till on the 9th of March 1827, 
he was dismissed to the Presbytery of Hopewell, Ga. In 
October 1828, the Rev. Mr. Cater, who was for soipe short time 



284 WILLINGTON. [1820-1830. 

their supply, was installed as their pastor, who continued to 
serve them in this capacity until 1830. Rocky River reported 
one hundred and six members in 1825 and 1826; the same 
in 1828 and 1829, in which last year Lebanon is represented 
also as under the same pastoral care. Dr. Waddel too was a 
frequent preacher. Mr. Giles says, "a supply" to Rocky 
River, both before his removel to Georgia and after his return 
till a year or two before his death. 

WiLLiNGTON — In 1820 the session of "Willington, in con- 
nection with that of Hopewell, made out a call for Rev R. B. 
Cater, who was then living at "Rock Mills," Anderson, in 
charge of the Churches of Good Hope and Roberts. This 
was accepted and he was installed at W. pastor of the two 
churches. 

"Mr. Cater was a native of Beaufort District, South Carolina. 
The interesting circumstances of his death may be found in 
the [jroceedings of the Tuscaloosa Presbytery, Alabama for 
1850. Under this lively and interesting minister,these churches 
received rather a different impulse from that which had been 
hitherto given them. Sabbath Schools were instituted and 
benevolent enterprises begun. There is yet extant a sermon 
delivered before a "Ladies Association"organized by Mr. Cater 
for the education of young men in the ministry ; and another 
preached as a funeral discourse on the death of a respected elder 
of Willington. Many interesting camp-meetings were held at 
both churches, adding in a few years valuable members in 
the church. Li th^se meetings Mr. Cater was generally 
assisted by his brother-in-law, Rev. Henry Reid, and the 
writer remembers as a child, how the deep organ-like tones 
of the latter seemed to vibrate over the solemn assembly 
gathered under the leafy arbour, harmonizing so well with the 
pathos, and argumentative pleadings of the speaker, while 
the rich musical voice of the other fell on the air like the 
sound of some silver trumpet. 

" So soft, so clear, 

The listener held his breath to hear." 

They were both revival preachers, but especially Mr, Reid, 
and whatever may have been his ecclesiastical errors, he has 
without doubt, seals to his ministry in these churches. He 
was a man of strong feelings and an original thinker, but 
because of his obstinate prejudices and satirical powers was a 
bitter controversialist. His irregular course after his return 



182()-1830.] WILLINGTON. 385 

from Texas in 1840 is well known to the brethren, but here 
it was more sensibly felt ; as he gathered two small indepen- 
dent congregations within the bounds of Wiilirigton and 
Hopewell, which since his death have been received as regu- 
lar churches, but which have created such a diversion in 
strength as to weaken the whole. 

Mr. Reid had preached at Hopewell in his best 
days, and had been here a successful teacher of youth; and 
now after many wanderiixgs, and having buried all his family 
in Texas, he returned to die in this little obscure church of 
his old age, thus quietly closing a life of more than sixty 
years, most of which had been spent in earnest labours for 
the gospel of love. 

Perhaps at no period of its existence has Willington church 
presented^ more intelligent audience, or given more striking 
indications of spiritual growth than during Mr. Cater's short 
term of service. At that time were gathered in many of both 
sexes whom the Lord has been pleased to own, who lived as 
ornaments to society, but most of whom ere this met their 
aimable teacher before the throne. Though so useful in his 
ministry and exceedingly popular, several. circumstances com- 
bined to make his stay short. 

In 1823, the Presbytery of South Carolina made an attempt 
at the suggestion of Dr. Barr, and others, to establish a Theo- 
logical Seminary after th-e plan of the Southern and Western 
Theological Seminary at Maryville, Tennessee, and Mr. Cater 
was selected as a suitable person for a traveling agent. Fol- 
lowing the bent of his impulsive and ardent nature, his agency 
was undertaken and prosecuted without the advice of his 
churches. The people murmured at his protracted absences, 
especially as there seemed to be no effort to supply the defi- 
ciency. At lensfth Mr. Cater met, at an ecclesiastical meet- 
ing, a young Northern minister whom he engaged to occupy 
his piilpits for a time. This was Rev. Aaron Foster, of New 
England, who being employed at this time by the Ladies 
Benevolent Association of Charleston, as an Evangelist for 
the upper country, agreed to itinerate for a time between this 
place and Pendleton village. Things remained thus for nearly 
two years, and at each return of the pastor from his unsuc- 
cessful embassy he was constrained fo see that the hearts of 
the people were being won over to the stranger. There were 
already heavy arrearages in the salary for which the two 
25 



386. SARDIS — LONG CANE. [l&SO-lSHO; 

churches were bound, and his frequent absences had absolved 
iheir consciences from any further obligation in this particular. 
In 1826, at the suggestion of one who loved him too well to 
retain him in a position so embarrassing, he resigned his 
pastoial charge. Two years after that he was re-elected at 
Hopewell, but was driven away by an unhappy division in the 
session. Heat one time taught school in Greenville ; and 
his last place of ministration in the State was at old Pendleton, 
from which he removed in 1836. Judging from his frequent 
removals, Mr. Cater was less useful as a pastor than as an 
Evangelist — hence we find his ardent, impulsive, and loving 
nature, spending its glowing zeal upon building up and form- 
ing new churches almost to the end of his life." Mrs. M. E. D. 

Willington church numbered one hundred and one mem- 
bers, in 1828, sixteen of whom were added within the preced- 
ing twelve months, one-hundred and fifteen members in 1829. 

Sardis, and the Lower Long Cane or Seceder Church, 
which united with the Presbytery in 1813, and over which 
Rev. Henry Reid was settled, no longer appear on the roll 
of Presbytery, and may have been absorbed in other organi- 
zations. 

Long Cane, formerly Upper Long Cane. This church 
enjoyed the labors of its able and revered pastor, the Rev. 
Dr. Barr, through this decade. From the earliest times the 
stipends of the clergymen of this congregation had been at 
the rate of ;^iOO sterling per annum. The congregation was 
receiving three-fourths' of Dr. Barr's time, for which they paid 
him only seventy-five pounds, which amounted to a fraction 
over three hundre.d and twenty-one dollars. For talents such 
as his, which were of the first order, such a compensation 
would be obviously inadequate at any time, while that inad- 
equacy was greatly heightened by the great changes which 
had taken place in the relative quantity and value of money ; 
to say nothing of the increased ability of his employees to 
pay. It was, therefore, proposed at a meeting of the congre- 
gation called in reference to that specific object, to raise his 
annual stipend to five hundred dollars. This proposition was 
agreed to with only two dissenting votes, as also was one to 
assess the additional sum on the pews in proportion to their 
previous assessments. It is due to Dr. Barr, and proper to 
be here mentioned, that this movement was not only without 
his approbation, but in opposition to his expressed wishes. 



18:!0-1830.] lATPLE MOUNTAIN — SHILOH — LEBANON. 387 

Shortly after, it was found that there was considerable latent 
dissatisfaction at this movement which presently evinced itself 
in ill suppressed murmurs and refusals to pay the new assess- 
ment. For a short time a few spirited and liberal-minded 
individuals continued to pay the new assessment, when find- 
ing that others would not concur with tiiem, a gradual return 
to the old assessment became general. [MS. of Robt. H. W.] 
And thus it is and has been that the stinted support that 
has been furnished by far too many ministers of the gospel, 
has discouraged them in their labors, and in their struggles 
to escape the judgment pronounced by Paul, i Tim. v : 8, " If 
any provide not for his own, and especially for those of his 
own house, he hath denied the faith, and is worse than an 
infidel," they have betaken themselves to other employments 
which have taken their minds off from their chosen work, and 
made their ministry less efficient than it would have been 
otherwise. It is a happy thing that this was not the case 
with this eminent servant of God. According to the statistics 
of 1829 this church numbered 240 members. 

Little Mountain. We do not find this church specifically 
mentioned in the Presbyterial records from 1820-1830. The 
Rev. Dr. Barr bestowed his labors upon it for one-fourth of bis 
time. In 1829 it had 39 members. 

Shiloh Congregation. " A communication was received 
from a neighborhood on Long Cane Creek, east of Abbeville 
village, statmg that they had associated together and erected 
a house for public worship, and that it was their desire to be 
received by Presbytery as a congregation under their care, 
and to be known by the name of 'Shiloh congregation,' and 
further, that Presbytery would grant them such supplies as 
might be consistent with their other arrangements. The 
prayer of the communication was granted. Ordered that 
Rev. Hugh Dickson supply them as often as may comport 
with his other arrangements." [Minutes of S. C. Presbytery, 
Vol. I, pp. 132, 133, October 6, 1825.] 

Lebanon Congregation (Abbeville.) " The people -of 
Lebanon congregation, on the 5th of October, 1822, petition- 
ed the Presbytery of South Carolina to be taken under their 
care. On enquiry it appeared that this congregation was of 
orderly standing. Their request was granted." [Minutes of 
S. C. Presbytery, Vol. I, p. lOO.] They reported 35 commu- 
nicants in 1825. T^is church is said to have been gathered 



yyy MEMORIES OF THE RBVOLUTIOX. [1820-1830. 

by R. B. Cater, who commenced preaching under a peach 
tree at tlie house of Patrick McMullen in 1820. Mr. McMul- 
len and his wife were members of Hopewell Church, but too 
old and feeble to attend the ordinary place of worship. In 
about a year the church was gathered. It was organized in 
June, 1821. James Pressley was ordained an elder on the 
1 2th of June, 1822. Thomas Griffin and James Weir were 
added to the eldership some time after. They first built a 
small log house and soon after enlarged it. In 1827 they 
built a large frame church, 36 by 60 feet, which was dedicated 
on the 27th of February. This house was well filled, and the 
number of church members gradually increased to 80 or 90. 

While enquiring into the history of this church and locality, 
my informer carried me back from this immediate subject to 
far earlier times. 

" The battle of Lower Long was fought," said my informer, 
" not far from Cedar Spring (Seceder) Church. The British 
took General Pickens and Major Hamilton prisoners. Wiien 
General Pickens was wearied with walking, his guard asked 
him if he was tired. On his answei ing ' Yes,' he replied, 
' Run, then.' Several were killed in this engagement. Dr. 
Russell, a.ssistea by his wife, performed the needed surgical 
operations. The next morning a Tory was seen by the wife 
of Major Hamilton, riding the Major's horse. He told Mrs. 
H. that her husband would be hung; but he returned home 
almost immediately after, being released on parole. The 
captives, arrangements being made for their exchange, re- 
turned, but immediately rejoined the army of the patriots. 
Major Hamilton was in several battles. He was in that of 
Cambridge. The British sent out 'a flag which, being red, 
was fired upon. They afterwards sent out a white one. 
Fifteen wagons of the inhabitants, who had met together for 
mutual protection, were crossing the Saluda for corn ; Peggy 
Houston gave information to the Tories, who came upon the 
wagoners, burnt the wagons, carried the men across the 
Savannah and delivered them up to the Creek Indians, who 
tortured them, sticking them with pine splinters. Matthew 
Thompson, feigning to be sick, was frequently taken out by 
the Indians. At length he was permitted to go by himself 
He seized one of the fastest horses and escaped. He was 
pursued for two days, fed himself on the tendrils of the grape 
and green buds, and at length, in a state of great exhaustion, 



1820-1830.] TRADITIONS. 389 

• 

reached his home near Rocky River Church. That .same 
Peggy Houston fled to North Carolina and remained till after 
peace was declared, and then returned. On her return, the 
ladies whose husbands and sons had been killed, met at her 
house, took her out of bed and whipped her nearly to death. 
She fainted twice. Among them were Mary White, whose 
son was murdered, Jane Hamilton and Rebecca Pickens. 
These last were the wives of General Pickens and Major 
Hamilton. These ladles assembled under the protection of 
certain gentlemen who, to say the least, did not manifest any 
disapprobation of their deed." 

Thus spake to me, while inquiring into tlie origin of this 
church and the history of the community, A. D. 185 1, 
Mrs. Rachel Lanier, once Rachel Hamilton, and grand- 
daughter of the aforesaid Major Hamilton. For the memory 
of the aged goes back to the past, and the minds of all linger 
upon the heroic age in which our fathers fought and suffered, 
and through much tribulation founded our institutions of 
Church and State, and achieved our independence. And 
amid these traditions the following also were rehearsed. One 
was about Adam Files and his sons. His sons were out hunt- 
ing horses, and met the Tories and Indians. One of the sons 
ran home and gave information. Mr. Files and his other 
sons concealed themselves in Wilson's Creek, a tributary of 
Rocky River. Mr. Carruthers waii shot as he was ascending 
the bank of the Creek. He was buried near the spot, but 
his bones were afterwards removed. 

The elder Adam Files was shot at by the Tories and was 
taken out of the creek. He was carried across the Savannah, 
tortured and killed. His bones were afterwards found and 
known by the peculiar formation of his teeth. These bones 
were afterwards gathered and buried by his sons. One of his 
sons (Adam) was hidden in the waters at the same time with 
his father, and escaped. Another escaped on foot. His house 
was the " lining house," on the outside of the settle- 
ment, i. e., we suppose, the house which marked its ideal 
boundary. 

Messrs. William Baskins and Hugh Baskins were also at 
the same house, and ran. A negro woman, Rose, ran with 
the infant child of Mr. William Baskins, which she had hid in 
a hollow log in the swamp until the danger via.'i over. This 
sg.me child, Betsey Baskins, is now (1851) living in Mis- 
sissippi. 



390 WESTMINSTER — BRADAWAY. [1820-1830. 

There was little to choose between the. raids of the Tories 
and those of the Indians. They would destroy everything, 
would rip open feather beds, take the ticks for leggins, 
sprinkle or salt the feathers with tea or whatever could be 
found, and destroy what they could. 

But in these rough border scenes, revenge of private 
wrongs the blood revenge was sometimes exacted, irrespec- 
tive of consequences. It was stated that about forty Indians 
who had been invited in by General Pickens to a conference 
were enticed into a house by Robt. Maxwell and John Cald- 
well, in all six persons, and were put to death. This seems 
like an exaggerated story, if so, certainly it was by failure 
of memory or misinformation. It was added that General 
Pickens was greatly offended at this tran.saction. 

These traditions carry one back some seventy years 
beyond the time at which they were rehearsed. They are 
repeated now because they came to our knowledge while we 
were enquiring into matters ecclesiastical, because tiiey tend 
to relieve otherwise dry details, and because the trials and 
achievements of other times are not without a salutary influ- 
ence upon ours. 

Westminster. — Westminster and Mount Zion presented, 
each, a call October 4, 1823, for a part of the ministerial ser- 
vice of Mr. Benjamin D. DuPre a licentiate under the care 
of the Presbytery of South Carolina. These calls were 
presented to him by Presbytery and accepted. Trials were 
appointed him preparatory to ordination. These were sus- 
tained by the Presbytery meeting at Willington, April i, 
1824, and at an intermediate Presbytery meeting at Mount 
Zion Church May 22, 1824, Hugh Dickson, presiding, and 
Rev. Joseph Hillhouse preaching the sermon, 2 Cor., 11,23. 
" In labors more abundant." He was set apart in due form 
to the labors of the gospel ministry. The membership of 
Westminster varied from twenty to forty-four during this 
decade, and that of Mount Zion was about thirty. 

Bradaway. — The notices of this church are few. On the 
7th of April, application was made by Bradaway congrega- 
tion, through their representative, to have the sacrament of 
the Supper administered at Varennes in the course of the 
ensuing summer. The request was granted and the Rev. 
James Hillhouse and Joseph Hillhouse were directed to 
attend to that business." Minutes, April 7, 1820, p. 67. 



1820-1S30.] KOBEBTS AND GOODHOPE. 391 

October 4th, 1824, " a call was handed in from BradaWHy con- 
gregation for one-half of the ministerial labors of the Rev. 
Joseph Hillhouse, which call by Presbytery was presented to 
Mr. Hillhouse and by him accepted." There had been a 
petition to Presbytery on the 7th of October, 1820, to receive 
and acknowledge Varennes as a di.'itinct congregation, under 
its care, having formerly been included in Bradaway congre- 
gation. The prayer of the petition was granted. (Mtnutes, 
p. 76.) 

Mr. Hillhouse appears to have been pastor of both these 
churche.*. On the 20th of March, 1826, a painful commu- 
nication from the united congregations of Bradaway and 
Varennes,' inculpated their pastor for the crime of intemper- 
ance. Mr. Hillhouse was brought before the tribunal of 
Presbytery meeting at Varennes on the 17th of May, humbly 
acknowledged his faults, said that he had resolved to be more 
circumspect, and hoped, through divine grace, to be enabled 
to lead a sober and pious life in time to come. Presbytery, 
however, suspended him from his ministerial office until they 
should have satisfactory evidence of his sincere repentance 
and reformation. Bradaway had 52 members in 1825, 1826, 
1828, in which last year it was vacant. Varennes had 35 in 
1825-6. It had 48 in 1828-9. 

Roberts and Goodhope. — The Rev. Richard B. Cater, 
afterwards D. D., was the last of the brethren who supplied 
the churches down to this period, 1820. From this time 
onward for a long series of years they were under the pasto- 
ral care of the Rev. David Humphries, whose personal history 
is thus given by Rev. John McLees, " very imperfectly 
sketched," says the writer, " from a very imperfect sessional 
record, and from a brief manuscript which he gave to the 
writer," (Rev, Mr. McLees), " who grew up under his min- 
istry." " The Rev. David Humphries was born on the 30th 
of September, 1793, in Pendleton, S. C, his hterary studies 
for a time were directed by ihe Rev, Andrew Brown ; he then 
repaired to the Willington Academy and finished his literary 
course and studied theology under Dr. Moses Waddell. He 
was licensed to preach the gospel in October, 1819, by tiie 
South Carolina Presbytery. While he was visiting and 
preaching in some of the vacant churches in, the Presbytery 
he received an appointment with the Rev. Thos. C. Stuart, 
from the Synod of South Carolina and Georgia to visit the 



392 REV. DAVID HUMPHREYS. [1820-1830. 

Southwestern tribes of Indians, preparatory to the establish- 
ment of a missionary among some of them. They set out on 
this mission in April, 1820. They first visited the tribe of 
Creek Indians, met them in council and stated to them the 
object of their visit, but found them unwilling to receive mis- 
sionaries. They then went to the tribe of Chickasaws and 
sought an interview with their chiefs who cordially received 
them .and expressed a desire to have missionaries come and 
preach to them. A site was selected for a missionary station 
and they returned to South Carolina in July. The Rev, 
David Humphries visited Roberts Church for the first time 
in the latter part of the year 1820. A regular call was given 
him by the churches of Roberts and Good Hop^ in the 
spring of i82l,in which ^300 was promised him for three- 
fourths of his time ; he signified his acceptance of the call, 
and during the meeting of Presbytery one of the ministers 
who was receiving a better salary than was promised to the 
young brother, jocosely remarked to him, " Well David you 
have this day solemnly promised to starve!' He was ordained 
and installed pastor in the same year, at Good Hope, by an 
adjourned meeting of Presbytery. It was considered a very 
gr.eat effort on the part of these feeble churches, which for 
years had only received preaching once a month and for 
which they had paid a very small amount to undertake to 
support a pastor. The subscription list at Roberts for the 
Rev. John Simpson was still preserved and it was not likely 
to be much improved on. Five dollars was the highest sub- 
scription and from that amount others came down to fifty 
and even twelve-and-a-half cents, while some subscribed a 
bushel of wheat or corn, or a gallon of whiskey. Both con- 
gregations we re much reduced by emigrants who had left to 
seek homes in some other section of our wide country, and 
especially was this the case with Good Hope, from the 
bounds of which a few years before a number of families, 
through the influence of General Andrew Pickens, had re- 
moved and settled near the Oconee station, and united with 
Bethel Church, then under the care of Rev. Andrew BrOwn, 
and soon after Rev. David Humphries was installed as pas- 
tor. Another colony left for the West, headed by three of the 
most influential elders and composed of several of the most 
wealthy families. When he first took charge of these 
churches there were, perhaps, in each some twenty or thirty 



1820-1830.] REV. J)AVID HUMPHREYS. 393 

families and thirty or forty members. He had a young family 
and no resources. He purchased a small farm with the hope 
that he could make a support upon it, while his small salary 
would go to pay for it, but to his great mortification, the 
salary was irregularly and but partially paid, and he was re- 
duced to the necessity of borrowing rhoney at fourteen per 
cent, interest to pay for his lands, and in order to pay the bor- 
rowed funds, he was driven to the necessity of teaching school, 
which he said was a " herculean task for him, as all his ser- 
mons had to be written out in full and committed to me- 
mory." He kept up this practice of committing to memory 
for nearly twenty years, when he gradually adopted the habit 
of using short notes or preaching extempore. He taught 
school with some intervals, for several years and never con- 
tracted a debt without some good prospect of paying it. He 
had but a small library which needed a few additional volumes 
year by year, and a rising family, which increased his ex- 
penses. It was then a rare thing for a present of any kind to 
be made to the pastor. If any article of food or clothing was 
obtained from any of the church members, the amount was 
deducted from the subscription, and if it exceeded the sub- 
scription, the balance was paid back or credited to the next 
year. There were no deacons in these ciiurches and no sys- 
tematic plan adopted tor the collection of the small amount 
subscribed. Some paid a part in provisions and the balance 
remained unpaid ; others paid if they happened to think of it, 
while the amount promised by those who removed from the 
bounds was never made up. The consequence was in a few 
years that they were in arrears to the amount of about .^looo. 
Thus writes the Rev. John McLees, himself reared in the 
mid.st of these congregations. It is a sad story of violated 
vows, of broken promises, of the life of the ministry crushed 
out by a narrowness of spirit and a want of commercial integ- 
rity which one could not expect in that region of country 
whose people have prided themselves on generosity and no- 
bleness of spirit. The story is written not by an enemy but 
by a friend, not by a stranger to this people, but by one of 
themselves, and one who wishes them well. 

The ruling elders in Roberts church in 1820 were Capt. 
David Sadler, first a member and a ruling elder in the 
Church of Bethesda, York. He removed into the bounds of 
Roberts Church a short time before 1820. He was soon 



394 ROBEETS CHURCH. [t820-1830. 

elected an elder here. He was a gallant .soldier under Gen. 
Sumter, He became a convert in those remarkable revivals 
which took place in 1800 and thereafter. He was a man of 
eminent piety and usefulness. His four sons and six daughters 
became worthy members of the church.- .Two of his sons 
were elders in Good Hope and one a deacon. Two of his 
daughters married elders, and one a minister in the Presby- 
terian Church. From these a numerous family has descended 
in the third and fouith generation. Six or eight of his 
grandsons fell in battle or died in the army in our recent 
contest. 

James McCarley was a Ruling Elder in 1820. He was of 
Presbyterian ancestors. His brother was an elder at Good 
Hope, where two of his sisters and another brother were 
members. He married Miss Elizabeth Wilson, a very pious 
lady. They had four sons and two daughters. They all 
united with the church except two of th'e sons who removed 
to Mississippi. His eldest son, a young man of fine intellect, 
commenced a course of study for the ministry, but not being 
fully persuaded of his call, abandoned these studies. One 
son and one daughter are still (October 1869) members of tiie 
Church. 

David Simpson, the youngest son of Rev. John Simpson, 
was one of the elders in 1820. Of sterling worth and gen- 
uine piety, modest and unassuming, he was ever ready to aid 
the Church by his prayers and contributions. He married 
tlie second daughter of Capt. Sadler. They have had five 
sons and three daughters, all of whom except one son are, at 
this writing, members of the Church. 

, Deacons at Roberts Church. — For many years this church 
had no deacons. When it was felt to be necessary to the 
co.'nplete organization of the church to have deacons, Dr. J. 
M. Lockhart and Alexander McClinton were appointed and 
ordained. 

Church Buildings. — At Roberts the first hou.se of worship 
was of hewn logs, about 32 by 24 feet in dimensions. Shortly 
before the year 1820 a neat frame building was erected, about 
44 feet in length by 32 in breadth. After some twenty years 
it was ceiled and reseated and made quite comfortable. 

Ruling Elders in Good Hope. — In 1820 Mr. William Ander- 
son, formerly of Roberts Church, acted as elder here. Mr. 
Beaty, a relative of the one before named, was also long an 



1820-1830.] GOOD HOPE — PROVIDENCE. 395 

official elder here. He had two sons and two daughters; The 
eldest .son and the two daughters became members of the 
Church. Most of the children of that son were united with 
the Church. Two of his sons fell in the service of their coun- 
try, the one a lieutenant and the other a private. 

Andrew Young was one of the original set of elders,' a 
man of prayer, exemplary in his habits, and of great equa- 
nimity of temper. He died in a good old ^e in 1 831, and 
his descendants have removed beyond our bounds. [Written 
in 1867.] 

Mr. Leonard Simpson, the eldest son of Rev. John Simp- 
son, was an active elder in the church when Mr. Humpiiries, 
in 1820, took charge of it. He was well acquainted with our 
doctrines and ecclesiastical order. He married a daughter of 
Col. Moffett. The family removed to DeKalb County, Geor- 
gia, and contributed much towards building up a church in 
that part of the country. He died in Marietta, where some 
of his family resided when driven away as refugees a .short 
time since by the Federal ;irmy. Two of his grandchildren 
are members of Roberts Church. 

Church Edifice at Good Hope, — The first house of worship 
was about two miles west of the present site. It was agreed 
to erect a new house more in the centre of the congregation. - 
A large house of hewn logs was put up at the present loca- 
tion. It was perhaps about 48 by 35 feet in dimensions. It 
was weather-boarded and covered anew about some five or 
six years after the close of this decade. [MS. History by 
Rev. Mr. Humphries, October 1867.] The statistical tables 
give for Good Hope a membership of 56 in 1825, 1826; of 
91 in 1828. 42 having been added in the preceding twelve 
months, unless this 42 represents the additions of two years, 
of 80 in 1829. They give for Roberts a membership of 45 
in 1825,49 in 1826, 60 in 1828, 19 being added in the pre- 
ceding twelve months, of 75 in 1829. 

Providence Church is literally a branch of Rocky 
River Church, and originated in this wise. During the 
time that Rev. James Gamble was pastor of RocUy River, 
Presbytery ordered each minister to perform such missionary 
labor between that 'and the next meeting of Presbytery in any 
field that their labors would promise to be most useful. In 
compliance with this order Mr. Gamble commenced preach- 
ing in this distant part of his congregation in private houses, 



396 NEW HAKMONY CHURCH. [1820-1830. 

and the numbers attending- on these occasions were.such that 
a school-house being built in the vicinity was made larger for 
the purpo.se, in which he preached every fifth Sabbath for a 
time. When the school-house could not contain the congre- 
gation an arbor was built, at which place he continued to 
preach one-fourth of his time until his removal to Georgia in 
1826. 

After this a meeting house was built and one-fourth of the 
labors of Rev. David Humphries was procured and continued 
up to, and for some years after, the reception of tlie chuich 
by Presbytery at their October session in 1828. [See Min- 
utes, Vol. 2, p. 179.] 

At the time Providence Church was received under the 
care of Presbytery it had as its elders Col. Wm. H. Caldwell, 
Robert Cosby and John Speer, Esqs., and about 60 white 
members. 

In 1829 James H. Baskin was elected an elder, and at the 
close of that year there were 94 white and 27 colored mem- 
bers. In all, 121 members. Thus was commenced by mis- 
sionary labors set on foot by Presbytery and by the zeal and 
faitlifulness of the pastor, a church which continued afterwards 
to bear fruit to the glory of God. [MS. of J. H. Baskin, clerk 
of session, November 15, 1853.] 

New Harmony Church may properly be said to be another 
branch of old Rocky River Church. It was taken under the 
care of Presbytery, March 27, 1830 [Minutes, -Vol. 2, p. 4], 
and had part of its ministerial labors of the licentiates, Wm. 
Carlisle and Wm. H. Harris, up to the time of their union 
with Providence Church at Lowndesville, where a good frame 
church was erected, and they chose that it should bear the 
name of Providence. [^/did.'\ 

The following occurs on p. 179 of the second Vol. of the 
Minutes of the Presbytery of South Carolina: 

" William H. Caldwell, elder, petitioned in behalf of a 
neighborhood lying" between Rocky River and Good Hope 
Churches, that they should be recognized as a church and 
taken under the care of Presbytery, and that they be known 
by the name of Providence Church. Whereupon it was 
resolved that the prayer of the petition be granted, and that 
the elders, Josiah Patterson, Andrew Giles and Hugh McLinn, 
be representatives in behalf of Rocky River congregation, to 
meet the elders, Wm. Caldvvell, John Spear and Robt. Cosby, 



1820-1830.] HOPEWELL (kEOVVEE,) 397 

in belialf of Providence congregation, to determine on a 
boundary line between the said congregations." 

Hopewell (Keowee), popularly known as " The Stone 
Church." At the close of the preceding decade, we found 
this church and Carmel under the pastoral charge of the Rev. 
James Hillhouse. They are united as if one joint charge in 
the statistical tables of 1825. Yet the pastoral relation with 
Mr. Hillhouse was terminated by act of Presbytery, October 
5th, 1822, and the church petitions for supplies, and the licen- 
tiates are directed to supply this and certain other churches, 
.rvbout that time, on the 6th of October, 1825, the Presbytery 
of South Carolina met at this church. On the 8th of March, 
1827, Hopewell and Camiel Churches both petition for sup- 
|)lies, and supplies were granted. The Rev. Aaron Foster, in 
1828 and onward, alternated between this church and Willing- 
ton. He was a native of New Hampshire, a graduate of 
Andover Dartmouth College and Seminary. Other informa- 
tion respecting this church >ve do not have. Hopewell 
(Keowee) and Carmel are represented as having a membership 
as united in 1825, of 115 members; Hopewell in 1826 and 
1828 as having 59 members, and in 1829 as having the same. 

Pendleton Village. — Preaching seems to have been trans- 
ferred to this village within this period. 

Carmel Church. — We have seen that this church was 
under the pastoral supervision of Rev. James Hillhouse until 
October 1822. At that time Mr. Hillhouse was dismissed 
from the Presbytery of South Carolina to the Presbytery of 
Alabama. The Rev. Anthony W. Ross, formerly of Harmony 
Presbytery, was their next minister, probably, at first, as a 
stated supply. He did not become a member of the Presby- 
tery of South Carolina till the 8th of October, 1824, He 
continued to supply this church, and, by mutual agreement, 
that at Pendleton Village. 

The Rev. Dr. Nail, in his account of "The Dead of the Synod 
of Alabama," says that the Rev. James Hillhouse settled in 
Greensborough, Ala., and was received by the Presbytery of 
Alabama on the nth of September, 1823, and that, as an 
effective preacher, he has never been surpassed in that Synod- 
His command of language was remarkable, and his feelings 
easily excited. He was not a student, but no man was more 
abundant in labors. It was the joy of his heart to spend and 
be spent for Christ. His appeals to the church and the world 



398 BETHLEHEM, CANE CREEK AND BETHEL. [1820-1830. 

were truly powerful. To recount his labors, says hi.s Presby- 
tery, wo"tild require volumes. He died at Greensboro', Ala., 
November 17, 1835. 

Bethlehem, Cane Creek and Bethel. — We have no means 
of speaking definitely of these cliurches. April 6, 1822, Mr. 
DuPree was directed to supply at B;;thel Church as frequently 
as circumstances would admit, and Mr. Humphries to admin- 
ister at that place the Lord's Supper in the course of the 
summer. It is on the list of vacant churches in 1825, 1826, 
and 1828. Cane Creek is represented as vacant in 1825, with 
twenty members ; as vacant in 1826, with twenty-five mem- 
bers; as having a stated supply in 1829. We do not meet 
with Bethlehem, but with Bethsalem, vacant in 1825, with 
twenty members ; in 1826, with a pastor and having twenty 
members. 

These were churches which were founded by Rev. Andrew 
Brown. The Presbytery had sent him, in 1819, into the 
territory of Alabama on a three months' mission, and his 
name disappears on the minutes of Presbytery after 1820. It 
was in that year that he settled in Alabama and organized 
the Bethel Church (Tuscaloosa). He died after an illness of 
five days, near Marion, on the 8th of October, 1823, only four 
days after the adjournment of the Presbytery of Alabama. 
He died at the house of Jonathan Penroy, a worthy member 
of the Baptist Church, and was buried in the graveyard at 
Marion, where the Presbytery ha'd held its sessions. A pious 
mother in Israel, a Mrs. Munford, erected a monument over 
his grave. Besides founding the church at Tuscaloosa, as- 
sisted by the Rev. Francis H Porter, he organized the New 
Hope Church, in Green County, and in 1822, the Lebanon 
Church, in Tuscaloosa County, in that State. 

Westminster and Mount Zion. — On the 4th of October, 
1823, " some of the inhabitants of two neighborhoods in the 
upper part of Pendleton District, the one on Couneros' and 
the other on Cane Creek, having put themselves in the form 
of associations for public worship, requested to be received 
by Presbytery as congregations under their care, the first to 
be known as Westminster, the other by the name of Mount 
Zion. The request was granted." (Minutes, p. 109.) They 
called for their pastor Mr. Benjamin P. DuPre, a licentiate of 
the Presbytery. The call was accepted, and at an intermediate 
Presbytery at Mount Zion Church, on May 22, 1824, he was 



1820-1830.] NAZARETH (b. D. ) — AUGUSTA — MACON. 899 

ordained and installed as pastor of the two churches, Michael 
Dickson presiding, and Joseph Hillhouse preachinfj the or- 
dination sermon. These churches may possibly have super- 
seded those founded by Andrew Brown, which we have' 
mentioned before. Westminster and Mount Zion are repre- 
sented in the minutes of the General Assembly in 1S29 as the 
charge of Rev. Benjamin D. DuPre, Westminster as having 
thirty-two, and Mount Zion thirty members. 

Nazareth (Beaver Dam). — This church is represented as 
vacant through this period, and there are no materials out of 
which to construct its history. It was still dependent on such 
supplies as could be obtained. The names of Andrew Brown, 
James Millhouse, David Humphries, and David Haslet are 
recollected as being among those who from time to time sup- 
plied its pulpit. 

The Fikst Presbyterian Church (in Augusta, Georgia). 
" On the 6th of February, 1820, a call was presented to the 
Rev. Mr. Moderwel, which he accepted, and entered imme- 
diately upon the duties of the pastoral office. Mr. Moderwel 
was installed by the Presbytery of Hopewell, at their regular 
sessions in November, 182 1. 

On the 16th of July, 1826, Rev. Mr. Moderwel resigned the 
pastoral charge of the congregation, which resignation was 
accepted and his connection with thern dissolved, by Presby- 
tery in the following August. 

During the interval between the death of Dr. Thompson 
and the settlement of Mr. Moderwel, nineteen persons were 
added to the membership of the church. During the six 
years of his connection witii the church, ninety-three were 
added.' 

After the resignation of Mr. Moderwel, the pulpit of the 
church was supplied by Rev. S. K. Talmage and Rev. S. S. 
Davis jointly, for one year. 

In November, 1828, a call was presented to Rev. S. K. Tal- 
mage to become the pastor of the church, which he accepted, 
and was installed by Hopewell Presbytery on the 28th of that 
month. 

Presbyterian Church (Macon, Georgia). — Near the close 
of 1805 the military post called Fort Hawkins was established 
by the United States Government on the eastern side of the 
Ocmulgee. Around this a village began to gather, perhaps 
as early as from 1815 to 1817, forming the nucleus of what is 



400 MACON. [1820-1830. 

now East Macon. In May, i82f, the Legislature .set apart a 
tract of land on this (western) side of the river, on which to 
establish a town, to be the county seat of Bibb County, and 
to be called Macon, in honor of General Natlianiel Macon, of 
North Carolina. Only a single log cabin then marked its 
site. In December, 1822, commissioners were appointed to 
lay off the town and offer the lots at public sale. This they 
did, and the sale took place March 6th and 7th, 1823. 

The town seems to have commenced its corporate exi.stence 
in 1826, when Mr. Edward D. Tracy was chosen its first In- 
tendant. The second, Mr. Washington Foe, was chosen in 
1827. Both these gentlemen afterwards became members and 
office bearers in the Presbyterian Church, and the latter still 
lives a venerated, beloved ruling elder, arid one of our most 
honored citizens. The town received its charter as a city in 
1832, and in 1833 chose as its first Mayor, Mr. Isaac G. Sey- 
mour. Its population on both sides of the river in 1826 could 
not have been more than 1,500 or 2,000, since the census of 
1840 puts.it at only 3,927 at that time. 

As population gathered here, members of the Presbyterian 
churches from other places were found to compose a portion 
of it, and Mr. Joseph C. Sliles, afterwards the widely cele- 
brated Dr. Stiles, then a licentiate and acting as an evangelist 
through this region, frequently preached at Macon for some 
time previous to 1826. The way being at length open, a 
church was organized June i8th, 1826, by Mr. Benjamin Gilder- 
sleeve, under the authority of Hopewell Presbytery of the then 
Synod ot South Carolina and Georgia. Mr. Stiles, being not 
then ordained, was not competent to the duty of organizing a 
chuich, but was present on the occasion. 

The organization took place in the Courthouse, a small 
building of wood standing on the corner of Mulberry and 
Third Streets, below the present Lanier House. The Academy 
was thereafter used, however, as the place for stated services 
for several years. It was a small wooden structure, after- 
wards destroyed by fire, standing on the site of the " Free 
Academy " lot, now occupied by the brick building already 
falling to decay. 

Twenty-four persons received by letter and one by profes- 
sion of faith constituted the original membership of twenty- 
five. The organization was rather that of a worshipping 
congregation than a church, the first ruling elders not being 



1820-1830.] MISSIONS. 401 

ordained until over a 3ear, and the first deacon over twelve 
years afterwards. 

Mr. Stiles continued to be the only supply of the pulpit 
(making this one of the many points at which he preached) 
until the middle of November, 1827, a period of about 
eighteen months, during which the accessions were thirty- 
eight, and Samuel B. Hunter and Matthew Robertson became 
ruling elders. 

Rev. James C Patterson succeeded Mr. Stiles, his term of 
service extending from the beginning of 1828 to the close of 
1830, a period of three years, but much interrupted by his 
illness. The accessions under his ministry were thirty-three, 
and Washington Poe and Nathaniel Parker became ruling 
elders. The former still holds the office, having exercised 
its functions for forty-seven years, and held his membership 
in the church for more than forty-eight. Only one, Mrs. 
Elizabeth Sims, is his senior in membership, she having 
joined the church July 8, 1827, forty-nine years ago. 

The first church building was erected during Mr. Patter- 
son's ministry (1829 or 1830), a wooden building on Fourth 
street, on the lot now occupied by Messrs. Adams & Baze- 
more's warehouse. Removed and enlarged, it is now the 
Second Baptist Church. 

The period over which we have now passed has exhibited 
great activity in the diffusion of religious truth. EifTorts 
to this end began early in this century, were continued 
through this decade, and which, at the risk of some repetition, 
we will now proceed to detail. The Congregational As- 
sociation of South Carolina set on foot a Congregational 
Missionary Society, " learning that there are many indigent 
and ignorant families in the State, and some considerable 
districts entirely destitute of the gospel," as early as May, 
1801. To this organization the members of that church and 
others were invited to contribute. The Young Men's Mis- 
sionary Societ)' of South Carolina was organized January 27, 
1820, Thomas Fleming, of Charleston, President, was espe- 
cially active during the years over which we have now passed. 
The Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society of the Synod 
of South Carolina and Georgia which had been formed in the 
preceding decade went into active operation in this. Of the 
organization ot this Society the Rev. William H. Barr, D. D., 
was President, we have written on preceding pages. 
26 



402 MISSIONS. [1820-18 50. 

There was also the Female Domestic Missionary Society 
of Charlestoa, organized June 28, 18 18, which was actively 
employed in citj' mi.ssions. 

Speaking of these not exactly in the order in which they 
h ive been mentioned, we find Alfred Wright the first mis- 
sionary of the Society last named. He-was a native of Con- 
necticut, a graduate of William.s College in 1812, and of 
Andover Seminary in 1816, had taught in North Carolina and 
went eventually as a missionary to the Choctaws. Aaron 
Warner, of Massachusetts, a graduate of Willian;s College in 
181 5, and of Andover in 18 19, was the next missionary. A 
place of preaching was provided for the mission; the city was 
divided into districts and committees of invitation aided the 
missionary in his labors. Mr. Warner was afterwards Profes- 
sor of Sacred Rhetoric in the Theological Seminary at Gilman- 
ton, N. H., from 1838 to 1843, then Professor of Rhetoric at 
Amherst College and honored with the title of D. D. In the 
same year the Rev, Joseph Brown was their missionary, 
beginning in May. 1822, but instead of devoting his labors to 
general missionary efforts through the city, he directed his 
attention to the seamen, preaching at the Mariner's Church 
and laboring elsewhere during the week. The Marine Bible 
Society supplied copies of the Scriptures. The Bethel Union 
lent its aid, and in the month of January, 1823, the Ciiarleston 
Port Society. Preaching to the seamen had been held in a 
sail lofc from year to year. In 1852 a church which had 
belonged to the Baptists was purchased and appropriated to 
them, and Mr. Brown passed from the service of the Female 
Missionary Society in that year to that of the Charleston 
Port Society, in which he continued. In parting with the 
ladies he recommends to them the establishment of a Mis- 
sionary Chapel in some central spot, and the employment of 
a permanent missionary. He also directs the attention of the 
Society to the adoption of a judicious measure for the re- 
covery of those fallen individuals of their own sex who had 
been led astray and to whom there seemed no way of escape. 
(Report, 1822, 1823.) But an earlier missionary of this 
Society was the Rev. Jonas King, who had labored from 
November, 1819, to May, 1820. He, too, had preached to the 
seamen, had visited the Sabbath-schools, had found his way 
into families of the Jews, had attended at the Orphan House, 
Alms House and Marine Hospital. " The formation of this 



1820-1830.] MISSION TO THE SEAMEN. 403 

Society," says he in his report of May, 1820, " I hail as tHe 
appearance of a star over this city like that at Bethlehem." 
Rev. Jonas King had been ordained by the Congregational 
Association on the 17th of December, 18 19, with the special 
view of laboring in Charleston among the seamen, and at the 
same time the Rev. Alfred Wright was ordained with a view 
of joining the missionary establishment at Elliott, under the 
superintendence of Rev. Cyrus Kingsbury. 

The Joseph Brown, before mentioned, first served as a 
missionary of the Young Men's Mi.ssionary Society, com- 
mencing in December, 1820, visiting Stoney Creek and Beau- 
fort first, and spea'ks of a Presbyterian Church as existing 
there, and then, after his ordination, on the 3d of January, 
182 1, he preached in Edgefield District, at Beech Island, at 
the Couithouse, at Red Bank and elsewhere. Rev. Mr. 
Brown was graduatedat Middlebury College in 1817, at Ando- 
ver in 1820, was preacher to the seamen in Charleston till 
1829, when he removed to New York and labored in the 
seaman's cause till his death, on tlie i6th of September, 1833. 
at the age of 46. Alfred Wright married Harriet Bunce, is 
sister of Mrs. Palmer, the wife of Dr. B. M. Palmer, first of 
that name, of Charleston, and died at Wheelock, Ark., March 
31, 1853. The Jonas King, before mentioned, was the cele- 
brated Jonas King, D. D., Missionary at Jerusalem from 
1819, 1825, Professor of Oriental Literature at Amherst Col- 
lege from 1822, 1828, Missionary at Athens, Greece, where 
he died on the 22d of May, 1869, aged 76. 

The services for seamen were first conducted by Rev. Jonas 
King in Mr. Cleapor's sail loft on Lothrop's (now Accommo- 
dation) wharf, and afterwards in the more spacious one of Mr. 
McNellage, on Duncan's (now South Atlantic) wharf, but in 
December, 1820, at a meeting of citizens which was called 
by the Marine Bible Society to consult on the propriety ot 
erecting a Marine Church, some ;^3,ooo were soon subscribed 
for the object, but instead of erecting a new edifice, a church 
which had been occupied by the Baptists was purchased and 
the titles were vested in the Charleston Port Society, which 
expended about ;^3,ooo more in enlarging and improving the 
building. This society was organized on the 23d of Decem- 
ber. 1822, Thos. Napier being the first President and Jasper 
Corning the first Secretary. The opening sermon was preached 
by Rev. B. M. Palmer, D, D,, pastor of the Circular Church, 



404 MISSIONS. [1820-1830. 

• 

The flag first hoisted on it bore the inscription " Mariner's 
Church," but the word " Bethel," was afterwards its legend. 
The pulpit was supplied by the different pastors of the city 
until February I2th, 1823, when Rev. Joseph Brown was 
settled in the pastorate. In 1822 the Bethel Union was formed 
to hold prayers on board vessels in port, or in the boarding 
houses where seamen resort and to provide for them such 
orderly houses as they ought to occupy as their homes while 
on shore. This Society was eventually merged in " The 
Port Society," which obtained its charter of incorporation in 
1823. In 1826 the Ladies' Seaman's Friend Society was 
formed in conjunction with the Bethel Union, to provide a 
temperance boarding house for seamen. 

The Young Men's Missionary Society of South Carolina 
appears to have been a Union Society, in which, however, the 
Presbyterian element largely predominated. We have not 
been able to lay our hands on its successive reports. It ap- 
pears to have been organized January 27, 1820, Edward 
Palmer, then resident in Charleston, being President of the 
same. In 1821 Thos. Fleming, and in 1822 Thos. Napier, 
was President. An efficient missionary that year was Daniel 
B. Johnson a graduate of the College of New Jersey, and of 
Princeton Seminary, and who labored for two years in South 
Carolina. In 1822 he visited Chester, Purity, YorUville, 
Beersheba, King's Creek, Long Creek, Olney, Beckhamville, 
Beaver Creek, Sumterville, Concord, Providence and Unity, 
in North Carolina, and Salem (B. R.). Rev. Joseph Brown 
was their first missionary. He had been selected for this 
service by Rev. Dr. Porter, of Andover. He was called to 
the service of this Society on the 3d of December, 1820. He 
performed a brief preliminary labor in Beaufort and its 
vicinity, and Stony Creek. He received his instructions to 
labor in Newberry and Edgefield Districts, and at Beech 
Island, January 3, 1821. He reports four churches at Beau- 
fort — two for Baptists, one for Episcopalians, and one for 
Presbyterians. At Stony Creek, about fifteen communicants 
and a fund of |i8,ooo. In Edgefield District, twenty-one Bap- 
tist churches and six preachers, twelve Methodist houses of 
worship, one local preacher and two circuit riders. He speaks 
of Red Bank and the Blocker settlement, and of the academies 
at those places. Mr. Brown served the Society six months 
in the following year, three of which were under the direction 



J 820-1830.] MISSIONS. 405 

of the Missionary Society of Walterboro'. He had been 
licensed by the Andover Association, and was ordained by 
the Congregational Association of South Carolina on the 3d 
of January, 1821. 

There were various others who came into the bounds of 
the Synod of South Carohna and Georgia, and served as mis- 
sionaries temporarily or became permanently settled within 
its bounds. Some were called by our local societies or sent 
by the Home Missionary Society, at New York, and remained 
with us. 

Where the Synod of South Carolina was constituted, it 
felt more deeply than ever the responsibility that rested upon 
it in reference to the regions beyond, and none more deeply 
felt it than the Presbytery of South Carolina. Rev. T. C 
Stuart was one of the missionaries it sent out to Alabama in 
iSig. Others followed, of different Presbyteries, who settled 
down in that State, and were set off from their several Pres 
byteries and ordered to constitute as a Presbytery at Cahawba 
on the first Thursday in March, 1821, and " The Presbytery 
of Alabama" was thus constituted, in obedience to this order 
of the Synod of South Carohna and Georgia. A deep sym- 
pathy, too, for the Indian tribes in what was construed to be 
the territorial limits of the Synod, and a desire for their sal- 
vation was one of the chief motives for forming the Domestic 
and Foreign Missionary Society of the Synod, and in the 
spring of 1820 the Board of Managers appomted the Rev. 
Daniel Humphreys and the Rev. Thomas C. Stuart to visit 
the Creek Nation and the Chickasaws, to obtain the requisite 
information and make the necessary arrangements for mis- 
sions among them. 

They first made their way to the Creek Nation to lay the 
object of the Synod before them. They were obliged to com- 
municate with their large Council through an interpreter. 
The Council expressed a desire to have schools aimong them 
and to have, their children taught. But they expressed, also,-, 
fear that there was something behind which they did not un- 
derstand. It might be to obtain a foothold and thus make 
efforts to get possession of their lands. They rejected the 
offer, and assigned this as the reason. These brethren then 
pursued their way to the Chickasaws, in Mississippi, preach- 
ing in the various settlements as they went to large and 
attentive congregations, till they reached the Chickasaws, 



406 MISSIONS — CHICKASAWS. [1820-1830. 

whose country extended from the Tombigbee on the east to 
the Mississippi on the west, a distance of one hundred miles, 
and from Tennessee on the north to the Choctaw Hne on the 
south, which is about the same distance. They found them 
a friendly and hospitable people, open in their manners and 
free from timidity in the presence of whites. They held a 
council with them on the 22d of June. They acceded at once 
to the proposal of the commission, and granted everything 
they desired, yet required of them an obligation in writing 
that they should not seize upon their land and make it private 
property. This obligation was drawn up in form, consisting 
of several articles, and signed by the king and representatives 
of the Chickasaws, and by our commissioners, David Hum- 
phreys and Thomas C. Stuart, June 22d, 1820. 

We find the following statement in respect to the subse- 
quent history of this mission. 

"The mission among the Chickasaw Indians was com- 
menced by the Synod of South Carolina and Georgia in 182 1. 
The number of the tribe was six or seven thousand. On the 
17th of December, 1827, the mission was transferred to the 
.■\merican Board. The principal reasons for this measure 
were, that the establishment among the Chickasaws might be 
more closely united with similar establishments among the 
Cherokees and Choctaws, that the Board could supply the 
wants of the missionaries with certainty and regularity, and 
at much less expense than the Synod, &c. The number of 
stations at the time of the transfer was four : 

Monroe, near the thirty-fourth parallel of latitude, about 
forty-five miles northwest of Mayhew, and twenty-five west of 
Cotton Gin Port, on the Tombigbee. Rev. Thomas C. Stuart, 
missionary and superintendent of the mission ; Mrs. Stuart, 
Mr. Samuel C. Pearson, farmer, Mrs. Pearson. The number 
of schools were four, and of scholars, eighty-one. The farm 
consisted of nearly one hundred acres, brought under culti- 
vation. The property was valued at ^$3,870. The church 
was formed in June, 1823, and then consisted only of mem- 
bers of the mission family and one colored woman. The 
next year four were added ; in 1825, five ; in 1826, six ; in 
1827, twenty-six; in 1828, about seventeen — making fifty- 
nine in all. ■ Of these, only eight were native Chickasaws. 

ToKSiSH. — This station is about two miles from Monroe, 
and was formed in 1825. Mr. James Holmes, licensed 



1820-1830.] INDIAN MISSIONS. 407 

preacher, Mrs. Holmes, Miss Etneline H. Richland, teaclicr ; 
-scholars, fifteen. The religious concerns of this station are 
closely connected with that at Monroe, there being but one 
church. 

Martyn, situated about sixty miles northwest of Monroe, 
and forty southeast of Memphis, on the Mississippi. Rev. 
William C. Blair ; missionary, Mrs. Blair. By a treaty formed 
with the Government of the United States some years since, 
it was stipulated that ;^4,500 should be paid by the United 
States for establishing two schools, and ^2,500 annually for 
the support of them. Of this latter sum, three-sevenths were 
given to the school at Martyn, and four-sevenths to that of 
Caney Creek. The school at Martyn consisted of four or 
five pupils. 

Caney Creek is about ninety miles east of Martyn, three 
miles south of the Tennessee River, and eight miles south- 
west of Tuscumbia. Rev. Hugh Wilson, missionary, Mrs. 
Wilson, Miss Prudence Wilson." — Origin and History of Mis- 
sions. 

We learn from the Society's report of January, 1823, that 
the station established by Mr. Stuart was called Munroe, in 
honor of the then Chief Magistrate of the United ^States ; that 
in the month of April, 1822, Mr. Stuart was joined by Messrs. 
Hamilton V. Turner and James Wilson, the former a me- 
chanic, and the, latter a farmer and teacher, with their wives ; 
that in the month of October, Rev. Hugh Wilson, with his 
wife and sister, left North Carolina to join them, and on the 
15th of December the Rev. Wm. C. Blair left Columbia for 
the same place. The buildings erected were four dwelling- 
houses, at $\7l each, $700; dining-room and kitchen, ;$450 ; 
horse mill, ^650; school-house, $2^1 ; five cabins for children, 
;g250; lumber-house and smoke-house, ;^8o ; .stable, smith's 
shop and corn crib, ^100. In all, ;^2,46l. 

This Society also conducted Domestic Missions. The Rev. 
Benj. D. Dupree was employed by this Societ}' previous to 
January, 1822, for several months, chiefly in Pendleton Dis- 
trict ; Rev. Horace Belknap, at Beaver Creek ; Rev. Francis 
McFarland, in Mcintosh County and Burke County, Ga., and 
Rev. Orson Douglas, in Jackson County, Ga. 

At the second session of the Presbytery of South .\labama, 
November 9, 1821, it was 



408 THE SOUTH AND SOUTHWEST. [1820-1830. 

Resolved by that body, " That the Rev. Messrs. Andrew 
Brown and James L. Sloss be, and they are hereby, appointed 
a committee to draft and transmit a letter to the Missionary 
Society of the Synod of South Carolina and Georgia, petition- 
ing that they would send two or more ministers of experience 
and talents to congregate and min'stcr unto churches within 
our bounds." 

" Resolved further , That said committee be, and it is hereby, 
authorized to promise that the meniber.s of this Presbytery 
will use all diligence to acquire contributions for the support 
of said missionaries." 

Mr. Isaac Hadden, who had been licensed by the Presby- 
tery of South Carolina, October 5, 1822, was induced to go 
out by these calls, and commenced the missionary work in 
that State in 1823. He was ordained as evangelist at Mont- 
gomery, March 24, 1825, and though beginning his ministry 
under abundant discouragements, labored in it successfully 
for twenty-five years;" was widely known through the 
churches ; was a man of great prudence, of mature Christian 
character, and as a minister of Christ, efficient and successful." 
[Minutes of Synod of Alabama, October 27, 1849] 

1 he Society continued in existence no longer than till the 
clo.se of 1827. On the 14th of December of that year the 
Synod expresses its approbation of the discontinuance of this 
Society, of the transfer of its Indian Mission to the American 
Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, and of its 
Domestic Missionary operations to the several Domestic Mis- 
sionary Societies within its bounds. [MS. Minutes of Synod, 
Vol. I, p. 180] 

The Synod of South Carolina and Georgia still had their 
attention directed to the extension of the institutions of the 
gospel in the South and Southwestern States. The Presby- 
terian population of the upper Carolinas had overflowed inco 
upper Georgia, into Alabama, and the more distant South- 
west. The affections of the mother churches followed their 
daughters, and the ministr